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Technical Paper

Dynamics of Multiple-Injection Fuel Sprays in a Small-bore HSDI Diesel Engine

An experimental study was conducted to characterize the dynamics and spray behavior of a wide range of minisac and Valve-Covered-Orifice (VCO) nozzles using a high-pressure diesel common-rail system. The measurements show that the resultant injection-rate is strongly dependent on common-rail pressure, nozzle hole diameter, and nozzle type. For split injection the dwell between injections strongly affects the second injection in regards to the needle lift profile and the injected fuel amount. The minisac nozzle can be used to achieve shorter pilot injections at lower common-rail pressures than the VCO nozzle. Penetration photographs of spray development in a high pressure, optical spray chamber were obtained and analyzed for each test condition. Spray symmetry and spray structure were found to depend significantly on the nozzle type.
Technical Paper

Effect of Load and Other Parameters on Instantaneous Friction Torque in Reciprocating Engines

The effect of many operating parameters on the instantaneous frictional (IFT) torque was determined experimentally in a single cylinder diesel engine. The method used was the (P - ω)method developed earlier at Wayne State University. The operating parameters were load, lubricating oil grade, oil, temperature and engine speed. Also IFT was determined under simulated motoring conditions, commonly used in engine friction measurements. The results showed that the motoring frictional torque does not represent that under firing conditions even under no load. The error reached 31.4% at full load. The integrated frictional torque over the whole cycle and the average frictional torque were determined. A comparison of the average frictional torque under load was compared with the average motoring torque.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Diesel Spray Primary Break-up and Development for Different Nozzle Geometries

The nozzle configuration for an injector is known to have an important effect on the fuel atomization. A comprehensive experimental and numerical investigation has been performed to determine the influence of various internal geometries on the primary spray breakup and development using the electronically controlled high-pressure diesel injection systems. Different types of multi-hole minisac and VCO nozzles with cylindrical and tapered geometries, and different types of single-hole nozzles with defined grades of Hydro Grinding (HG) were investigated. The global characteristics of the spray, including spray angle, spray tip penetration and spray pattern were measured from the spray images with a high-speed drum camera. A long-distance microscope with a pulsed-laser as the optical shutter was used to magnify the diesel spray at the nozzle hole vicinity. A CFD analysis of the internal flow through various nozzle geometries has been carried out with a commercial code.