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Technical Paper

42V Automotive Power Systems

2001-08-20
2001-01-2465
With the increase of hotel and ancillary loads and replacement of engine driven mechanical and hydraulic loads with electrical loads, automotive systems are becoming more electric. This is the concept of More Electric Cars (MEC) that necessitates a higher system voltage, such as the proposed 42V, for conventional cars. In this paper, the development of the 42V electric power system for vehicle applications is reviewed. The system architecture and motor drive problems associated with the 42V electric power system are analyzed. Solutions to these problems are also discussed.
Technical Paper

42V Integrated Starter/Alternator Systems

2003-06-23
2003-01-2258
The increasing power demand in vehicles has resulted in a need for a higher onboard generation capacity. With the increasing generation requirement, the torque levels of the generator are found to closely converge with that of the starter motor. Hence, integrating the two machines and using a single machine for the two purposes would be technically viable and economically advantageous. This results in a more compact design solution as well. The Integrated Starter/Alternator (ISA) will be integrated directly to the crankshaft of the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) and deliver 5 kW average and 12-15 kW peak power at 42V.
Technical Paper

A 3D Simulation Methodology for Predicting the Effects of Blasts on a Vehicle Body

2019-04-02
2019-01-1033
Triggered explosions are increasingly becoming common in the world today leading to the loss of precious lives under the most unexpected circumstances. In most scenarios, ordinary citizens are the targets of such attacks, making it essential to design countermeasures in open areas as well as in mobility systems to minimize the destructive effects of such explosive-induced blasts. It would be rather difficult and to an extent risky to carry out physical experiments mimicking blasts in real world scenarios. In terms of mechanics, the problem is essentially one of fluid-structure interaction in which pressure waves in the surrounding air are generated by detonating an explosive charge which then have the potential to cause severe damage to any obstacle on the path of these high-energy waves.
Technical Paper

A Characteristic Parameter to Estimate the Optimum Counterweight Mass of a 4-Cylinder In-Line Engine

2002-03-04
2002-01-0486
A dimensionless relationship that estimates the maximum bearing load of a 4-cylinder 4-stroke in-line engine has been found. This relationship may assist the design engineer in choosing a desired counterweight mass. It has been demonstrated that: 1) the average bearing load increases with engine speed and 2) the maximum bearing load initially decreases with engine speed, reaches a minimum, then increases quickly with engine speed. This minimum refers to a transition speed at which the contribution of the inertia force overcomes the contribution of the maximum pressure force to the maximum bearing load. The transition speed increases with an increase of counterweight mass and is a function of maximum cylinder pressure and the operating parameters of the engine.
Technical Paper

A Co-Simulation Environment for Virtual Prototyping of Ground Vehicles

2007-10-30
2007-01-4250
The use of virtual prototyping early in the design stage of a product has gained popularity due to reduced cost and time to market. The state of the art in vehicle simulation has reached a level where full vehicles are analyzed through simulation but major difficulties continue to be present in interfacing the vehicle model with accurate powertrain models and in developing adequate formulations for the contact between tire and terrain (specifically, scenarios such as tire sliding on ice and rolling on sand or other very deformable surfaces). The proposed work focuses on developing a ground vehicle simulation capability by combining several third party packages for vehicle simulation, tire simulation, and powertrain simulation. The long-term goal of this project consists in promoting the Digital Car idea through the development of a reliable and robust simulation capability that will enhance the understanding and control of off-road vehicle performance.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of Hydraulic Hybrid Systems for Class 6 Trucks

2013-04-08
2013-01-1472
In order to reduce fuel consumption, companies have been looking at hybridizing vehicles. So far, two main hybridization options have been considered: electric and hydraulic hybrids. Because of light duty vehicle operating conditions and the high energy density of batteries, electric hybrids are being widely used for cars. However, companies are still evaluating both hybridization options for medium and heavy duty vehicles. Trucks generally demand very large regenerative power and frequent stop-and-go. In that situation, hydraulic systems could offer an advantage over electric drive systems because the hydraulic motor and accumulator can handle high power with small volume capacity. This study compares the fuel displacement of class 6 trucks using a hydraulic system compared to conventional and hybrid electric vehicles. The paper will describe the component technology and sizes of each powertrain as well as their overall vehicle level control strategies.
Journal Article

A Comparison of Experimental and Modeled Velocity in Gasoline Direct-Injection Sprays with Plume Interaction and Collapse

2017-03-28
2017-01-0837
Modeling plume interaction and collapse for direct-injection gasoline sprays is important because of its impact on fuel-air mixing and engine performance. Nevertheless, the aerodynamic interaction between plumes and the complicated two-phase coupling of the evaporating spray has shown to be notoriously difficult to predict. With the availability of high-speed (100 kHz) Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) experimental data, we compare velocity field predictions between plumes to observe the full temporal evolution leading up to plume merging and complete spray collapse. The target “Spray G” operating conditions of the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) is the focus of the work, including parametric variations in ambient gas temperature. We apply both LES and RANS spray models in different CFD platforms, outlining features of the spray that are most critical to model in order to predict the correct aerodynamics and fuel-air mixing.
Journal Article

A Comparison of the Behaviors of Steel and GFRP Hat-Section Components under Axial Quasi-Static and Impact Loading

2015-04-14
2015-01-1482
Hat-sections, single and double, made of steel are frequently encountered in automotive body structural components. These components play a significant role in terms of impact energy absorption during vehicle crashes thereby protecting occupants of vehicles from severe injury. However, with the need for higher fuel economy and for compliance to stringent emission norms, auto manufacturers are looking for means to continually reduce vehicle body weight either by employing lighter materials like aluminum and fiber-reinforced plastics, or by using higher strength steel with reduced gages, or by combinations of these approaches. Unlike steel hat-sections which have been extensively reported in published literature, the axial crushing behavior of hat-sections made of fiber-reinforced composites may not have been adequately probed.
Journal Article

A Component Test Methodology for Simulation of Full-Vehicle Side Impact Dummy Abdomen Responses for Door Trim Evaluation

2011-04-12
2011-01-1097
Described in this paper is a component test methodology to evaluate the door trim armrest performance in an Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) side impact test and to predict the SID-IIs abdomen injury metrics (rib deflection, deflection rate and V*C). The test methodology consisted of a sub-assembly of two SID-IIs abdomen ribs with spine box, mounted on a linear bearing and allowed to translate in the direction of impact. The spine box with the assembly of two abdominal ribs was rigidly attached to the sliding test fixture, and is stationary at the start of the test. The door trim armrest was mounted on the impactor, which was prescribed the door velocity profile obtained from full-vehicle test. The location and orientation of the armrest relative to the dummy abdomen ribs was maintained the same as in the full-vehicle test.
Technical Paper

A Data Reduction Algorithm for Automotive Multiplexing

1998-02-23
981104
Automotive multiplexing allows sharing information among various intelligent modules inside an automotive electronic system. In order to achieve an optimum functionality, the information should be exchanged among various electronic modules in real time. New features are introduced in automobiles such as Intelligent Vehicle Highway System (IVHS), intelligent transportation support system, engine immobilizers, night vision assistance system, and automated collision avoidance and notification system. The inclusion of such features increases the data traffic over the multiplexing bus. Also, these features require very high speed and expensive bus. Data reduction techniques are used to send the data over a transmission media at high speed. Using the data reduction techniques, we will be able to include new features in automobiles without the need of a high speed bus. Since the automotive environment is different, a special data reduction algorithm is mandated.
Technical Paper

A Distributed Engineering Computer Aided Learning System

2012-04-16
2012-01-0089
In this paper, we proposed a distributed Engineering Computer Aided Learning System. Instead of attending engineering teaching sessions, engineering students are able to interact with the software to gain the same amount of teaching materials. Besides, they will interact with other engineering students from other Engineering schools. The proposed software has the ability to examine the student step by step to reach certain goals. The training and the examination will be different based on the student level and his learning process. Using this system the role of excellent professor can be achieved. The software will have two sessions, i.e. test session and learning session. The software provides the capability of knowledge sharing between multi schools and different educational systems that can provide the students with a large set of training materials. The system was built using JAVA programming language.
Journal Article

A Framework for Collaborative Robot (CoBot) Integration in Advanced Manufacturing Systems

2016-04-05
2016-01-0337
Contemporary manufacturing systems are still evolving. The system elements, layouts, and integration methods are changing continuously, and ‘collaborative robots’ (CoBots) are now being considered as practical industrial solutions. CoBots, unlike traditional CoBots, are safe and flexible enough to work with humans. Although CoBots have the potential to become standard in production systems, there is no strong foundation for systems design and development. The focus of this research is to provide a foundation and four tier framework to facilitate the design, development and integration of CoBots. The framework consists of the system level, work-cell level, machine level, and worker level. Sixty-five percent of traditional robots are installed in the automobile industry and it takes 200 hours to program (and reprogram) them.
Journal Article

A Fuel Surrogate Validation Approach Using a JP-8 Fueled Optically Accessible Compression Ignition Engine

2015-04-14
2015-01-0906
An experimental fuel surrogate validation approach is proposed for a compression ignition application, and applied to validate a Jet-A POSF 4658 fuel surrogate. The approach examines the agreement of both physical and chemical properties of surrogate and target fuels during validation within a real compression-ignition engine environment during four sequential but distinct combustion phases. In-cylinder Mie Scattering measurements are applied to evaporating sprays to compare the behavior of the surrogate, its target fuel, and for reference, n-heptane. Early mixture formation and low temperature reaction behavior were investigated using 2-D broadband chemiluminescence imaging, while high temperature ignition and combustion chemistry were studied using OH chemiluminescence imaging. The optical measurements were combined with cylinder pressure-based combustion analysis, including ignition delay and premixed burn duration, to validate the global behavior of the surrogate.
Technical Paper

A Hybrid System Solution of the Interrupt Latency Compatibility Problem

1999-03-01
1999-01-1099
Microprocessors and microcontrollers are now widely used in automobiles. Microprocessor systems contain sources of interrupt and interrupt service routines, which are software components executed in response to the assertion of an interrupt in hardware. A major problem in designing the software of microprocessor systems is the analytical treatment of interrupt latency. Because multiple interrupt service routines are executed on the same CPU, they compete for the CPU and interfere with each other's latency requirements. Here, interrupt latency is defined as the delay between the assertion of the interrupt in hardware and the start of execution of the associated interrupt service routine. It is estimated that 80% of intermittent bugs in small microprocessor software loads are due to improper treatment of interrupts. Until this work, there is no analytic method for analyzing a particular system to determine if it may violate interrupt latency requirements.
Journal Article

A Hydrogen Direct Injection Engine Concept that Exceeds U.S. DOE Light-Duty Efficiency Targets

2012-04-16
2012-01-0653
Striving for sustainable transportation solutions, hydrogen is often identified as a promising energy carrier and internal combustion engines are seen as a cost effective consumer of hydrogen to facilitate the development of a large-scale hydrogen infrastructure. Driven by efficiency and emissions targets defined by the U.S. Department of Energy, a research team at Argonne National Laboratory has worked on optimizing a spark-ignited direct injection engine for hydrogen. Using direct injection improves volumetric efficiency and provides the opportunity to properly stratify the fuel-air mixture in-cylinder. Collaborative 3D-CFD and experimental efforts have focused on optimizing the mixture stratification and have demonstrated the potential for high engine efficiency with low NOx emissions. Performance of the hydrogen engine is evaluated in this paper over a speed range from 1000 to 3000 RPM and a load range from 1.7 to 14.3 bar BMEP.
Technical Paper

A Least-Cost Method for Prioritizing Battery Research

1983-02-01
830221
A methodology has been developed for identifying the combination of battery characteristics which lead to least-cost electric vehicles. Battery interrelationships include specific power vs, specific energy, peak power vs. specific energy and DOD, cycle life vs. DOD, cost vs. specific energy and peak power, and volumetric and battery size effects. The method is illustrated for the “second car” mission assuming lead/acid batteries. Reductions in life-cycle costs associated with future battery research breakthroughs are estimated using a sensitivity technique. A research prioritization system is described.
Journal Article

A Linkage Based Solution Approach for Determining 6 Axis Serial Robotic Travel Path Feasibility

2016-04-05
2016-01-0336
When performing trajectory planning for robotic applications, there are many aspects to consider, such as the reach conditions, joint and end-effector velocities, accelerations and jerk conditions, etc. The reach conditions are dependent on the end-effector orientations and the robot kinematic structure. The reach condition feasibility is the first consideration to be addressed prior to optimizing a solution. The ‘functional’ work space or work window represents a region of feasible reach conditions, and is a sub-set of the work envelope. It is not intuitive to define. Consequently, 2D solution approaches are proposed. The 3D travel paths are decomposed to a 2D representation via radial projections. Forward kinematic representations are employed to define a 2D boundary curve for each desired end effector orientation.
Journal Article

A Machine Learning-Genetic Algorithm (ML-GA) Approach for Rapid Optimization Using High-Performance Computing

2018-04-03
2018-01-0190
A Machine Learning-Genetic Algorithm (ML-GA) approach was developed to virtually discover optimum designs using training data generated from multi-dimensional simulations. Machine learning (ML) presents a pathway to transform complex physical processes that occur in a combustion engine into compact informational processes. In the present work, a total of over 2000 sector-mesh computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of a heavy-duty engine were performed. These were run concurrently on a supercomputer to reduce overall turnaround time. The engine being optimized was run on a low-octane (RON70) gasoline fuel under partially premixed compression ignition (PPCI) mode. A total of nine input parameters were varied, and the CFD simulation cases were generated by randomly sampling points from this nine-dimensional input space. These input parameters included fuel injection strategy, injector design, and various in-cylinder flow and thermodynamic conditions at intake valve closure (IVC).
Technical Paper

A Mathematical Model for Design and Production Verification Planning

1999-05-10
1999-01-1624
The paper focuses on various important decisions of verification and testing plans of the product during its design and production stages. In most of the product and process development projects, decisions on verification and testing are ad-hoc or based on traditions. Such decisions never guarantee the performance of the product as planned, during its whole life cycle. We propose an analytical approach to provide the concrete base for such crucial decisions of verification planning. Accordingly, a mathematical model is presented. Also, a case study of an automotive Electro-mechanical product is included to illustrate the application of the model.
Technical Paper

A Method for Vehicle Occupant Height Estimation

2017-03-28
2017-01-1440
Vehicle safety systems may use occupant physiological information, e.g., occupant heights and weights to further enhance occupant safety. Determining occupant physiological information in a vehicle, however, is a challenging problem due to variations in pose, lighting conditions and background complexity. In this paper, a novel occupant height estimation approach is presented. Depth information from a depth camera, e.g., Microsoft Kinect is used. In this 3D approach, first, human body and frontal face views (restricted by the Pitch and Roll values in the pose estimation) based on RGB and depth information are detected. Next, the eye location (2D coordinates) is detected from frontal facial views by Haar-cascade detectors. The eye-location co-ordinates are then transferred into vehicle co-ordinates, and seated occupant eye height is estimated according to similar triangles and fields of view of Kinect.
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