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Technical Paper

A Characteristic Parameter to Estimate the Optimum Counterweight Mass of a 4-Cylinder In-Line Engine

A dimensionless relationship that estimates the maximum bearing load of a 4-cylinder 4-stroke in-line engine has been found. This relationship may assist the design engineer in choosing a desired counterweight mass. It has been demonstrated that: 1) the average bearing load increases with engine speed and 2) the maximum bearing load initially decreases with engine speed, reaches a minimum, then increases quickly with engine speed. This minimum refers to a transition speed at which the contribution of the inertia force overcomes the contribution of the maximum pressure force to the maximum bearing load. The transition speed increases with an increase of counterweight mass and is a function of maximum cylinder pressure and the operating parameters of the engine.
Technical Paper

A Visualization Study of Liquid Fuel Distribution and Combustion Inside a Port-Injected Gasoline Engine Under Different Start Conditions

High-speed video of combustion processes and cylinder pressure traces were obtained from a single-cylinder optical-accessible engine with a production four-valve cylinder head to study the mixture formation and flame propagation characteristics at near-stoichiometric start condition. Laser-sheet Mie-scattering images were collected for liquid droplet distributions inside the cylinder to correlate the mixture formation process with the combustion results. A dual-stream (DS) injector and a quad-stream (QS) injector were used to study the spray dispersion effect on engine starting, under different injection timings, throttle valve positions, engine speeds, and intake temperatures. It was found that most of the fuel under open-valve injection (OVI) conditions entered the cylinder as droplet mist. A significant part of the fuel droplets hit the far end of the cylinder wall at the exhaust-valve side.
Technical Paper

Advanced Low Temperature Combustion (ALTC): Diesel Engine Performance, Fuel Economy and Emissions

The objective of this work is to develop a strategy to reduce the penalties in the diesel engine performance, fuel economy and HC and CO emissions, associated with the operation in the low temperature combustion regime. Experiments were conducted on a research high speed, single cylinder, 4-valve, small-bore direct injection diesel engine equipped with a common rail injection system under simulated turbocharged conditions, at IMEP = 3 bar and engine speed = 1500 rpm. EGR rates were varied over a wide range to cover engine operation from the conventional to the LTC regime, up to the misfiring point. The injection pressure was varied from 600 bar to 1200 bar. Injection timing was adjusted to cover three different LPPCs (Location of the Peak rate of heat release due to the Premixed Combustion fraction) at 10.5° aTDC, 5 aTDC and 2 aTDC. The swirl ratio was varied from 1.44 to 7.12. Four steps are taken to move from LTC to ALTC.
Technical Paper

An Analysis of Regulated and Unregulated Emissions in an HSDI Diesel Engine under the LTC Regime

Several mechanisms are discussed to understand the formation of both regulated and unregulated emissions in a high speed, direct injection, single cylinder diesel engine using low sulphur diesel fuel. Experiments were conducted over a wide range of injection pressures, EGR rates, injection timings and swirl ratios. The regulated emissions were measured by the standard emission equipment. Unregulated emissions such as aldehydes and ketones were measured by high pressure liquid chromatography and hydrocarbon speciation by gas chromatography. Particulate mass was measured with a Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance (TEOM). Analysis was made of the sources of different emission species and their relationship with the combustion process under the different operating conditions. Special attention is given to the low temperature combustion (LTC) regime which is known to reduce both NOx and soot. However the HC, CO and unregulated emissions increased at a higher rate.
Technical Paper

An Overview of ARES Research

With an intention to improve the performance of reciprocating engines used for distributed generation US-Dept. of Energy has launched ARES program. Under this program, the performance targets for these natural gas-fuelled stationary engines are ≻ 50% efficiency and NOx emissions ≺ 0.1 g/bhp-hr by 2013. This paper presents two technologies developed under this program. Lean-burn operation is very popular with engine manufacturers as it offers simultaneous low-NOx emissions and high engine efficiencies, while not requiring the use of any aftertreatment devices. Though engines operating on lean-burn operation are capable of better performance, they are currently limited by the inability to sustain reliable ignition under lean conditions. Addressing such an issue, research has evaluated the use of laser ignition as an alternative to the conventional Capacitance Discharge Ignition (CDI).
Journal Article

Assessing the Importance of Radiative Heat Transfer for ECN Spray A Using the Transported PDF Method

The importance of radiative heat transfer on the combustion and soot formation characteristics under nominal ECN Spray A conditions has been studied numerically. The liquid n-dodecane fuel is injected with 1500 bar fuel pressure into the constant volume chamber at different ambient conditions. Radiation from both gas-phase as well as soot particles has been included and assumed as gray. Three different solvers for the radiative transfer equation have been employed: the discrete ordinate method, the spherical-harmonics method and the optically thin assumption. The radiation models have been coupled with the transported probability density function method for turbulent reactive flows and soot, where unresolved turbulent fluctuations in temperature and composition are included and therefore capturing turbulence-chemistry-soot-radiation interactions. Results show that the gas-phase (mostly CO2 ad H2O species) has a higher contribution to the net radiation heat transfer compared to soot.
Technical Paper

Blend Ratio Optimization of Fuels Containing Gasoline Blendstock, Ethanol, and Higher Alcohols (C3-C6): Part I - Methodology and Scenario Definition

The U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2) requires an increase in the use of advanced biofuels up to 36 billion gallons by 2022. Longer chain alcohols, in addition to cellulosic ethanol and synthetic biofuels, could be used to meet this demand while adhering to the RFS2 corn-based ethanol limitation. Higher carbon number alcohols can be utilized to improve the energy content, knock resistance, and/or petroleum displacement of gasoline-alcohol blends compared to traditional ethanol blends such as E10 while maintaining desired and regulated fuel properties. Part I of this paper focuses on the development of scenarios by which to compare higher alcohol fuel blends to traditional ethanol blends. It also details the implementation of fuel property prediction methods adapted from literature. Possible combinations of eight alcohols mixed with a gasoline blendstock were calculated and the properties of the theoretical fuel blends were predicted.
Technical Paper

Blend Ratio Optimization of Fuels Containing Gasoline Blendstock, Ethanol, and Higher Alcohols (C3-C6): Part II - Blend Properties and Target Value Sensitivity

Higher carbon number alcohols offer an opportunity to meet the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2) and improve the energy content, petroleum displacement, and/or knock resistance of gasoline-alcohol blends from traditional ethanol blends such as E10 while maintaining desired and regulated fuel properties. Part II of this paper builds upon the alcohol selection, fuel implementation scenarios, criteria target values, and property prediction methodologies detailed in Part I. For each scenario, optimization schemes include maximizing energy content, knock resistance, or petroleum displacement. Optimum blend composition is very sensitive to energy content, knock resistance, vapor pressure, and oxygen content criteria target values. Iso-propanol is favored in both scenarios' suitable blends because of its high RON value.
Technical Paper

Characterization and Simulation of a Unit Injector

The characteristics of the diesel engine unit injector were studied both theoretically and experimentally. The transient fuel pressure in the unit injector was indirectly measured by using strain gauges placed in different locations on the drive train, between the cam and plunger. The events which take place during the injection process were analyzed and the effects of several design and operating variables on the different injection parameters were determined. Computer simulation showed a fairly good agreement between computed and experimental results.
Journal Article

Characterization of Diesel Common Rail Spray Behavior for Single- and Double-hole Nozzles

Double-hole nozzle and multiple injections have the potential for better fuel atomization and mixing in DI engine. In order to evaluate the behavior of the spray for the double-hole nozzles against traditional single-hole ones, high-speed spray visualization was carried out using a streak film camera and a copper vapor laser, and in combination with a long-distance camera when taking microscopic movies. The spray penetration and the cone angle were measured based on the images and compared for variable injection pressures, and for single and split injections, under ambient and elevated chamber pressure conditions. The results showed that the spray of the double-hole nozzle has comparable penetration but smaller cone angle when viewed from the nozzle end, compared to the single-hole nozzle with the same total hole discharge cross-sectional area. For microscopic view, it was observed that the interaction between the dual sprays is very dynamic.
Technical Paper

Comparison of In-Nozzle Flow Characteristics of Naphtha and N-Dodecane Fuels

It is well known that in-nozzle flow behavior can significantly influence the near-nozzle spray formation and mixing that in turn affect engine performance and emissions. This in-nozzle flow behavior can, in turn, be significantly influenced by fuel properties. The goal of this study is to characterize the behavior of two different fuels, namely, a straight-run naphtha that has an anti-knock index of 58 (denoted as “Full-Range Naphtha”) and n-dodecane, in a simulated multi-hole common-rail diesel fuel injector. Simulations were carried out using a fully compressible multi-phase flow representation based on the mixture model assumption with the Volume of Fluid method. Our previous studies have shown that the characteristics of internal and near-nozzle flow are strongly related to needle motion in both the along- and off-axis directions.
Technical Paper

Comparison of RCCI Operation with and without EGR over the Full Operating Map of a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

Dual-fuel combustion using port-injection of low reactivity fuel combined with direct injection of a higher reactivity fuel, otherwise known as Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI), has been shown as a method to achieve high efficiency combustion with moderate peak pressure rise rates, low engine-out soot and NOx emissions. A key requirement for extending to high-load operation is reduce the reactivity of the premixed charge prior to the diesel injection. One way to accomplish this is to use a very low reactivity fuel such as natural gas. In this work, experimental testing was conducted on a 13L multi-cylinder heavy-duty diesel engine modified to operate using RCCI combustion with port injection of natural gas and direct injection of diesel fuel. Natural gas/diesel RCCI engine operation is compared over the EPA Heavy-Duty 13 mode supplemental emissions test with and without EGR.
Technical Paper

Cylinder Pressure Analysis of a Diesel Engine Using Oxygen-Enriched Air and Emulsified Fuels

Analytical studies of oxygen-enriched diesel engine combustion have indicated the various benefits as well as the need for using cheaper fuels with water addition. To verify analytical results, a series of single-cylinder diesel engine tests were conducted to investigate the concepts of oxygen enriched air (OEA) for combustion with water emulsified fuels. Cylinder pressure traces were obtained for inlet oxygen levels of 21% to 35% and fuel emulsions with water contents of 0% to 20%. Data for emulsified fuels included no. 2 and no. 4 diesel fuels. The excess oxygen for the tests was supplied from compressed bottled oxygen connected to the intake manifold. The cylinder pressure data was collected with an AVL pressure transducer and a personal computer-based data logging system. The crank angle was measured with an optical encoder. In each data run, 30 consecutive cycles were recorded and later averaged for analysis.
Technical Paper

Development of a 3-D Model for Analyzing the Effects of Channel Geometry on Filtration Characteristics in Particulate Filter System

A three-dimensional (3-D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code has been developed to predict flow dynamics and pressure drop characteristics in geometry-modified filters in which the normalized distance of the outlet channel plugs from the inlet has been varied at 0.25, 0.50, and 0.75. In clean filter simulations, the pressure drop in geometry-modified filters showed higher values than for conventional filters because of the significant change in the pressure field formed inside the channel that determines the amount of flow entering the modified channel. This flow through the modified channel depends on plug position initially but has a maximum limit when pressure difference and geometrical change are compromised. For soot loading simulations, a Lagrangian multiphase flow model was used to interpret the hydrodynamics of particle-laden flow with realistic inputs.
Technical Paper

Diagnostics of Engine Noise During Run-up Using HELS Based Nearfield Acoustical Holography

This paper describes the diagnostics of noise sources and characteristics of a full-size gasoline engine during its run-up using Helmholtz Equation Least Squares (HELS) method based nearfield acoustical holography (NAH). The acoustic pressures are measured using an array of 56 microphones conformal to the contours of engine surfaces at very close range. Measurements are collected near the oil pan, front and intake sides. The data thus collected are taken as input to HELS program, and the acoustic pressure mappings on the oil pan, front and intake surfaces are calculated. These reconstructed acoustic quantities clearly demonstrate the “hot spots” of sound pressures generated by this gasoline engine during its run-up and under a constant speed condition. These acoustic pressure mappings together with order-tracking spectrograms allow for identification of the peak amplitudes of acoustic pressures on a targeted surface as a function of the frequency and engine rpm.
Journal Article

Durability Study of a High Pressure Common Rail Fuel Injection System Using Lubricity Additive Dosed Gasoline-Like Fuel - Additional Cycle Runtime and Teardown Analysis

This study is a continuation of previous work assessing the robustness of a Cummins XPI common rail injection system operating with gasoline-like fuel. All the hardware from the original study was retained except for the high pressure pump head and check valves which were replaced due to cavitation damage. An additional 400 hour NATO cycle was run on the refurbished fuel system to achieve a total exposure time of 800 hours and detect any other significant failure modes. As in the initial investigation, fuel system parameters including pressures, temperatures and flow rates were logged on a test bench to monitor performance over time. Fuel and lubricant samples were taken every 50 hours to assess fuel consistency, metallic wear, and interaction between fuel and oil. High fidelity driving torque and flow measurements were made to compare overall system performance when operating with both diesel and light distillate fuel.
Technical Paper

Effect of Biodiesel (B-20) on Performance and Emissions in a Single Cylinder HSDI Diesel Engine

The focus of this study is to determine the effect of using B-20 (a blend of 20% soybean methyl ester biodiesel and 80% ultra low sulfur diesel fuel) on the combustion process, performance and exhaust emissions in a High Speed Direct Injection (HSDI) diesel engine equipped with a common rail injection system. The engine was operated under simulated turbocharged conditions with 3-bar indicated mean effective pressure and 1500 rpm engine speed. The experiments covered a wide range of injection pressures and EGR rates. The rate of heat release trace has been analyzed in details to determine the effect of the properties of biodiesel on auto ignition and combustion processes and their impact on engine out emissions. The results and the conclusions are supported by a statistical analysis of data that provides a quantitative significance of the effects of the two fuels on engine out emissions.
Technical Paper

Effect of Cetane Number with and without Additive on Cold Startability and White Smoke Emissions in a Diesel Engine

I The effect of Cetane Number (CN) of the fuel and the addition of cetane improvers on the cold starting and white smoke emissions of a diesel engine was investigated. Tests were conducted on a single-cylinder, four-stroke-cycle, air-cooled, direct-injection, stand-alone diesel engine in a cold room at ambient temperatures ranging from 25 °C to - 5 °C. Five fuels were used. The base fuel has a CN of 49.2. The CN of the base fuel was lowered to 38.7 and 30.8 by adding different amounts of aromatic hydrocarbons. Iso-octyl nitrate is added to the high aromatic fuels in order to increase their CN to 48.6 and 38.9 respectively. Comparisons are made between the five fuels to determine the effect of CN and the additive on cylinder peak pressure, heat release rate, cold start-ability, combustion instability, hydrocarbon emissions and solid and liquid particulates.
Technical Paper

Effect of Imposed Faults on a Distributor Injection System

The effects of several faults on different parameters in a distributor injection system are studied both theoretically and experimentally. The faults imposed on a healthy system are: fuel leaks between the pump and injector, improper adjustment of the injector opening pressure, a broken or missing injector spring, plugged nozzle holes, and a stuck-closed needle. The injector parameters examined include maximum fuel pressures reached at different locations in the system, needle lift, injection lag, and injection rate.
Technical Paper

Effect of Injection Pressure and Swirl Motion on Diesel Engine-out Emissions in Conventional and Advanced Combustion Regimes

The fuel injection pressure and the swirl motion have a great impact on combustion in small bore HSDI diesel engines running on the conventional or advanced combustion concepts. This paper examines the effects of injection pressure and the swirl motion on engine-out emissions over a wide range of EGR rates. Experiments were conducted on a single cylinder, 4-valve, direct injection diesel engine equipped with a common rail injection system. The pressures and temperatures in the inlet and exhaust surge tanks were adjusted to simulate turbocharged engine conditions. The load and speed of the engine were typical to highway cruising operation of a light duty vehicle. The experiments covered a wide range of injection pressures, swirl ratios and injection timings. Engine-out emission measurements included hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, smoke (in Bosch Smoke Units, BSU) and NOx.