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Technical Paper

An Analysis of Regulated and Unregulated Emissions in an HSDI Diesel Engine under the LTC Regime

Several mechanisms are discussed to understand the formation of both regulated and unregulated emissions in a high speed, direct injection, single cylinder diesel engine using low sulphur diesel fuel. Experiments were conducted over a wide range of injection pressures, EGR rates, injection timings and swirl ratios. The regulated emissions were measured by the standard emission equipment. Unregulated emissions such as aldehydes and ketones were measured by high pressure liquid chromatography and hydrocarbon speciation by gas chromatography. Particulate mass was measured with a Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance (TEOM). Analysis was made of the sources of different emission species and their relationship with the combustion process under the different operating conditions. Special attention is given to the low temperature combustion (LTC) regime which is known to reduce both NOx and soot. However the HC, CO and unregulated emissions increased at a higher rate.
Technical Paper

Contribution of Cold and Hot Start Transients in Engine-out HC Emissions

Engine-out HC emissions were investigated during cold and hot starts. The tests were conducted at room temperature, on a new Chrysler 2.4-L, 4-cylinder, 16-valve, DOHC, multipoint-port-fuel-injection gasoline engine. Real time engine-out HC emissions were measured using Cambustion Fast Response Flame Ionization Detector (FRFID). Sources of unburned hydrocarbon emissions were discussed in details. Unburned hydrocarbons emitted during the cold-start were much higher than the hot-start. Cylinder-to-cylinder variation was investigated. A fuel inventory program was used to characterize total injected fuel, burned fuel, unburned HC, and fuel unaccounted for (mainly accumulated fuel in the engine system and CO). A fuel interrupt test was run to examine the possibility of burning the leftover fuel after the fuel shut-off. The contribution of the cold and hot start modes in engine-out HC emissions was determined.
Technical Paper

Correlation between Physical Properties and Autoignition Parameters of Alternate Fuels

The correlations between the physical properties and autoignition parameters of several alternate fuels have been examined. The fuels are DF-2 and its blends with petroleum derived fuels, coal derived fuels, shale derived fuels, high aromatic naphtha sun-flower oils, methanol and ethanol. A total of eighteen existing correlations are discussed. An emphasis is made on the suitability of each of the correlations for the development of electronic controls for diesel engines when run on alternate fuels. A new correlation has been developed between the cetane number of the fuels and its kinematic viscosity and specific gravity.
Technical Paper

Effect of Cetane Number with and without Additive on Cold Startability and White Smoke Emissions in a Diesel Engine

I The effect of Cetane Number (CN) of the fuel and the addition of cetane improvers on the cold starting and white smoke emissions of a diesel engine was investigated. Tests were conducted on a single-cylinder, four-stroke-cycle, air-cooled, direct-injection, stand-alone diesel engine in a cold room at ambient temperatures ranging from 25 °C to - 5 °C. Five fuels were used. The base fuel has a CN of 49.2. The CN of the base fuel was lowered to 38.7 and 30.8 by adding different amounts of aromatic hydrocarbons. Iso-octyl nitrate is added to the high aromatic fuels in order to increase their CN to 48.6 and 38.9 respectively. Comparisons are made between the five fuels to determine the effect of CN and the additive on cylinder peak pressure, heat release rate, cold start-ability, combustion instability, hydrocarbon emissions and solid and liquid particulates.
Technical Paper

Effect of Load and Other Parameters on Instantaneous Friction Torque in Reciprocating Engines

The effect of many operating parameters on the instantaneous frictional (IFT) torque was determined experimentally in a single cylinder diesel engine. The method used was the (P - ω)method developed earlier at Wayne State University. The operating parameters were load, lubricating oil grade, oil, temperature and engine speed. Also IFT was determined under simulated motoring conditions, commonly used in engine friction measurements. The results showed that the motoring frictional torque does not represent that under firing conditions even under no load. The error reached 31.4% at full load. The integrated frictional torque over the whole cycle and the average frictional torque were determined. A comparison of the average frictional torque under load was compared with the average motoring torque.
Technical Paper

Emissions Trade-Off and Combustion Characteristics of a High-Speed Direct Injection Diesel Engine

The emissions trade-off and combustion characteristics of a high speed, small-bore, direct injection, single cylinder, diesel engine are investigated at three different load conditions. The experiments covered a wide range of parameters including the injection pressure, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rate and swirl ratio (Sw). The effects of each parameter on the ignition delay (ID), apparent rate of energy release (ARER), NOx, Bosch smoke unit (BSU), CO and hydrocarbons are investigated. The results show that the NOx emission dropped continuously with the increase in EGR (up to 55%), but with increasing smoke emission in a classical trade-off relationship. The increase in injection pressure generally reduced smoke with NOx penalty; however, the NOx penalty decreased at higher EGR. There also appears to be an increase in the cool flame intensity at the high EGR rates. Applying swirl at high EGR rate and high injection pressure conditions further reduced smoke emissions.
Journal Article

Impact of A/F Ratio on Ion Current Features Using Spark Plug with Negative Polarity

The increasing interest and requirement for improved electronic engine control during the last few decades, has led to the implementation of several different sensor technologies. The process of utilizing the spark plug as a combustion probe to monitor the different combustion related parameters such as knock, misfire, Ignition timing, and air-fuel ratio have been the subject of research for some time now. The air-fuel ratio is one of the most important engine operating parameters that has an impact on the combustion process, engine-out emissions, fuel economy, indicated mean effective pressure and exhaust gas composition and temperature. Furthermore, air-fuel ratio affects the ion produced during flame kernel initiation and post flame propagation. In this paper, an investigation is made to determine the effect of air-fuel ratio on ion current, using gasoline and methane under different spark plug designs and engine operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Diesel Spray Primary Break-up and Development for Different Nozzle Geometries

The nozzle configuration for an injector is known to have an important effect on the fuel atomization. A comprehensive experimental and numerical investigation has been performed to determine the influence of various internal geometries on the primary spray breakup and development using the electronically controlled high-pressure diesel injection systems. Different types of multi-hole minisac and VCO nozzles with cylindrical and tapered geometries, and different types of single-hole nozzles with defined grades of Hydro Grinding (HG) were investigated. The global characteristics of the spray, including spray angle, spray tip penetration and spray pattern were measured from the spray images with a high-speed drum camera. A long-distance microscope with a pulsed-laser as the optical shutter was used to magnify the diesel spray at the nozzle hole vicinity. A CFD analysis of the internal flow through various nozzle geometries has been carried out with a commercial code.
Journal Article

Particulate Matter Characterization Studies in an HSDI Diesel Engine under Conventional and LTC Regime

Several mechanisms are discussed to understand the particulate matter (PM) characterization in a high speed, direct injection, single cylinder diesel engine using low sulfur diesel fuel. This includes their formation, size distribution and number density. Experiments were conducted over a wide range of injection pressures, EGR rates, injection timings and swirl ratios, therefore covering both conventional and low temperature combustion regimes. A micro dilution tunnel was used to immediately dilute a small part of the exhaust gases by hot air. A Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) was used to measure the particulate size distribution and number density. Particulate mass was measured with a Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance (TEOM). Analysis was made of the root cause of PM characterization and their relationship with the combustion process under different operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Smart Plug for Combustion Control in Gasoline Engines and Misfiring and Knock Detection

A new generation of spark plugs has been developed to produce an ion current signal needed for the control of the combustion process and achieve the production goals of reduced emissions, and improved engine performance and fuel economy. A unique feature of the smart plug is its ability to develop a complete ion current signal and accurately identify the start of combustion. This is not the case for the conventional spark plug where the start of combustion cannot be determined from the ion current signal because its early part is completely overshadowed by the strong electromagnetic field produced by the spark ignition system. The paper describes the construction of the smart plug and compares between its ion current signal and that produced by the conventional spark plug. In addition, a comparison is made between the smart plug and the pressure transducer in the detection of misfire and engine knock.  
Technical Paper

“OPERAS” In Advanced Diesel Engines for Commercial and Military Applications

Advanced diesel engines developed for the commercial market need to be adapted to the military requirements by OPERAS (Optimizing the injection pressure P, the Exhaust gas recirculation E, injection events Retard and/or Advance and the swirl ratio S). The different after treatment devices, already used or expected to be applied to diesel engines, require feed gases of appropriate properties for their efficient operation. To produce these gases some OPERAS are needed to control the diesel combustion process. Since military vehicles do not need the after treatment devices, the OPERAS of the commercial engines should be modified to meet the military requirements for high power density, better fuel economy, reduction of parasitic losses caused by the cooled EGR system, and reduction of invisible black and white smoke in the field.