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Journal Article

360° Surround View System with Parking Guidance

In this paper, we present a real-time 360 degree surround system with parking aid feature, which is a very convenient parking and blind spot aid system. In the proposed system, there are four fisheye cameras mounted around a vehicle to cover the whole surrounding area. After correcting the distortion of four fisheye images and registering all images on a planar surface, a flexible stitching method was developed to smooth the seam of adjacent images away to generate a high-quality result. In the post-process step, a unique brightness balance algorithm was proposed to compensate the exposure difference as the images are not captured with the same exposure condition. In addition, a unique parking guidance feature is applied on the surround view scene by utilizing steering wheel angle information as well as vehicle speed information.
Technical Paper

A Co-Simulation Environment for Virtual Prototyping of Ground Vehicles

The use of virtual prototyping early in the design stage of a product has gained popularity due to reduced cost and time to market. The state of the art in vehicle simulation has reached a level where full vehicles are analyzed through simulation but major difficulties continue to be present in interfacing the vehicle model with accurate powertrain models and in developing adequate formulations for the contact between tire and terrain (specifically, scenarios such as tire sliding on ice and rolling on sand or other very deformable surfaces). The proposed work focuses on developing a ground vehicle simulation capability by combining several third party packages for vehicle simulation, tire simulation, and powertrain simulation. The long-term goal of this project consists in promoting the Digital Car idea through the development of a reliable and robust simulation capability that will enhance the understanding and control of off-road vehicle performance.
Technical Paper

A Preliminary Study of Energy Recovery in Vehicles by Using Regenerative Magnetic Shock Absorbers

Road vehicles can expend a significant amount of energy in undesirable vertical motions that are induced by road bumps, and much of that is dissipated in conventional shock absorbers as they dampen the vertical motions. Presented in this paper are some of the results of a study aimed at determining the effectiveness of efficiently transforming that energy into electrical power by using optimally designed regenerative electromagnetic shock absorbers. In turn, the electrical power can be used to recharge batteries or other efficient energy storage devices (e.g., flywheels) rather than be dissipated. The results of the study are encouraging - they suggest that a significant amount of the vertical motion energy can be recovered and stored.
Technical Paper

A Severe Ankle and Foot Injury in Frontal Crashes and Its Mechanism

In a frontal automotive crash, the driver's foot is usually stepping on the brake pedal as an instinctive response to avoid a collision. The tensile force generated in the Achilles tendon produces a compressive preload on the tibia. If there is intrusion of the toe board after the crash, an additional external force is applied to the driver's foot. A series of dynamic impact tests using human cadaveric specimens was conducted to investigate the combined effect of muscle preloading and external force. A constant tendon force was applied to the calcaneus while an external impact force was applied to the forefoot by a rigid pendulum. Preloading the tibia significantly increased the tibial axial force and the combination of these forces resulted in five tibial pylon fractures out of sixteen specimens.
Journal Article

Analysis of Input Power, Energy Availability, and Efficiency during Deceleration for X-EV Vehicles

The recovery of braking energy through regenerative braking is a key enabler for the improved efficiency of Hybrid Electric Vehicles, Plug-in Hybrid Electric, and Battery Electric Vehicles (HEV, PHEV, BEV). However, this energy is often treated in a simplified fashion, frequently using an overall regeneration efficiency term, ξrg [1], which is then applied to the total available braking energy of a given drive-cycle. In addition to the ability to recapture braking energy typically lost during vehicle deceleration, hybrid and plug-in hybrid vehicles also allow for reduced or zero engine fueling during vehicle decelerations. While regenerative braking is often discussed as an enabler for improved fuel economy, reduced fueling is also an important component of a hybrid vehicle's ability to improve overall fuel economy.
Technical Paper

Biomechanical Response of the Bovine Pia-Arachnoid Complex to Normal Traction Loading at Varying Strain Rates

The pia-arachnoid complex (PAC) covering the brain plays an important role in the mechanical response of the brain due to impact or inertial loading. The mechanical properties of the bovine PAC under tensile loading have been characterized previously. However, the transverse properties of this structure, such as shear and normal traction which are equally important to understanding the skull/brain interaction under traumatic loading, have not been investigated. These material properties are essential information needed to adequately define the material model of the PAC in a finite element (FE) model of human brain. The purpose of this study was to determine, experimentally, the material properties of the PAC under normal traction loading. PAC specimens were obtained from freshly slaughtered bovine subjects from various locations.
Technical Paper

Driver Demand: Eye Glance Measures

This study investigated driver glances while engaging in infotainment tasks in a stationary vehicle while surrogate driving: watching a driving video recorded from a driver’s viewpoint and projected on a large screen, performing a lane-tracking task, and performing the Tactile Detection Response Task (TDRT) to measure attentional effects of secondary tasks on event detection and response. Twenty-four participants were seated in a 2014 Toyota Corolla production vehicle with the navigation system option. They performed the lane-tracking task using the vehicle’s steering wheel, fitted with a laser pointer to indicate wheel movement on the driving video. Participants simultaneously performed the TDRT and a variety of infotainment tasks, including Manual and Mixed-Mode versions of Destination Entry and Cancel, Contact Dialing, Radio Tuning, Radio Preset selection, and other Manual tasks. Participants also completed the 0-and 1-Back pure auditory-vocal tasks.
Technical Paper

Effect of Imposed Faults on a Distributor Injection System

The effects of several faults on different parameters in a distributor injection system are studied both theoretically and experimentally. The faults imposed on a healthy system are: fuel leaks between the pump and injector, improper adjustment of the injector opening pressure, a broken or missing injector spring, plugged nozzle holes, and a stuck-closed needle. The injector parameters examined include maximum fuel pressures reached at different locations in the system, needle lift, injection lag, and injection rate.
Technical Paper

Impact of Drive Cycle Aggressiveness and Speed on HEVs Fuel Consumption Sensitivity

Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) owners have reported significantly lower fuel economy than the published estimates. Under on-road driving conditions, vehicle acceleration, speed, and stop time differ from those on the normalized test procedures. To explain the sensitivity, several vehicles, both conventional and hybrid electric, were tested at Argonne National Laboratory. The tests demonstrated that the fuel economy of Prius MY04 was more sensitive to drive-cycle variations. However, because of the difficulty in instrumenting every component, an in-depth analysis and quantification of the reasons behind the higher sensitivity was not possible. In this paper, we will use validated models of the tested vehicles and reproduce the trends observed during testing. Using PSAT, the FreedomCAR vehicle simulation tool, we will quantify the impact of the main component parameters, including component efficiency and regenerative braking.
Technical Paper

Investigating Possible Fuel Economy Bias Due To Regenerative Braking in Testing HEVs on 2WD and 4WD Chassis Dynamometers

Procedures are in place for testing emissions and fuel economy for virtually every type of light-duty vehicle with a single-axle chassis dynamometer, which is why nearly all emissions test facilities use single-axle dynamometers. However, hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) employ regenerative braking. Thus, the braking split between the driven and non-driven axles may interact with the calculation of overall efficiency of the vehicle. This paper investigates the regenerative braking systems of a few production HEVs and provides an analysis of their differences in single-axle (2WD) and double-axle (4WD) dynamometer drive modes. The fuel economy results from 2WD and 4WD operation are shown for varied cycles for the 2000 Honda Insight, 2001 Toyota Prius, and the 2004 Toyota Prius. The paper shows that there is no evidence that a bias in testing an HEV exists because of the difference in operating the same hybrid vehicle in the 2WD and 4WD modes.
Technical Paper

Latency Analysis for Inter-Vehicle Communications

The study done by the U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) shows that developing automotive collision warning and avoidance systems will be very effective in order to significantly reduce fatalities, injuries and associated costs. In order to develop an automotive collision warning and avoidance system, it will be necessary that the vehicles should be able to exchange (in real-time) their dynamic information such as speed, acceleration, direction, relative position, status of some devices like brake, steering wheel, gas pedal, etc. The only feasible way to exchange the vehicles’ dynamic information will be through the use of wireless communication technology. However, the wireless link setup time and communication latencies should be under certain bounds so that the vehicles can appropriately react on time to avoid collisions. This paper will present results from an experimental setup that simulates inter-vehicle communications.
Technical Paper

Lattice Brake Disc Instability Analysis Using Transient Complex Eigenvalue Method in Terms of Excitation Applied to the Pad

This paper describes an integrated approach to the analysis of brake squeal with newly lattice brake disc design. The procedure adopted to define the lattice properties by considering the periodicity cell of lattice plates, present equations of motion and modes response of a periodic lattice disc in principal coordinates on the rotating disc which excited by distributed axial load. The non-linear contact problem is carried out based on a typical passenger car brake for vanned and lattice brake disc types as it undergoes a partial simulation of the SAE J2521 drag braking noise test. The experimental modal analysis (EMA) with impact hammer test is used to obtain the brake rotor modal properties and validated finite element Free- Free State and stability analysis. The fugitive nature of brake squeal is analyzed through the complex eigenvalue extraction technique to define dynamic instability.
Technical Paper

Mass Impacts on Fuel Economies of Conventional vs. Hybrid Electric Vehicles

The strong correlation between vehicle weight and fuel economy for conventional vehicles (CVs) is considered common knowledge, and the relationship of mass reduction to fuel consumption reduction for conventional vehicles (CVs) is often cited without separating effects of powertrain vs. vehicle body (glider), nor on the ground of equivalent vehicle performance level. This paper challenges the assumption that this relationship is easily summarized. Further, for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) the relationship between mass, performance and fuel consumption is not the same as for CVs, and vary with hybrid types. For fully functioning (all wheel regeneration) hybrid vehicles, where battery pack and motor(s) have enough power and energy storage, a very large fraction of kinetic energy is recovered and engine idling is effectively eliminated.
Technical Paper

Measurement and Analysis of Rotor In-plane Mode Induced Disc Brake Squeal and Beyond

This paper provides measurement and analysis on rotor in-plane mode induced squeal. Methodology is presented to simultaneously acquire both temporal and spatial squeal operational deflection shapes (ODS). Rotor accelerations both in the in-plane and out-of-plane directions were measured during squeal along with rotor's normal ODS using a laser vibrometer. Modal measurement and analysis of the rotor and pad in the in-plane and out-of-plane directions were conducted as installed in system condition. The test results indicating rotor modal coupling in the in-plane are provided, and out-of-plane directions, and conclusions on in-plane mode induced squeal are proposed. In addition, the countermeasure for squeal reduction is discussed.
Technical Paper

Model Validation of the Chevrolet Volt 2016

Validation of a vehicle simulation model of the Chevrolet Volt 2016 was conducted. The Chevrolet Volt 2016 is equipped with the new “Voltec” extended-range propulsion system introduced into the market in 2016. The second generation Volt powertrain system operates in five modes, including two electric vehicle modes and three extended-range modes. Model development and validation were conducted using the test data performed on the chassis dynamometer set in a thermal chamber of Argonne National Laboratory’s Advanced Powertrain Research Facility. First, the components of the vehicle, such as the engine, motor, battery, wheels, and chassis, were modeled, including thermal aspects based on the test data. For example, engine efficiency changes dependent on the coolant temperature, or chassis heating or air-conditioning operations according to the ambient and cabin temperature, were applied.
Technical Paper

Modeling Considerations in Use of Boundary Element Methods With Substructures

The boundary integral equation method (BIEM) of analysis was applied to problems involving beams, thick plates and stress concentration regions. Beam and plate problems were considered to provide guidelines for use of the three-dimensional BIEM to analyze brackets and other components which have “solid like” regions as well as regions which are “beam or plate like”. In unsubstructured form the BIEM produced results in excellent agreement with exact solutions from elasticity theory for plates with length/thickness ratios as large as 40. Loading cases included bending by terminal couples and flexure by terminal loads. Using substructuring, CP times were reduced. CP times for both the IBM 3084 and the CDC CYBER 205 were obtained, the influence of varying integration orders discussed, and techniques to assess the accuracy of computed results were described.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Dynamic Responses of Injectors for an Automotive Fuel Rail System

This paper presents a computer model for simulating dynamic responses inside an injector of an automotive fuel rail system. The injector contains a filter at the top, a coil spring in the middle, and a needle and orifices at the bottom. The equations of motion for unsteady one-dimensional flow are derived for the fluid flowing through the injector. The needle motion is described by a second order ordinary differential equation. The forces exerted on the needle include the magnetic force that controls the opening and closing of the injector and the coil spring force. To account for the loss of kinetic energy, we define two loss factors Ka and Kb. The former describes the loss of kinetic energy as fluid enters the injector through the filter at the top, and the latter depicts that as fluid is ejected into a large chamber through the passage between the needle and the needle seat and across four orifices at the bottom of the injector.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Hybridization of a Class 8 Line-Haul Truck

Hybrid electric vehicles have demonstrated their ability to significantly reduce fuel consumption for several medium- and heavy-duty applications. In this paper we analyze the impact on fuel economy of the hybridization of a tractor-trailer. The study is done in PSAT (Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit), which is a modeling and simulation toolkit for light- and heavy-duty vehicles developed by Argonne National Laboratory. Two hybrid configurations are taken into account, each one of them associated with a level of hybridization. The mild-hybrid truck is based on a parallel configuration with the electric machine in a starter-alternator position; this allows start/stop engine operations, a mild level of torque assist, and a limited amount of regenerative braking. The full-hybrid truck is based on a series-parallel configuration with two electric machines: one in a starter-alternator position and another one between the clutch and the gearbox.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Performance of Lithium-Ion Batteries for Fuel Cell Vehicles

This study involves the battery requirements for a fuel cell-powered hybrid electric vehicle. The performances of the vehicle [a 3200-lb (1455-kg) sedan], the fuel cell, and the battery were evaluated in a vehicle simulation. Most of the attention was given to the design and performance of the battery, a lithium-ion, manganese spinel-graphite system of 75-kW power to be used with a 50-kW fuel cell. The total power performance of the system was excellent at the full operating temperatures of the fuel cell and battery. The battery cycling duty is very moderate, as regenerative braking for the Federal Urban Driving Schedule and the Highway Fuel Economy Test cycles can do all charging of the battery. Cold start-up at 20°C is straightforward, with full power available immediately.
Technical Paper

Occupant Compartment Updates for Side to Side Vibration in a Fuel Funny Car

Nitro Fuel Funny cars have 7-8,000 hp and travel 330 mph in a quarter mile. These cars experience extreme forces in normal operation. One phenomenon familiar to drag racers is tire shake. Mild cases can cause loss of traction and vision. Extreme cases can cause injury or death. In March of 2007, a study and subsequent revision of the passenger compartment in a Fuel Funny car was performed after a fatal accident due to extreme tire shake. Tire shake on a drag race car normally occurs when the force on the rear tire causes the tire to roll over itself causing a loss of traction and side-to-side vibration. In other cases, if the tire fails at high speed, the tire may partially separate, causing an extreme vibration in the cockpit of the car. The vibration may set up a harmonic in the chassis, which is transferred to the driver since the rear end is bolted directly to the chassis with no suspension to absorb the energy.