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Technical Paper

A New Experimental Technique for Friction Simulation in Automotive Piston Ring and Cylinder Liners

A new friction testing system has been designed and built to simulate the actual engine conditions in friction and wear test of piston-ring and cylinder liner assembly. Experimental data has been developed as Friction Coefficient / Crank Angle Degree diagrams including the effects of running speed (500 and 700 rpm) and ring normal load. Surface roughness profilocorder traces were obtained for tested samples. Mixed lubrication regime observed in the most part of the test range. New cylinder bore materials and lubricants can be screened easily and more reliable simulated engine friction data can be collected using this technique.
Journal Article

Buckling Analysis of Uncertain Structures Using Imprecise Probability

In order to ensure the safety of a structure, adequate strength for structural elements must be provided. Moreover, catastrophic deformations such as buckling must be prevented. Using the linear finite element method, deterministic buckling analysis is completed in two main steps. First, a static analysis is performed using an arbitrary ordinate applied loading pattern. Using the obtained element axial forces, the geometric stiffness of the structure is assembled. Second, an eigenvalue problem is performed between structure's elastic and geometric stiffness matrices, yielding the structure's critical buckling loads. However, these deterministic approaches do not consider uncertainty the structure's material and geometric properties. In this work, a new method for finite element based buckling analysis of a structure with uncertainty is developed. An imprecise probability formulation is used to quantify the uncertainty present in the mechanical characteristics of the structure.
Technical Paper

Clean and Cost-effective Dry Boundary Lubricants for Aluminum Forming

Preliminary research in our laboratory has demonstrated that boric acid is an effective lubricant with an unusual capacity to reduce the sliding friction (providing friction coefficients as low as 0.02) and wear of metallic and ceramic materials. More recent studies have revealed that water or methanol solutions of boric acid can be used to prepare strongly bonded layers of boric acid on aluminum surfaces. It appears that boric acid molecules have a strong tendency to bond chemically to the naturally oxidized surfaces of aluminum and its alloys and to make these surfaces very slippery. Recent metal-formability tests indicated that the boric acid films applied to aluminum surfaces worked quite well, improving draw scale performance by 58 to 75%.
Technical Paper

Crack Failure Mode Analysis for Cam-Housing Rocker Arm and Pin

During the extensive testing under NATO and Commercial Standards, crack is observed in camshaft housing to initiate from the eccentric shaft bore and go toward the hold down bolt hole. Hence lab test proposal is originated to induce similar failure in a controlled method and then to compare new design alternatives. CAE analysis follows the same set up as the lab test to duplicate failure mode in stress analysis and fatigue analysis with duty cycle loads, and then figures out two strategies on how to improve the design, including geometry change and material change. In geometry wise, four new design iterations are evaluated for comparison. In material wise, one new material for camshaft housing and five manufacturing effect parameters for pin and rocker arm are compared, including ground, machined, machined and decarburization, casting, as well as casting and nitride. With those comparisons, all manufacturing parameters are compared based on effectiveness to affect the fatigue life.
Technical Paper

Development Of A Practical Multi-disciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) Algorithm For Vehicle Body Design

The present work is concerned with the objective of developing a process for practical multi-disciplinary design optimization (MDO). The main goal adopted here is to minimize the weight of a vehicle body structure meeting NVH (Noise, Vibration and Harshness), durability, and crash safety targets. Initially, for simplicity a square tube is taken for the study. The design variables considered in the study are width, thickness and yield strength of the tube. Using the Response Surface Method (RSM) and the Design Of Experiments (DOE) technique, second order polynomial response surfaces are generated for prediction of the structural performance parameters such as lowest modal frequency, fatigue life, and peak deceleration value. The optimum solution is then obtained by using traditional gradient-based search algorithm functionality “fmincon” in commercial Matlab package.
Technical Paper

Door Slam CAE Method Investigation

Nowadays, as an irreplaceable means alongside CAD and testing, CAE is more and more widely applied with advanced material modeling and simulation methods continuously being explored, so as to get more accurate result as testing. In vehicle product development process, door slam durability evaluation is an important measurement for body closure structure. So far numerous effort has been taken to develop more mature methods to well define door slam simulation in stress and fatigue life analysis. Overall all methods ever being applied can be summarized as two categories, linear stress based method and nonlinear stress based method. The methodologies, such as inertia relief method, direct transient response solution, or local strain approach, can be included in linear stress based method with linear material properties as symbol in CAE model. In local strain approach, contact surface could be defined in the necessary area with consideration for more realistic load transfer.
Journal Article

Durability Study of a High Pressure Common Rail Fuel Injection System Using Lubricity Additive Dosed Gasoline-Like Fuel - Additional Cycle Runtime and Teardown Analysis

This study is a continuation of previous work assessing the robustness of a Cummins XPI common rail injection system operating with gasoline-like fuel. All the hardware from the original study was retained except for the high pressure pump head and check valves which were replaced due to cavitation damage. An additional 400 hour NATO cycle was run on the refurbished fuel system to achieve a total exposure time of 800 hours and detect any other significant failure modes. As in the initial investigation, fuel system parameters including pressures, temperatures and flow rates were logged on a test bench to monitor performance over time. Fuel and lubricant samples were taken every 50 hours to assess fuel consistency, metallic wear, and interaction between fuel and oil. High fidelity driving torque and flow measurements were made to compare overall system performance when operating with both diesel and light distillate fuel.
Technical Paper

Effect of Soot Loading on the Thermal Characteristics of Diesel Engine Oils

When compared with new oil, used diesel engine oils exhibited thermal conductivity that increases as the concentration of soot increases. The magnitude of the effect depends on the oil composition, and on the size and dispersion of the soot particles. Although soot in engine oil is generally deleterious to engine performance from the standpoint of wear and deposits, no negative effects were observed on the thermal performance of the oil itself; indeed, even slight positive effects are expected for oils that maintain soot in stable dispersion. Therefore, the thermal challenge for engine oils in diesel engines that use exhaust gas recirculation will be to prevent soot deposition on engine surfaces.
Technical Paper

Effects of Sinusoidal Whole Body Vibration Frequency on Drivers' Muscle Responses

Low back pain has a higher prevalence among drivers who have long term history of vehicle operations. Vehicle vibration has been considered to contribute to the onset of low back pain. However, the fundamental mechanism that relates vibration to low back pain is still not clear. Little is known about the relationship between vibration exposure, the biomechanical response, and the physiological responses of the seated human. The aim of this study was to determine the vibration frequency that causes the increase of muscle activity that can lead to muscle fatigue and low back pain. This study investigated the effects of various vibration frequencies on the lumbar and thoracic paraspinal muscle responses among 11 seated volunteers exposed to sinusoidal whole body vibration varying from 4Hz to 30Hz at 0.4 g of acceleration. The accelerations of the seat and the pelvis were recorded during various frequency of vibrations. Muscle activity was measured using electromyography (EMG).
Technical Paper

Engine Friction and Wear Performances with Polyalkylene Glycol Engine Oils

The application of polyalkylene glycol (PAG) as a base stock for engine oil formulation has been explored for substantial fuel economy gain over traditional formulations with mineral oils. Various PAG chemistries were explored depending on feed stock material used for manufacturing. All formulations except one have the same additive package. The friction performance of these oils was evaluated in a motored single cylinder engine with current production engine hardware in the temperature range 40°C-120°C and in the speed range of 500 RPM-2500 RPM. PAG formulations showed up to 50% friction reduction over GF-5 SAE 5W-20 oil depending on temperature, speed, and oil chemistry. Friction evaluation in a motored I-4 engine showed up to 11% friction reduction in the temperature range 40°C-100°C over GF-5 oil. The paper will share results on ASTM Sequence VID fuel economy, Sequence IVA wear, and Sequence VG sludge and varnish tests. Chassis roll fuel economy data will also be shared.
Technical Paper

FD&E Total Life T-Sample Residual Stress Analytical Predictions and Measured Results

The Society of Automotive Engineers Fatigue Design & Evaluation Committee [SAE FD&E] is actively working on a total life project for weldments, in which the welding residual stress is a key contributor to an accurate assessment of fatigue life. Physics-based welding process simulation and various types of residual stress measurements were pursued to provide a representation of the residual stress field at the failure location in the fatigue samples. A well-controlled and documented robotic welding process was used for all sample fabrications to provide accurate inputs for the welding simulations. One destructive (contour method) residual stress measurement and several non-destructive residual stress measurements-surface X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray diffraction (EDXRD), and neutron diffraction (ND)-were performed on the same or similarly welded samples.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Resistance of Short Fiber-Reinforced TiNi/Al6061-SiC Composite

The short NiTi fiber-reinforced NiTi/Al6061-SiC composite was recently developed through the U.S. Army SBIR Phase-II program [1]. The objectives of this project are to use short NiTi fiber reinforcement to induce compressive stress through shape memory effect, to use silicon carbide (SiC) particulate reinforcement to enhance the mechanical properties of the aluminum matrix, to gain fundamental knowledge of short NiTi fiber-reinforced aluminum matrix composite, and eventually to improve fatigue resistance, impact damage tolerance and fracture toughness of the composite. The fatigue life, damage and fracture behavior of TiNi/Al6061-SiC, TiNi/Al6061, Al6061-SiC composites as well as monolithic Al6061 alloy were investigated under fully reversed cyclic loading. It was found that fatigue life of NiTi/Al6061-SiC composite, in term of the cycles, increased by two orders of magnitude, compared to monolithic Al6061 alloy
Technical Paper

Low-Friction Coatings for Air Bearings in Fuel Cell Air Compressors

In an effort to reduce fuel consumption and emissions, hybrid vehicles incorporating fuel cell systems are being developed by automotive manufacturers, their suppliers, federal agencies (specifically, the U.S. Department of Energy) and national laboratories. The fuel cell system will require an air management subsystem that includes a compressor/expander. Certain components in the compressor will require innovative lubrication technology in order to reduce parasitic energy losses and improve their reliability and durability. One such component is the air bearing for air turbocompressors designed and fabricated by Meruit, Inc. Argonne National Laboratory recently developed a carbon-based coating with low friction and wear attributes; this near-frictionless-carbon (NFC) coating is a potential candidate for use in turbocompressor air bearings. We presents here an evaluation of the Argonne coating for air compressor thrust bearings.
Technical Paper

Nanofluids for Vehicle Thermal Management

Applying nanotechnology to thermal engineering, ANL has addressed the interesting and timely topic of nanofluids. We have developed methods for producing both oxide and metal nanofluids, studied their thermal conductivity, and obtained promising results: (1) Stable suspensions of nanoparticles can be achieved. (2) Nanofluids have significantly higher thermal conductivities than their base liquids. (3) Measured thermal conductivities of nanofluids are much greater than predicted. For these reasons, nanofluids show promise for improving the design and performance of vehicle thermal management systems. However, critical barriers to further development and application of nanofluid technology are agglomeration of nanoparticles and oxidation of metallic nanoparticles. Therefore, methods to prevent particle agglomeration and degradation are required.
Technical Paper

Nanoparticle-enhanced Heat Transfer Fluids for Spacecraft Thermal Control Systems

The addition of metal nanoparticles to standard coolant fluids dramatically increases the thermal conductivity of the liquid. The properties of the prepared nanofluids will allow for lighter, smaller, and higher efficiency spacecraft thermal control systems to be developed. Nanofluids with spherical or rod-shaped metal nanoparticles were investigated. At a volume concentration of 0.5%, the room temperature thermal conductivity of a 2 nm spherical gold nanoparticle-water solution was increased by more than 10% over water alone. Silver nanorods increased the thermal conductivity of ethylene glycol by 53% and water by 26%.
Technical Paper

Near-Frictionless Carbon Coatings for Use in Fuel Injectors and Pump Systems Operating with Low-Sulfur Diesel Fuels

While sulfur in diesel fuels helps reduce friction and prevents wear and galling in fuel pump and injector systems, it also creates environmental pollution in the form of hazardous particulates and SO2 emissions. The environmental concern is the driving force behind industry's efforts to come up with new alternative approaches to this problem. One such approach is to replace sulfur in diesel fuels with other chemicals that would maintain the antifriction and antiwear properties provided by sulfur in diesel fuels while at the same time reducing particulate emissions. A second alternative might be to surface-treat fuel injection parts (i.e., nitriding, carburizing, or coating the surfaces) to reduce or eliminate failures associated with the use of low-sulfur diesel fuels. Our research explores the potential usefulness of a near-frictionless carbon (NFC) film developed at Argonne National Laboratory in alleviating the aforementioned problems.
Technical Paper

One-Dimensional Modelling and Analysis of Thermal Barrier Coatings for Reduction of Cooling Loads in Military Vehicles

There is a general interest in the reduction of cooling loads in military vehicles. To that end thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are being studied for their potential as insulators, particularly for military engines. The effectiveness of TBCs is largely dependent on their thermal properties, however insulating effects can also be modified by applying different coating thickness. Convection from in-cylinder surfaces can also be affected by manipulation of surface structure. Although most prior studies have examined TBCs as a means of increasing efficiency, military vehicle design is primarily concerned with the reduction of cylinder heat transfer to allow downsizing of cooling systems. A 1-D transient conjugate heat transfer model was developed to provide insight into the effects of different TBC designs and material selection on cooling loads. Results identify low thermal conductivity and low thermal capacitance as key parameters in achieving optimal heat loss reduction.
Journal Article

Recent Developments in X-ray Diagnostics for Cavitation

Cavitation plays an important role in fuel injection systems. It alters the nozzle's internal flow structure and discharge coefficient, and also contributes to injector wear. Quantitatively measuring and mapping the cavitation vapor distribution in a fuel injector is difficult, as cavitation occurs on very short time and length scales. Optical measurements of transparent model nozzles can indicate the morphology of large-scale cavitation, but are generally limited by the substantial amount of scattering that occurs between vapor and liquid phases. These limitations can be overcome with x-ray diagnostics, as x-rays refract, scatter and absorb much more weakly from phase interfaces. Here, we present an overview of some recent developments in quantitative x-ray diagnostics for cavitating flows. Measurements were conducted at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory, using a submerged plastic test nozzle.
Technical Paper

Use of Truncated Finite Element Modeling for Efficient Design Optimization of an Automotive Front End Structure

The present work is concerned with the objective of multi disciplinary design optimization (MDO) of an automotive front end structure using truncated finite element model. A truncated finite element model of a real world vehicle is developed and its efficacy for use in design optimization is demonstrated. The main goal adopted here is minimizing the weight of the front end structure meeting NVH, durability and crash safety targets. Using the Response Surface Method (RSM) and the Design Of Experiments (DOE) technique, second order polynomial response surfaces are generated for prediction of the structural performance parameters such as lowest modal frequency, fatigue life, and peak deceleration value.