Refine Your Search

Search Results

Viewing 1 to 7 of 7
Technical Paper

Determination of Impact Responses of ES-2re and SID-IIs - Part I: ES-2re

2018-04-03
2018-01-1449
The main purpose of this study was to determine the impact responses of the different body regions (shoulder, thorax, abdomen and pelvis/leg) of the ES-2re and SID-IIs dummies using rigid wall impacts under different initial test conditions. The experimental set-up consisted of a flat rigid wall with five instrumented load-wall plates aligned with dummy’s shoulder, thorax, abdomen, pelvis and knee impacting a stationary dummy seated on a rigid seat at a pre-determined velocity. The relative location and orientation of the load-wall plates was adjusted relative to the body regions of the ES-2re and SID-IIs dummies respectively.
Technical Paper

Determination of Impact Responses of ES-2re and SID-IIs - Part III: Development of Transfer Functions

2018-04-03
2018-01-1444
An understanding of stiffness characteristics of different body regions, such as thorax, abdomen and pelvis of ES-2re and SID-IIs dummies under controlled laboratory test conditions is essential for development of both compatible performance targets for countermeasures and occupant protection strategies to meet the recently updated FMVSS214, LINCAP and IIHS Dynamic Side Impact Test requirements. The primary purpose of this study is to determine the transfer functions between the ES-2re and SID-IIs dummies for different body regions under identical test conditions using flat rigid wall sled tests. The experimental set-up consists of a flat rigid wall with five instrumented load-wall plates aligned with dummy’s shoulder, thorax, abdomen, pelvis and femur/knee impacting a stationary dummy seated on a rigid low friction seat at a pre-determined velocity.
Technical Paper

Determination of Impact Responses of ES-2re and SID-IIs – Part II: SID-IIs

2018-04-03
2018-01-1448
The main purpose of this study was to determine the impact responses of the different body regions (shoulder, thorax, abdomen and pelvis/leg) of the ES-2re and SID-IIs dummies using rigid wall impacts under different initial test conditions. The experimental set-up consisted of a flat rigid wall with five instrumented load-wall plates aligned with dummy’s shoulder, thorax, abdomen, pelvis and knee impacting a stationary dummy seated on a rigid seat at a pre-determined velocity. The relative location and orientation of the load-wall plates was adjusted relative to the body regions of the ES-2re and SID-IIs dummies respectively.
Technical Paper

Injury and Response of the Shoulder in Lateral Sled Tests

2001-11-01
2001-22-0005
The biomechanical response and injury tolerance of the shoulder in lateral impacts is not well understood. These data are needed to better understand human injury tolerance, validate finite element models and develop biofidelic shoulders in side impact dummies. Seventeen side impact sled tests were performed with unembalmed human cadavers. Data analyzed for this study include T1-Y acceleration, shoulder and thoracic load plate forces, upper sternum x and y accelerations, and struck side acromion x, y and z accelerations. One dimensional deflection at the shoulder level was determined from high-speed film by measuring the distance between a target on T1 and the impacted wall. Force-time response corridors were obtained for tests with 9 m/s pelvic offset, 10.5 m/s pelvic offset, 9 m/s unpadded flat wall, 6.7 m/s unpadded flat wall, 9 m/s soft padding and 9 m/s stiff padding. Maximum shoulder plate forces in unpadded 9 m/s tests (5.5 kN) were larger than in 6.7 m/s tests (3.3 kN).
Technical Paper

Mechanical Properties of the Shoulder Ligaments under Dynamic Loading

2004-11-01
2004-22-0006
Thirty-three fresh human cadaver shoulders were harvested and bone-ligament-bone specimens of acromioclavicular joint, coracoclavicular joint and sternoclavicular joint were obtained. A test fixture and clamps specifically designed for this ligament study and a high-speed Instron machine were used. One quasi-static rate (nominally 0.1 %/sec) and two high rates (nominally, high rate 1 = 40,000 %/sec and high rate 2 = 15,000 %/sec) were used in this study. In the acromioclavicular joint tests, ligament failure was the most common failure mode. Bone fractures occurred most often at the clavicle rather than acromion. In the coracoclavicular joint tests, the majority of specimens failed at the ligament and bone fractures occurred at the coracoid. In the sternoclavicular joint tests, the specimen failed at the bone in most cases. In the acromioclavicular joint and coracoclavicular joint tests, high rate 2 tests and quasi-static tests had more bone fracture cases than high rate 1 tests.
Technical Paper

Shoulder Injury and Response Due to Lateral Glenohumeral Joint Impact: An Analysis of Combined Data

2005-11-09
2005-22-0014
To date, several lateral impact studies (Bolte et al., 2000, 2003, Marth, 2002 and Compigne et al., 2004) have been performed on the shoulder to determine the response characteristics and injury threshold of the shoulder complex. Our understanding of the biomechanical response and injury tolerance of the shoulder would be improved if the results of these tests were combined. From a larger data base shoulder injury tolerance criteria can be developed as well as corridors for side impact dummies. Data from the study by Marth (2002, 12 tests) was combined with data from the previous studies. Twenty-two low speed tests (4.5 ± 0.7 m/s) and 9 high speed tests (6.7 ± 0.7 m/s) were selected from the combined data for developing corridors. Shoulder force, deflection and T1y acceleration corridors were developed using a minimization of cumulative variance technique.
Technical Paper

Side Impact Assessment and Comparison of Appropriate Size and Age Equivalent Porcine Surrogates to Scaled Human Side Impact Response Biofidelity Corridors

2018-11-12
2018-22-0009
Analysis and validation of current scaling relationships and existing response corridors using animal surrogate test data is valuable, and may lead to the development of new or improved scaling relationships. For this reason, lateral pendulum impact testing of appropriate size cadaveric porcine surrogates of human 3-year-old, 6-year-old, 10-year-old, and 50th percentile male age equivalence, were performed at the thorax and abdomen body regions to compare swine test data to already established human lateral impact response corridors scaled from the 50th percentile human adult male to the pediatric level to establish viability of current scaling laws. Appropriate Porcine Surrogate Equivalents PSE for the human 3-year-old, 6-year-old, 10-year-old, and 50th percentile male, based on whole body mass, were established. A series of lateral impact thorax and abdomen pendulum testing was performed based on previously established scaled lateral impact assessment test protocols.
X