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Technical Paper

A Hybrid System Solution of the Interrupt Latency Compatibility Problem

Microprocessors and microcontrollers are now widely used in automobiles. Microprocessor systems contain sources of interrupt and interrupt service routines, which are software components executed in response to the assertion of an interrupt in hardware. A major problem in designing the software of microprocessor systems is the analytical treatment of interrupt latency. Because multiple interrupt service routines are executed on the same CPU, they compete for the CPU and interfere with each other's latency requirements. Here, interrupt latency is defined as the delay between the assertion of the interrupt in hardware and the start of execution of the associated interrupt service routine. It is estimated that 80% of intermittent bugs in small microprocessor software loads are due to improper treatment of interrupts. Until this work, there is no analytic method for analyzing a particular system to determine if it may violate interrupt latency requirements.
Journal Article

A Linkage Based Solution Approach for Determining 6 Axis Serial Robotic Travel Path Feasibility

When performing trajectory planning for robotic applications, there are many aspects to consider, such as the reach conditions, joint and end-effector velocities, accelerations and jerk conditions, etc. The reach conditions are dependent on the end-effector orientations and the robot kinematic structure. The reach condition feasibility is the first consideration to be addressed prior to optimizing a solution. The ‘functional’ work space or work window represents a region of feasible reach conditions, and is a sub-set of the work envelope. It is not intuitive to define. Consequently, 2D solution approaches are proposed. The 3D travel paths are decomposed to a 2D representation via radial projections. Forward kinematic representations are employed to define a 2D boundary curve for each desired end effector orientation.
Technical Paper

Baxter Kinematic Modeling, Validation and Reconfigurable Representation

A collaborative robot or cobot is a robot that can safely and effectively interact with human workers while performing industrial tasks. The ability to work alongside humans has increased the importance of collaborative robots in the automation industry, as this unique feature is a much needed property among robots nowadays. Rethink Robotics has pioneered this unique discipline by building many robots including the Baxter Robot which is exclusive not only because it has collaborative properties, but because it has two arms working together, each with 7 Degrees Of Freedom. The main goal of this research is to validate the kinematic equations for the Baxter collaborative robot and develop a unified reconfigurable kinematic model for the Left and Right arms so that the calculations can be simplified.

Codes and Standards – Global Harmonization

Electric vehicle codes and standards play a key role in deployment of interoperable charging and communication infrastructure. Harmonization of those standards on a global basis, even though they are not identical, they need to be compatible. There are a comprehensive set of EV standards, even standards to ensure that the EV, EVSE, energy measurement and electric utility are compatible (SAE J2953). This presentation is a summary of the state of standards and some of the commercial deployment of equipment that meets these standards. Presenter Eric Rask, Argonne National Laboratory
Journal Article

Comparison of Near-Field Structure and Growth of a Diesel Spray Using Light-Based Optical Microscopy and X-Ray Radiography

A full understanding and characterization of the near-field of diesel sprays is daunting because the dense spray region inhibits most diagnostics. While x-ray diagnostics permit quantification of fuel mass along a line of sight, most laboratories necessarily use simple lighting to characterize the spray spreading angle, using it as an input for CFD modeling, for example. Questions arise as to what is meant by the “boundary” of the spray since liquid fuel concentration is not easily quantified in optical imaging. In this study we seek to establish a relationship between spray boundary obtained via optical diffused backlighting and the fuel concentration derived from tomographic reconstruction of x-ray radiography. Measurements are repeated in different facilities at the same specified operating conditions on the “Spray A” fuel injector of the Engine Combustion Network, which has a nozzle diameter of 90 μm.
Technical Paper

Control of Robots Using Discrete Event System Theory

In this paper, we present a project being conducted at Yalong Educational Equipment Company on control of educational robots using discrete event system theory. An educational robot is a programmable robot to be used by students for training and learning. To model a robot, we divide the robot into nine physical modules. Each module is modeled as an automaton. Parallel composition is used to obtain the entire model. The robot can be programmed to perform sequences of basic tasks. We investigate six basic tasks and use supervisors to control and achieve the tasks. Desired languages are obtained for all tasks and supervisory control theory is used to synthesize supervisors. To reduce computational complexity, modular/coordinated supervisors are used
Technical Paper

Design for Lean Six Sigma (DFLSS): Philosophy, Tools, Potential and Deployment Challenges in Automotive Product Development

Lean Six Sigma is an approach that is gaining momentum both in manufacturing and service industries. Design for Lean Six Sigma (DFLSS) is an outgrowth of the DFSS and Lean Six Sigma approaches. The essence of DFLSS is to ensure design quality and predictability during the early design phases and the approach employs a structured integrated product development methodology and a comprehensive set of robust tools to drive product quality, innovation, faster time to market, and lower product costs. When it comes to automotive Product Development, applying lean principles and DFSS together becomes more of a challenge within the existing PD system. While the benefits of DFLSS present an attractive proposition in a fiercely competitive market it brings its own challenges as to how to deploy it for maximum benefits. This paper examines the challenges, potential and opportunities for DFLSS in the automotive industry and presents a vision for integrating it in to the Product Development System.
Journal Article

Development and Implementation of SAE J2953 for AC Charging

The purpose of this paper is to outline the development and implementation of SAE J2953. SAE J2953 contains the requirements and procedures of interoperability testing. Within SAE J2953 interoperability test articles are defined as an Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) paired with a Plug-in Electric Vehicle (PEV). SAE J2953 requires the development and application of test fixtures with the ability to monitor mechanical forces and electrical signals of a charge system without modification or disassembly of the EVSE and PEV under test. Electrical signal monitoring includes pilot, proximity, and line conductors of the SAE J1772 TM AC coupler. This paper will outline the requirements of the fixtures as well as a specific build. Data will be presented showing full implementation of the SAE J2953 procedures including root-cause analysis and standards gap discovery.
Technical Paper

Development of Subject-Specific Elderly Female Finite Element Models for Vehicle Safety

Previous study suggested that female, thin, obese, and older occupants had a higher risk of death and serious injury in motor vehicle crashes. Human body finite element models were a valuable tool in the study of injury biomechanics. The mesh deformation method based on radial basis function(RBF) was an attractive alternative for morphing baseline model to target models. Generally, when a complex model contained many elements and nodes, it was impossible to use all surface nodes as landmarks in RBF interpolation process, due to its prohibitive computational cost. To improve the efficiency, the current technique was to averagely select a set of nodes as landmarks from all surface nodes. In fact, the location and the number of selected landmarks had an important effect on the accuracy of mesh deformation. Hence, how to select important nodes as landmarks was a significant issue. In the paper, an efficient peak point-selection RBF mesh deformation method was used to select landmarks.
Technical Paper

Development of a Fast, Robust Numerical Tool for the Design, Optimization, and Control of IC Engines

This paper discusses the development of an integrated tool for the design, optimization, and real-time control of engines from a performance and emissions standpoint. Our objectives are threefold: (1) develop a tool that computes the engine performance and emissions on the order of a typical engine cycle (25-50 milliseconds); (2) enable the use of the tool for a wide variety of engine geometries, operating conditions, and fuels with minimal user changes; and (3) couple the engine module to an efficient optimization module to enable real-time control and optimization. The design tool consists of two coupled modules: an engine module and an optimization module.
Technical Paper

Diagnostics of Engine Noise During Run-up Using HELS Based Nearfield Acoustical Holography

This paper describes the diagnostics of noise sources and characteristics of a full-size gasoline engine during its run-up using Helmholtz Equation Least Squares (HELS) method based nearfield acoustical holography (NAH). The acoustic pressures are measured using an array of 56 microphones conformal to the contours of engine surfaces at very close range. Measurements are collected near the oil pan, front and intake sides. The data thus collected are taken as input to HELS program, and the acoustic pressure mappings on the oil pan, front and intake surfaces are calculated. These reconstructed acoustic quantities clearly demonstrate the “hot spots” of sound pressures generated by this gasoline engine during its run-up and under a constant speed condition. These acoustic pressure mappings together with order-tracking spectrograms allow for identification of the peak amplitudes of acoustic pressures on a targeted surface as a function of the frequency and engine rpm.
Journal Article

Experimental and Computational Investigation of Subcritical Near-Nozzle Spray Structure and Primary Atomization in the Engine Combustion Network Spray D

In order to improve understanding of the primary atomization process for diesel-like sprays, a collaborative experimental and computational study was focused on the near-nozzle spray structure for the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) Spray D single-hole injector. These results were presented at the 5th Workshop of the ECN in Detroit, Michigan. Application of x-ray diagnostics to the Spray D standard cold condition enabled quantification of distributions of mass, phase interfacial area, and droplet size in the near-nozzle region from 0.1 to 14 mm from the nozzle exit. Using these data, several modeling frameworks, from Lagrangian-Eulerian to Eulerian-Eulerian and from Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) to Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS), were assessed in their ability to capture and explain experimentally observed spray details. Due to its computational efficiency, the Lagrangian-Eulerian approach was able to provide spray predictions across a broad range of conditions.
Technical Paper

Institute for Manufacturing Research, Wayne State University

The purpose of the Institute for Manufacturing Research (IMR) is to enhance Wayne State University's existing technological strength in the areas of manufacturing research which have demonstrated potential benefits for the State's economy. IMR's faculty conduct basic and applied research in selected areas of manufacturing science. The research programs within the Institute are broadly interdisciplinary and industrially interactive, and are organized around the following areas: materials development, modification, and nondestructive evaluation; software technology for manufacturing and engineering; and product reliability and machine tool research. Faculty from eight departments within the Colleges of Science and Engineering participate in IMR.
Technical Paper

Integration of Vehicle Performance and Fuel Economy Software with Military Ground Vehicle Mission Assessment Tools

A simulation approach is defined that integrates a military mission assessment tool (One Semi-Automated Forces) with a commercial automotive control/energy consumption development tool (Autonomie). The objective is to enable vehicle energy utilization and fuel consumption impact assessments relative to US Army mission effectiveness and commercial drive cycles. The approach to this integration will be described, along with its potential to meet its objectives.
Journal Article

Jaw Loading Response of Current ATDs

Biomechanical surrogates are used in various forms to study head impact response in automotive applications and for assessing helmet performance. Surrogate headforms include those from the National Operating Committee on Standards for Athletic Equipment (NOCSAE) and the many variants of the Hybrid III. However, the response of these surrogates to loading at the chin and how that response may affect the loads transferred from the jaw to the rest of the head are unknown. To address part of that question, the current study compares the chin impact response performance of select human surrogates to that of the cadaver. A selection of Hybrid III and NOCSAE based surrogates with fixed and articulating jaws were tested under drop mass impact conditions that were used to describe post mortem human subject (PMHS) response to impacts at the chin (Craig et al., 2008). Results were compared to the PMHS response with cumulative variance technique (Rhule et al., 2002).
Journal Article

Methods for Evaluating the Functional Work Space for Machine Tools and 6 Axis Serial Robots

The ‘boundary of space’ model representing all possible positions which may be occupied by a mechanism during its normal range of motion (for all positions and orientations) is called the work envelope. In the robotic domain, it is also known as the robot operating envelope or workspace. Several researchers have investigated workspace boundaries for different degrees of freedom (DOF), joint types and kinematic structures utilizing many approaches. The work envelope provides essential boundary information, which is critical for safety and layout concerns, but the work envelope information does not by itself determine the reach feasibility of a desired configuration. The effect of orientation is not captured as well as the coupling related to operational parameters. Included in this are spatial occupancy concerns due to linking multiple kinematic chains, which is an issue with multi-tasking machine tools, and manufacturing cells.
Journal Article

Modeling and Validation of Rapid Prototyping Related Available Workspace

Path planning and re-planning for serial 6 degree of freedom (DOF) robotic systems is challenging due to complex kinematic structure and application conditions which affects the robot's tool frame position, orientation and singularity avoidance. These three characteristics represent the key elements for production planning and layout design of the automated manufacturing systems. The robot trajectory represents series of connected points in 3D space. Each point is defined with its position and orientation related to the robot's base frames or predefined user frame. The robot will move from point to point using the desired motion type (linear, arc, or joint). The trajectory planning requires first to check if robot can reach the selected part(s). This can be simply done by placing the part(s) inside the robot's work envelope. The robot's work envelope represents a set of all robots' reachable points without considering their orientation.
Journal Article

Quantification of Shot-to-Shot Variation in Single Hole Diesel Injectors

Recent advancements in x-ray radiography diagnostics for direct injection sprays at Argonne's Advanced Photon Source have allowed absorption measurements of individual spray events, in addition to ensemble-averaged measurements. These measurements offer insight into the shot-to-shot variation of these sprays in the near-nozzle, spray formation region. Three single hole diesel injectors are studied across various injection and ambient pressures, spanning 14 different conditions. We calculated two dimensional maps of the standard deviation in line of sight mass distribution between individual spray events. These illuminated the spatial and temporal extent of variability between spray events. Regions of large fluctuations were observed to move downstream during the initial spray period and reached a steady state location after this initial transient.
Journal Article

Recent Developments in X-ray Diagnostics for Cavitation

Cavitation plays an important role in fuel injection systems. It alters the nozzle's internal flow structure and discharge coefficient, and also contributes to injector wear. Quantitatively measuring and mapping the cavitation vapor distribution in a fuel injector is difficult, as cavitation occurs on very short time and length scales. Optical measurements of transparent model nozzles can indicate the morphology of large-scale cavitation, but are generally limited by the substantial amount of scattering that occurs between vapor and liquid phases. These limitations can be overcome with x-ray diagnostics, as x-rays refract, scatter and absorb much more weakly from phase interfaces. Here, we present an overview of some recent developments in quantitative x-ray diagnostics for cavitating flows. Measurements were conducted at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory, using a submerged plastic test nozzle.
Technical Paper

Separation Techniques for Auto Shredder Residue

Disposal of automobile shredder residue (ASR), remaining from the reclamation of steel from junked automobiles, promises to be an increasing environmental and economic concern. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is investigating alternative technology for recovering value from ASR while also, it is hoped, lessening landfill disposal concerns. Of the ASR total, some 20% by weight consists of plastics. Preliminary work at ANL is being directed toward developing a protocol, both mechanical and chemical (solvent dissolution), to separate and recover polyurethane foam and the major thermoplastic fraction from ASR. Feasibility has been demonstrated in laboratory-size equipment.