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Technical Paper

A New Ignition Delay Formulation Applied to Predict Misfiring During Cold Starting of Diesel Engines

2000-03-06
2000-01-1184
A new formulation is developed for the ignition delay (ID) in diesel engines to account for the effect of piston motion on the global autoignition reaction rates. A differentiation is made between the IDe measured in engines and IDv, measured in constant volume vessels. In addition, a method is presented to determine the coefficients of the IDe correlation from actual engine experimental data. The new formulation for IDe is applied to predict the misfiring cycles during the cold starting of diesel engines at different low ambient temperatures. The predictions are compared with experimental results obtained on a multi-cylinder heavy-duty diesel engine.
Technical Paper

A Simulation Model for Gasoline Engine Cold Start Fuel Calibration

2002-10-21
2002-01-2802
The paper presents a simulation model for the cold start fuel calibration (CSFC) in port-fuel-injected gasoline engines. The model is based on data that is readily available during regular engine tests. The model has been applied to a 2.4L, 4-cylinder, 16 valve, DOHC, multipoint-port-fuel-injection spark ignition gasoline engine. The model determines the amount of fuel vaporized in the intake port at any crank angle degree, and in the cylinder on cycle-by-cycle basis, during the cold start process.
Technical Paper

An Analysis of Regulated and Unregulated Emissions in an HSDI Diesel Engine under the LTC Regime

2007-04-16
2007-01-0905
Several mechanisms are discussed to understand the formation of both regulated and unregulated emissions in a high speed, direct injection, single cylinder diesel engine using low sulphur diesel fuel. Experiments were conducted over a wide range of injection pressures, EGR rates, injection timings and swirl ratios. The regulated emissions were measured by the standard emission equipment. Unregulated emissions such as aldehydes and ketones were measured by high pressure liquid chromatography and hydrocarbon speciation by gas chromatography. Particulate mass was measured with a Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance (TEOM). Analysis was made of the sources of different emission species and their relationship with the combustion process under the different operating conditions. Special attention is given to the low temperature combustion (LTC) regime which is known to reduce both NOx and soot. However the HC, CO and unregulated emissions increased at a higher rate.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of a Common Rail Diesel Injection System under Pilot and Post Injection Modes

2002-03-04
2002-01-0218
Experiments were conducted to investigate the characteristics of a common rail fuel injection system using a flow rate test rig and a single cylinder research diesel engine. Experiments covered speeds and loads typical to engine conditions under Hybrid Electric Vehicle operation. Different injection modes were investigated including main injection, main-post injection and pilot-main injection. The analysis indicated that the common rail fuel pressure affects all the injection parameters including the start of fuel delivery, its duration and amount under all modes of injection. Also, the pressure waves produced in the system have an impact on the operation of the nozzle-needle and fuel delivery particularly in the main-post injection mode.
Technical Paper

Contribution of Cold and Hot Start Transients in Engine-out HC Emissions

1998-10-19
982645
Engine-out HC emissions were investigated during cold and hot starts. The tests were conducted at room temperature, on a new Chrysler 2.4-L, 4-cylinder, 16-valve, DOHC, multipoint-port-fuel-injection gasoline engine. Real time engine-out HC emissions were measured using Cambustion Fast Response Flame Ionization Detector (FRFID). Sources of unburned hydrocarbon emissions were discussed in details. Unburned hydrocarbons emitted during the cold-start were much higher than the hot-start. Cylinder-to-cylinder variation was investigated. A fuel inventory program was used to characterize total injected fuel, burned fuel, unburned HC, and fuel unaccounted for (mainly accumulated fuel in the engine system and CO). A fuel interrupt test was run to examine the possibility of burning the leftover fuel after the fuel shut-off. The contribution of the cold and hot start modes in engine-out HC emissions was determined.
Technical Paper

Correlation between Physical Properties and Autoignition Parameters of Alternate Fuels

1985-02-01
850266
The correlations between the physical properties and autoignition parameters of several alternate fuels have been examined. The fuels are DF-2 and its blends with petroleum derived fuels, coal derived fuels, shale derived fuels, high aromatic naphtha sun-flower oils, methanol and ethanol. A total of eighteen existing correlations are discussed. An emphasis is made on the suitability of each of the correlations for the development of electronic controls for diesel engines when run on alternate fuels. A new correlation has been developed between the cetane number of the fuels and its kinematic viscosity and specific gravity.
Technical Paper

Determination of the Gas-Pressure Torque of a Multicylinder Engine from Measurements of the Crankshaft's Speed Variation

1998-02-23
980164
The local variation of the crankshaft's speed in a multicylinder engine is determined by the resultant gas-pressure torque and the torsional deformation of the crankshaft. Under steady-state operation, the crankshaft's speed has a quasi-periodic variation and its harmonic components may be obtained by a Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT). Based on a lumped-mass model of the shafting, correlations are established between the harmonic components of the speed variation and the corresponding components of the engine torque. These correlations are used to calculate the gas-pressure torque or the indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) from measurements of the crankshaft's speed.
Technical Paper

Diesel Engine Cold Starting: Combustion Instability

1992-02-01
920005
Combustion instability is investigated during the cold starting of a single cylinder, direct injection, 4-stroke-cycle, air-cooled diesel engine. The experiments covered fuels of different properties at different ambient air temperatures and injection timings. The analysis showed that the pattern of misfiring (skipping) is not random but repeatable. The engine may skip once (8-stroke-cycle operation) or twice (12-stroke-cycle operation) or more times. The engine may shift from one mode of operation to another and finally run steadily on the 4-stroke cycle. All the fuels tested produced this type of operation at different degrees. The reasons for the combustion instability were analyzed and found to be related to speed, residual gas temperature and composition, accumulated fuel and ambient air temperature.
Technical Paper

Diesel Engine Diagnosis Based on Analysis of the Crankshaft's Speed Variation

1998-10-19
982540
The variation of the crankshaft's speed is influenced by the action of the cylinders and shall reflect the contribution of each cylinder to the total engine output. At the same time, the speed variation is influenced by the torsional stiffness of the cranks, the mass moments of inertia of the reciprocating mechanisms and the average speed and load of the engine. As the result, the variation of angular motion of the crankshaft is complex, each particular influence changing its importance as speed and load are modified. The diagnostic method presented in the paper is based on the analysis of the amplitudes and phases of the lowest harmonic orders of the measured speed and is capable to determine the average Indicated Mean Effective Pressure (IMEP), to detect nonuniformities in cylinder operation and to identify the faulty cylinder(s).
Technical Paper

Dynamics of Multiple-Injection Fuel Sprays in a Small-bore HSDI Diesel Engine

2000-03-06
2000-01-1256
An experimental study was conducted to characterize the dynamics and spray behavior of a wide range of minisac and Valve-Covered-Orifice (VCO) nozzles using a high-pressure diesel common-rail system. The measurements show that the resultant injection-rate is strongly dependent on common-rail pressure, nozzle hole diameter, and nozzle type. For split injection the dwell between injections strongly affects the second injection in regards to the needle lift profile and the injected fuel amount. The minisac nozzle can be used to achieve shorter pilot injections at lower common-rail pressures than the VCO nozzle. Penetration photographs of spray development in a high pressure, optical spray chamber were obtained and analyzed for each test condition. Spray symmetry and spray structure were found to depend significantly on the nozzle type.
Technical Paper

Effect of Cetane Number with and without Additive on Cold Startability and White Smoke Emissions in a Diesel Engine

1999-05-03
1999-01-1476
I The effect of Cetane Number (CN) of the fuel and the addition of cetane improvers on the cold starting and white smoke emissions of a diesel engine was investigated. Tests were conducted on a single-cylinder, four-stroke-cycle, air-cooled, direct-injection, stand-alone diesel engine in a cold room at ambient temperatures ranging from 25 °C to - 5 °C. Five fuels were used. The base fuel has a CN of 49.2. The CN of the base fuel was lowered to 38.7 and 30.8 by adding different amounts of aromatic hydrocarbons. Iso-octyl nitrate is added to the high aromatic fuels in order to increase their CN to 48.6 and 38.9 respectively. Comparisons are made between the five fuels to determine the effect of CN and the additive on cylinder peak pressure, heat release rate, cold start-ability, combustion instability, hydrocarbon emissions and solid and liquid particulates.
Technical Paper

Effect of Cycle-to-Cycle Variation in the Injection Pressure in a Common Rail Diesel Injection System on Engine Performance

2003-03-03
2003-01-0699
The performance of the Common Rail diesel injection system (CRS) is investigated experimentally in a single cylinder engine and a test rig to determine the cycle-to-cycle variation in the injection pressure and its effects on the needle opening and rate of fuel delivery. The engine used is a single cylinder, simulated-turbocharged diesel engine. Data for the different injection and performance parameters are collected under steady state conditions for 35 consecutive cycles. Furthermore, a mathematical model has been developed to calculate the instantaneous fuel delivery rate at various injection pressures. The experimental results supported with the model computations indicated the presence of cycle-to-cycle variations in the fuel injection pressure and needle lift. The variations in the peak-cylinder gas pressure, rate of heat release, cylinder gas temperature and IMEP are correlated with the variation in the injection rate.
Technical Paper

Effect of Load and Other Parameters on Instantaneous Friction Torque in Reciprocating Engines

1991-02-01
910752
The effect of many operating parameters on the instantaneous frictional (IFT) torque was determined experimentally in a single cylinder diesel engine. The method used was the (P - ω)method developed earlier at Wayne State University. The operating parameters were load, lubricating oil grade, oil, temperature and engine speed. Also IFT was determined under simulated motoring conditions, commonly used in engine friction measurements. The results showed that the motoring frictional torque does not represent that under firing conditions even under no load. The error reached 31.4% at full load. The integrated frictional torque over the whole cycle and the average frictional torque were determined. A comparison of the average frictional torque under load was compared with the average motoring torque.
Technical Paper

Effect of Nozzle hole Geometry on a HSDI Diesel Engine-Out Emissions

2003-03-03
2003-01-0704
The combustion and emission characteristics of a high speed, small-bore, direct injection, single cylinder, diesel engine are investigated using two different nozzles, a 430-VCO (0.171mm) and a 320 Mini sac (0.131mm). The experiments were conducted at conditions that represent a key point in the operation of a diesel engine in an electric hybrid vehicle (1500 rpm and light load condition). The experiments covered fuel injection pressures ranging from 400 to 1000 bar and EGR ratios ranging from 0 to 50%. The effects of nozzle hole geometry on the ignition delay (ID), apparent rate of energy release (ARER, ARHR), NOx, Bosch smoke unit (BSU), CO and hydrocarbons are investigated.
Technical Paper

Emissions Trade-Off and Combustion Characteristics of a High-Speed Direct Injection Diesel Engine

2001-03-05
2001-01-0197
The emissions trade-off and combustion characteristics of a high speed, small-bore, direct injection, single cylinder, diesel engine are investigated at three different load conditions. The experiments covered a wide range of parameters including the injection pressure, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rate and swirl ratio (Sw). The effects of each parameter on the ignition delay (ID), apparent rate of energy release (ARER), NOx, Bosch smoke unit (BSU), CO and hydrocarbons are investigated. The results show that the NOx emission dropped continuously with the increase in EGR (up to 55%), but with increasing smoke emission in a classical trade-off relationship. The increase in injection pressure generally reduced smoke with NOx penalty; however, the NOx penalty decreased at higher EGR. There also appears to be an increase in the cool flame intensity at the high EGR rates. Applying swirl at high EGR rate and high injection pressure conditions further reduced smoke emissions.
Technical Paper

Engine Friction Model for Transient Operation of Turbocharged, Common Rail Diesel Engines

2007-04-16
2007-01-1460
The simulation of I.C. Engines operation, especially during transients, requires a fairly accurate estimation of the internal mechanical losses of the engine. The paper presents generic friction models for the main friction components of the engine (piston-ring-liner assembly, bearings and valve train), considering geometry of the engine parts and peculiarities of the corresponding lubrication processes. Separate models for the mechanical losses introduced by the injection system, oil and water pumps are also developed. All models are implemented as SIMULINK modules in a complex engine simulation code developed in SIMULINK and capable to simulate both steady state and transient operating conditions. Validation is achieved by comparison with measurements made on a four cylinder, common rail diesel engine, on a test bench capable to run controlled transients.
Technical Paper

Experimental Analysis of Dynamics and Friction in Valve Train Systems

2002-03-04
2002-01-0484
The paper analyses the friction in the valve train of an internal combustion engine trying to separate the contribution of the different components to the total friction losses in the valve train. The measurements are performed on a running engine in order to avoid extraneous factors introduced by simulating rigs. The experimental engine is instrumented with strain gauge bridges on the rocker arm, the push rod and the camshaft to measure forces and moments acting on these components. Original techniques are developed to isolate and determine the friction forces between the valve stem and its guide, the friction force in the rocker arm bearing and the combined friction between cam/tappet and tappet/bore. It was found that the friction in the rocker arm bearing never reaches hydrodynamic conditions and that the friction coefficient between cam and tappet reduces with an increase in the engine speed.
Journal Article

Impact of A/F Ratio on Ion Current Features Using Spark Plug with Negative Polarity

2008-04-14
2008-01-1005
The increasing interest and requirement for improved electronic engine control during the last few decades, has led to the implementation of several different sensor technologies. The process of utilizing the spark plug as a combustion probe to monitor the different combustion related parameters such as knock, misfire, Ignition timing, and air-fuel ratio have been the subject of research for some time now. The air-fuel ratio is one of the most important engine operating parameters that has an impact on the combustion process, engine-out emissions, fuel economy, indicated mean effective pressure and exhaust gas composition and temperature. Furthermore, air-fuel ratio affects the ion produced during flame kernel initiation and post flame propagation. In this paper, an investigation is made to determine the effect of air-fuel ratio on ion current, using gasoline and methane under different spark plug designs and engine operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Diesel Spray Primary Break-up and Development for Different Nozzle Geometries

2002-10-21
2002-01-2775
The nozzle configuration for an injector is known to have an important effect on the fuel atomization. A comprehensive experimental and numerical investigation has been performed to determine the influence of various internal geometries on the primary spray breakup and development using the electronically controlled high-pressure diesel injection systems. Different types of multi-hole minisac and VCO nozzles with cylindrical and tapered geometries, and different types of single-hole nozzles with defined grades of Hydro Grinding (HG) were investigated. The global characteristics of the spray, including spray angle, spray tip penetration and spray pattern were measured from the spray images with a high-speed drum camera. A long-distance microscope with a pulsed-laser as the optical shutter was used to magnify the diesel spray at the nozzle hole vicinity. A CFD analysis of the internal flow through various nozzle geometries has been carried out with a commercial code.
Technical Paper

Ion Current in a Spark Ignition Engine using Negative Polarity on Center Electrode

2007-04-16
2007-01-0646
Most of the previous research on flame ionization in spark ignition engines applied positive polarity on the spark plug center electrode, referred to as positively biased probe. In this paper an investigation is made to determine the characteristics of the ion current signal with negatively biased probe. The factors that contribute to the second ion current peak, reported to be missing with negative polarity, are investigated. Experiments were conducted on a research single-cylinder, spark ignition engine and the negative polarity is applied by a SmartFire Plasma Ignition system. The effect of different spark plug designs and engine operating parameters on the amplitude and timing of each of the two ion current peaks is determined. The results indicated that, with negative polarity, the cathode area is one of the main factors that contribute to the amplitude of the ion current signal, particularly the second peak.
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