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Technical Paper

Correlating Port Fuel injection to Wetted Fuel Footprints on Combustion Chamber Walls and UBHC in Engine Start Processes

Unburned hydrocarbon (UBHC) emissions from gasoline engines remain a primary engineering research and development concern due to stricter emission regulations. Gasoline engines produce more UBHC emissions during cold start and warm-up than during any other stage of operation, because of insufficient fuel-air mixing, particularly in view of the additional fuel enrichment used for early starting. Impingement of fuel droplets on the cylinder wall is a major source of UBHC and a concern for oil dilution. This paper describes an experimental study that was carried out to investigate the distribution and “footprint” of fuel droplets impinging on the cylinder wall during the intake stroke under engine starting conditions. Injectors having different targeting and atomization characteristics were used in a 4-Valve engine with optical access to the intake port and combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

Spray Dynamics of High Pressure Fuel Injectors for DI Gasoline Engines

An experimental study was made to investigate the spray characteristics of high pressure fuel injectors for direct-injection gasoline engines. The global spray development process was visualized using two-dimensional laser Mie scattering technique. The spray atomization process was characterized by Phase Doppler particle analyzer. The transient spray development process was investigated under different fuel injection conditions as a function of the time after the fuel injection start. The effects of injector design, fuel injection pressure, injection duration, ambient pressure, and fuel property on the spray breakup and atomization characteristics were studied in details. Two clear counter-rotating recirculation zones are observed at the later stage or after the end of fuel injection inside the fuel sprays with a small momentum. The circumferential distribution of the spray from the large-angle injector is quite irregular and looks like a star with several wings projected out.
Technical Paper

Visualization of Direct-Injection Gasoline Spray and Wall-impingement Inside a Motoring Engine

Two-dimensional pulse-laser Mie scattering visualization of the direct-injection gasoline fuel sprays and wall impingement processes was carried out inside a single-cylinder optically accessible engine under motoring condition. The injectors have been first characterized inside a pressurized chamber using identical technique, as well as high-speed microscopic visualization and phase Doppler measurement techniques. The effects of injector cone angle, location, and injection timings on the wall impingement processes were investigated. It was found that the fuel vaporization is not complete at the constant engine speed tested. Fuel spray droplets were observed to disperse wider in the motored engine when compared with an isothermal quiescent ambient conditions. The extent of wall-impingement varies significantly with the injector mounting position and spray cone angle; however, its effect can be reduced to some extent by optimizing the injection timing.