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Journal Article

A Fuel Surrogate Validation Approach Using a JP-8 Fueled Optically Accessible Compression Ignition Engine

An experimental fuel surrogate validation approach is proposed for a compression ignition application, and applied to validate a Jet-A POSF 4658 fuel surrogate. The approach examines the agreement of both physical and chemical properties of surrogate and target fuels during validation within a real compression-ignition engine environment during four sequential but distinct combustion phases. In-cylinder Mie Scattering measurements are applied to evaporating sprays to compare the behavior of the surrogate, its target fuel, and for reference, n-heptane. Early mixture formation and low temperature reaction behavior were investigated using 2-D broadband chemiluminescence imaging, while high temperature ignition and combustion chemistry were studied using OH chemiluminescence imaging. The optical measurements were combined with cylinder pressure-based combustion analysis, including ignition delay and premixed burn duration, to validate the global behavior of the surrogate.
Journal Article

A Hydrogen Direct Injection Engine Concept that Exceeds U.S. DOE Light-Duty Efficiency Targets

Striving for sustainable transportation solutions, hydrogen is often identified as a promising energy carrier and internal combustion engines are seen as a cost effective consumer of hydrogen to facilitate the development of a large-scale hydrogen infrastructure. Driven by efficiency and emissions targets defined by the U.S. Department of Energy, a research team at Argonne National Laboratory has worked on optimizing a spark-ignited direct injection engine for hydrogen. Using direct injection improves volumetric efficiency and provides the opportunity to properly stratify the fuel-air mixture in-cylinder. Collaborative 3D-CFD and experimental efforts have focused on optimizing the mixture stratification and have demonstrated the potential for high engine efficiency with low NOx emissions. Performance of the hydrogen engine is evaluated in this paper over a speed range from 1000 to 3000 RPM and a load range from 1.7 to 14.3 bar BMEP.
Technical Paper

A New Ignition Delay Formulation Applied to Predict Misfiring During Cold Starting of Diesel Engines

A new formulation is developed for the ignition delay (ID) in diesel engines to account for the effect of piston motion on the global autoignition reaction rates. A differentiation is made between the IDe measured in engines and IDv, measured in constant volume vessels. In addition, a method is presented to determine the coefficients of the IDe correlation from actual engine experimental data. The new formulation for IDe is applied to predict the misfiring cycles during the cold starting of diesel engines at different low ambient temperatures. The predictions are compared with experimental results obtained on a multi-cylinder heavy-duty diesel engine.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Investigation on Scalability and Grid Convergence of Internal Combustion Engine Simulations

Traditional Lagrangian spray modeling approaches for internal combustion engines are highly grid-dependent due to insufficient resolution in the near nozzle region. This is primarily because of inherent restrictions of volume fraction with the Lagrangian assumption together with high computational costs associated with small grid sizes. A state-of-the-art grid-convergent spray modeling approach was recently developed and implemented by Senecal et al., (ASME-ICEF2012-92043) in the CONVERGE software. The key features of the methodology include Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR), advanced liquid-gas momentum coupling, and improved distribution of the liquid phase, which enables use of cell sizes smaller than the nozzle diameter. This modeling approach was rigorously validated against non-evaporating, evaporating, and reacting data from the literature.
Technical Paper

Accurate Measurements of Heat Release, Oxidation Rates, and Soluble Organic Compounds of Diesel Particulates through Thermal Reactions

In an effort of providing better understanding of regeneration mechanisms of diesel particulate matter (PM), this experimental investigation focused on evaluating the amount of heat release generated during the thermal reaction of diesel PM and the concentrations of soluble organic compounds (SOCs) dissolved in PM emissions. Differences in oxidation behaviors were observed for two different diesel PM samples: a SOC-containing PM sample and a dry soot sample with no SOCs. Both samples were collected from a cordierite particulate filter membrane in a thermal reactor connected to the exhaust pipe of a light-duty diesel engine. A differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) were used to measure the amount of heat release during oxidation, along with subsequent oxidation rates and the concentrations of SOCs dissolved in particulate samples, respectively.
Technical Paper

Achieving High Engine Efficiency for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines by Waste Heat Recovery Using Supercritical Organic-Fluid Rankine Cycle

A supercritical organic Rankine cycle (ORC) system for recovery of waste heat from heavy-duty diesel engines is proposed. In this system, an organic, medium-boiling-point fluid is selected as the working fluid, which also serves as the coolant for the charge air cooler and the EGR coolers. Because the exhaust temperature can be as high as 650 °C during the DPF regeneration, an exhaust cooler is included in the system to recover some of the high level exhaust energy. In the present ORC system, the expansion work is conducted by a uniflow reciprocating expander, which simplifies the waste-heat-recovery (WHR) system significantly. This reciprocating Rankine engine is more appropriate for on-road-vehicle applications where the condition for waste heat is variable. The energy level of waste heat from a heavy-duty diesel engine is evaluated by the analyses of the first and second law of thermodynamics.
Technical Paper

Achieving Stable Engine Operation of Gasoline Compression Ignition Using 87 AKI Gasoline Down to Idle

For several years there has been a great deal of effort made in researching ways to run a compression ignition engine with simultaneously high efficiency and low emissions. Recently much of this focus has been dedicated to using gasoline-like fuels that are more volatile and less reactive than conventional diesel fuel to allow the combustion to be more premixed. One of the key challenges to using fuels with such properties in a compression ignition engine is stable engine operation at low loads. This paper provides an analysis of how stable gasoline compression ignition (GCI) engine operation was achieved down to idle speed and load on a multi-cylinder compression ignition engine using only 87 anti-knock index (AKI) gasoline. The variables explored to extend stable engine operation to idle included: uncooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), injection timing, injection pressure, and injector nozzle geometry.
Technical Paper

Advanced Low Temperature Combustion (ALTC): Diesel Engine Performance, Fuel Economy and Emissions

The objective of this work is to develop a strategy to reduce the penalties in the diesel engine performance, fuel economy and HC and CO emissions, associated with the operation in the low temperature combustion regime. Experiments were conducted on a research high speed, single cylinder, 4-valve, small-bore direct injection diesel engine equipped with a common rail injection system under simulated turbocharged conditions, at IMEP = 3 bar and engine speed = 1500 rpm. EGR rates were varied over a wide range to cover engine operation from the conventional to the LTC regime, up to the misfiring point. The injection pressure was varied from 600 bar to 1200 bar. Injection timing was adjusted to cover three different LPPCs (Location of the Peak rate of heat release due to the Premixed Combustion fraction) at 10.5° aTDC, 5 aTDC and 2 aTDC. The swirl ratio was varied from 1.44 to 7.12. Four steps are taken to move from LTC to ALTC.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Assessment of Turbulence Production, Reynolds Stress and Length Scale (Dissipation) Modeling in a Swirl-Supported DI Diesel Engine

Simultaneous measurements of the radial and the tangential components of velocity are obtained in a high-speed, direct-injection diesel engine typical of automotive applications. Results are presented for engine operation with fuel injection, but without combustion, for three different swirl ratios and four injection pressures. With the mean and fluctuating velocities, the r-θ plane shear stress and the mean flow gradients are obtained. Longitudinal and transverse length scales are also estimated via Taylor's hypothesis. The flow is shown to be sufficiently homogeneous and stationary to obtain meaningful length scale estimates. Concurrently, the flow and injection processes are simulated with KIVA-3V employing a RNG k-ε turbulence model. The measured turbulent kinetic energy k, r-θ plane mean strain rates ( 〈Srθ〉, 〈Srr〉, and 〈Sθθ〉 ), deviatoric turbulent stresses , and the r-θ plane turbulence production terms are compared directly to the simulated results.
Technical Paper

An Experimental and Computational Investigation of Water Condensation inside the Tubes of an Automotive Compact Charge Air Cooler

To address the need of increasing fuel economy requirements, automotive Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) are increasing the number of turbocharged engines in their powertrain line-ups. The turbine-driven technology uses a forced induction device, which increases engine performance by increasing the density of the air charge being drawn into the cylinder. Denser air allows more fuel to be introduced into the combustion chamber, thus increasing engine performance. During the inlet air compression process, the air is heated to temperatures that can result in pre-ignition resulting and reduced engine functionality. The introduction of the charge air cooler (CAC) is therefore, necessary to extract heat created during the compression process. The present research describes the physics and develops the optimized simulation method that defines the process and gives insight into the development of CACs.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of Particulate Morphology, Microstructures, and Fractal Geometry for ael Diesel Engine-Simulating Combustor

The particulate matter (PM) produced from a diesel engine-simulating combustor was characterized in its morphology, microstructure, and fractal geometry by using a unique thermophoretic sampling and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) system. These results revealed that diesel PM produced from the laboratory-scale burner showed similar morphological characteristics to the particulates produced from diesel engines. The flame air/fuel ratio and the particulate temperature history have significant influences on both particle size and fractal geometry. The primary particle sizes were measured to be 14.7 nm and 14.8 nm under stoichiometric and fuel-rich flame conditions, respectively. These primary particle sizes are smaller than those produced from diesel engines. The radii of gyration for the aggregate particles were 83.8 nm and 47.5 nm under these two flame conditions.
Technical Paper

An Overview of ARES Research

With an intention to improve the performance of reciprocating engines used for distributed generation US-Dept. of Energy has launched ARES program. Under this program, the performance targets for these natural gas-fuelled stationary engines are ≻ 50% efficiency and NOx emissions ≺ 0.1 g/bhp-hr by 2013. This paper presents two technologies developed under this program. Lean-burn operation is very popular with engine manufacturers as it offers simultaneous low-NOx emissions and high engine efficiencies, while not requiring the use of any aftertreatment devices. Though engines operating on lean-burn operation are capable of better performance, they are currently limited by the inability to sustain reliable ignition under lean conditions. Addressing such an issue, research has evaluated the use of laser ignition as an alternative to the conventional Capacitance Discharge Ignition (CDI).
Technical Paper

Analytical Study of the Cavitation on a Vibrating Wall

Cavitation induced cylinder liner erosion can be a significant durability problem in high power density diesel engines. It is typically discovered in the field, thus causing costly redesigns. The application of a predictive simulation to analyze the liner cavitation process upfront could identify the problem early on and enable significant savings. Hence, this work investigates the ability of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) multiphase flow simulation tool to handle vibration induced cavitation. A flow of liquid through a U-shaped duct is analyzed, where a middle segment of the duct is set to vibrate in a manner resembling vibration of the cooling jacket walls in an internal combustion engine. Velocity, pressure and vapor concentration fields are tracked for two cases, distinguished by different frequencies of duct wall vibration.
Technical Paper

Application of CFD Modeling in Combustion Bowl Assessment of Diesel Engines Using DoE Methodology

The current paper describes a methodology for combustion bowl assessment for diesel engines. The methodology is based on the application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) following a Design of Experiments (DoE) procedure. In this work the 3D CFD simulation was performed by the commercial CFD code AVL-FIRE for different combustion bowls from intake valve closing (IVC) to exhaust valve opening (EVO). The initial conditions (at IVC) and boundary conditions were obtained from 1D simulation. Since the work was concentrated on the spray injection, mixing, combustion as well as bowl aerodynamics only a sector mesh was employed for the calculations. A DoE procedure was also used for this simulation work in order to minimize the number of simulation runs and at the same time maintaining the accuracy required assessing the influences of different bowl geometry, spray and intake air motion parameters.
Technical Paper

Autoignition and Combustion of ULSD and JP8 during Cold Starting of a High Speed Diesel Engine

Cold starting problems of diesel engines are caused mainly by the failure of the auto-ignition process or the subsequent combustion of the rest of the charge. The problems include long cranking periods and combustion instability leading to an increase in fuel consumption in addition to the emission of undesirable unburned hydrocarbons which appear in the exhaust as white smoke. The major cause of these problems is the low temperature and pressure of the charge near the end of the compression stroke and/or the poor ignition quality of the fuel. This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation of cold starting of a high speed diesel engine with ULSD (Ultra Low Sulphur Diesel) and JP8 (Jet Propulsion) fuels at ambient temperature (25°C). A detailed analysis is made of the autoignition and combustion of the two fuels in the first few cycles in the cold start transient. In addition, a comparison is made between these processes for the two fuels during idle operation.
Journal Article

CFD-Guided Combustion System Optimization of a Gasoline Range Fuel in a Heavy-Duty Compression Ignition Engine Using Automatic Piston Geometry Generation and a Supercomputer

A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) guided combustion system optimization was conducted for a heavy-duty diesel engine running with a gasoline fuel that has a research octane number (RON) of 80. The goal was to optimize the gasoline compression ignition (GCI) combustion recipe (piston bowl geometry, injector spray pattern, in-cylinder swirl motion, and thermal boundary conditions) for improved fuel efficiency while maintaining engine-out NOx within a 1-1.5 g/kW-hr window. The numerical model was developed using the multi-dimensional CFD software CONVERGE. A two-stage design of experiments (DoE) approach was employed with the first stage focusing on the piston bowl shape optimization and the second addressing refinement of the combustion recipe. For optimizing the piston bowl geometry, a software tool, CAESES, was utilized to automatically perturb key bowl design parameters. This led to the generation of 256 combustion chamber designs evaluated at several engine operating conditions.
Journal Article

CFD-Guided Heavy Duty Mixing-Controlled Combustion System Optimization with a Gasoline-Like Fuel

A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) guided combustion system optimization was conducted for a heavy-duty compression-ignition engine with a gasoline-like fuel that has an anti-knock index (AKI) of 58. The primary goal was to design an optimized combustion system utilizing the high volatility and low sooting tendency of the fuel for improved fuel efficiency with minimal hardware modifications to the engine. The CFD model predictions were first validated against experimental results generated using the stock engine hardware. A comprehensive design of experiments (DoE) study was performed at different operating conditions on a world-leading supercomputer, MIRA at Argonne National Laboratory, to accelerate the development of an optimized fuel-efficiency focused design while maintaining the engine-out NOx and soot emissions levels of the baseline production engine.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of a Common Rail Diesel Injection System under Pilot and Post Injection Modes

Experiments were conducted to investigate the characteristics of a common rail fuel injection system using a flow rate test rig and a single cylinder research diesel engine. Experiments covered speeds and loads typical to engine conditions under Hybrid Electric Vehicle operation. Different injection modes were investigated including main injection, main-post injection and pilot-main injection. The analysis indicated that the common rail fuel pressure affects all the injection parameters including the start of fuel delivery, its duration and amount under all modes of injection. Also, the pressure waves produced in the system have an impact on the operation of the nozzle-needle and fuel delivery particularly in the main-post injection mode.
Technical Paper

Characterization and Simulation of a Unit Injector

The characteristics of the diesel engine unit injector were studied both theoretically and experimentally. The transient fuel pressure in the unit injector was indirectly measured by using strain gauges placed in different locations on the drive train, between the cam and plunger. The events which take place during the injection process were analyzed and the effects of several design and operating variables on the different injection parameters were determined. Computer simulation showed a fairly good agreement between computed and experimental results.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Oxidation Behaviors and Chemical-Kinetics Parameters of Diesel Particulates Relevant to DPF Regeneration

At the current stage of engine technology, diesel engines typically require diesel particulate filter (DPF) systems to meet recent particulate emissions standards. To assure the performance and reliability of DPF systems, profound understanding of filtration and regeneration mechanisms is required. Among extensive efforts for developing advanced DPF systems, the development of effective thermal management strategies, which control the thermal runaway taking place in oxidation of an excess amount of soot deposit in DPF, is quite challenging. This difficulty stems mainly from lack of sufficient knowledge and understanding about DPF regeneration mechanisms, which need detailed information about oxidation of diesel particulate matter (PM). Therefore, this work carried out a series of oxidation experiments of diesel particulates collected from a DPF on a diesel engine, and evaluated the oxidation rates of the samples using a thermo-gravimetric analyzer (TGA).