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Technical Paper

Advancement and Validation of a Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Plant Model

The objective of the research into modeling and simulation was to provide an improvement to the Wayne State EcoCAR 2 team’s math-based modeling and simulation tools for hybrid electric vehicle powertrain analysis, with a goal of improving the simulation results to be less than 10% error to experimental data. The team used the modeling and simulation tools for evaluating different outcomes based on hybrid powertrain architecture changes (hardware), and controls code development and testing (software). The first step was model validation to experimental data, as the plant models had not yet been validated. This paper includes the results of the team’s work in the U.S. Department of Energy’s EcoCAR 2 Advanced vehicle Technical Competition for university student teams to create and test a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle for reducing petroleum oil consumption, pollutant emissions, and Green House Gas (GHG) emissions.
Technical Paper

Control Development for an Engine-Disconnect Clutch in a Pre-Transmission Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle

This paper details the development of the control algorithms to characterize the behavior of an electrohydraulic actuated dry clutch used in the powertrain of the Wayne State University EcoCAR 3 Pre-Transmission Parallel hybrid vehicle. The paper describes the methodology and processes behind the development of the clutch physical model and electronic control unit to support the calibration of the vehicle’s hybrid supervisory controller. The EcoCAR 3 competition challenges sixteen North American universities to re-engineer the 2016 Chevrolet Camaro to reduce its environmental impact without compromising its performance and consumer acceptability. The team is in final stages of Year Two competition, which focuses on the powertrain components integration into the selected hybrid architecture. The dry clutch used by the team to enable the coupling between the engine and the electric motor is a key component of the Pre-Transmission Parallel configuration.
Technical Paper

Efficient Thermal Modeling and Integrated Control Strategy of Powertrain for a Parallel Hybrid EcoCAR2 Competition Vehicle

Hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is one of the most highly pursued technologies for improving energy efficiency while reducing harmful emissions. Thermal modeling and control play an ever increasing role with HEV design and development for achieving the objective of improving efficiency, and as a result of additional thermal loading from electric powertrain components such as electric motor, motor controller and battery pack. Furthermore, the inherent dual powertrains require the design and analysis of not only the optimal operating temperatures but also control and energy management strategies to optimize the dynamic interactions among various components. This paper presents a complete development process and simulation results for an efficient modeling approach with integrated control strategy for the thermal management of plug-in HEV in parallel-through-the road (PTTR) architecture using a flexible-fuel engine running E85 and a battery pack as the energy storage system (ESS).
Technical Paper

Offline Electro-Hydraulic Clutch Bench Testing Alternatives for a Pre-Transmission Parallel Hybrid Powertrain

This paper details the development of a test-bench simulation to characterize the behavior of an electro-hydraulic actuated dry clutch used in a pre-transmission parallel hybrid powertrain architecture of Wayne State University EcoCAR 3. Engage and disengage systems play a crucial role in a pre-transmission parallel hybrid architecture. The most common device used to meet the purpose of physically connecting internal combustion engine and electric powertrains is a dry clutch. Its own characteristics and capabilities allow its usage for this application. The transition between the pure electric and hybrid modes is dictated by the main control strategy. Therefore, the engaging system will be widely used when switching from charge depleting to charge sustaining mode, and vice versa. In addition, when torque is required from both sources for higher performance, the clutch will be responsible for mechanically connecting both torque sources.
Technical Paper

Parallel-Through-The-Road Plug-In Hybrid Vehicle Modeling and Simulation by Wayne State University for EcoCAR2

The Wayne State University (WSU) EcoCAR2 student team designed, modeled, Model-In-the-Loop (MIL) tested, Software-In-the-Loop (SIL) simulation tested, and Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) simulation tested the team's conversion design for taking a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu and converting it into a Parallel-Through-The-Road (PTTR) plug-in hybrid. The 2013 Malibu is a conventional Front Wheel Drive (FWD) vehicle and the team's conversion design keeps the conventional FWD and adds a Rear Wheel Drive (RWD) powertrain consisting of an electric motor, a single speed reduction gearbox and a differential to drive the rear wheels -where none of these previously existed on the rear wheels. The RWD addition creates the PTTR hybrid powertrain architecture of two driven axles where the mechanical torque path connection between the two powertrains is through the road, rather than a mechanical torque path through gears, chains, or shafts.