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Journal Article

A New Method for Bus Drivers' Economic Efficiency Assessment

2015-09-29
2015-01-2843
Transport vehicles consume a large amount of fuel with low efficiency, which is significantly affected by drivers' behaviors. An assessment system of eco-driving pattern for buses could identify the deficiencies of driver operation as well as assist transportation enterprises in driver management. This paper proposes an assessment method regarding drivers' economic efficiency, considering driving conditions. To this end, assessment indexes are extracted from driving economy theories and ranked according to their effect on fuel consumption, derived from a database of 135 buses using multiple regression. A layered structure of assessment indexes is developed with application of AHP, and the weight of each index is estimated. The driving pattern score could be calculated with these weights.
Technical Paper

A Review of Mixture Preparation and Combustion Control Strategies for Spark-Ignited Direct-Injection Gasoline Engines

1997-02-24
970627
The current extensive revisitation of the application of gasoline direct-injection to automotive, four-stroke, spark-ignition engines has been prompted by the availability of technological capabilities that did not exist in the late 1970s, and that can now be utilized in the engine development process. The availability of new engine hardware that permits an enhanced level of computer control and dynamic optimization has alleviated many of the system limitations that were encountered in the time period from 1976 to 1984, when the capabilities of direct-injection, stratified-charge, spark-ignition engines were thoroughly researched. This paper incorporates a critical review of the current worldwide research and development activities in the gasoline direct-injection field, and provides insight into new areas of technology that are being applied to the development of both production and prototype engines.
Technical Paper

A Simple Linear Approach for Transient Fuel Control

2003-03-03
2003-01-0360
Significant A/F ratio excursion may occur during some engine transient operations, especially for transient periods of throttle tip in or tip out. A/F ratio excursion results in excessive emissions, extra fuel consumption, driveability deterioration and three-way-catalyst (TWC) efficiency drop. Simple two-parameter (X, τ) wall wetting models have traditionally been used to describe this transient A/F ratio excursion phenomenon. The transient fuel control techniques are utilized for this model to be applicable across vehicles, engines, fuel types and ambient conditions, so as to compensate for the A/F ratio excursion with the extra compensation fuel. More complicated model structures must be further expanded and model dependence on various environment conditions must be established to achieve a precise model. In this paper, a simple linear approach is proposed for transient fuel control, using least squares estimation.
Technical Paper

Application of Narrow Cone Angle Injectors to Achieve Advanced Compression Ignition on a Mass-Production Diesel Engine - Control Strategy and Engine Performance Evaluation

2009-11-02
2009-01-2700
Advanced compression ignition combustion system which reduces simultaneously both nitride oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) is a promising approach to meet future emission regulations. In order to achieve advanced compression ignition, flexible fuel injection is required for ultra-early and post-TDC injections, which conventional injector fails to accomplish due to wall-wetting effect. In this work, special injectors with the spray angle of 60 degree are applied on a 4 cylinder mass-production diesel engine without modification of the engine configuration. For application-oriented study, sweep experiments of injection timings and durations, fuel injection pressure and the boost pressure are carried out to investigate the relationships between the control parameters and the engine performance. Model based calibration and real application tests validate the maximum applicable operation range of maximum speed of 2200 RPM and IMEP of 8.0 bar.
Technical Paper

Autoignition and Combustion of ULSD and JP8 during Cold Starting of a High Speed Diesel Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0797
Cold starting problems of diesel engines are caused mainly by the failure of the auto-ignition process or the subsequent combustion of the rest of the charge. The problems include long cranking periods and combustion instability leading to an increase in fuel consumption in addition to the emission of undesirable unburned hydrocarbons which appear in the exhaust as white smoke. The major cause of these problems is the low temperature and pressure of the charge near the end of the compression stroke and/or the poor ignition quality of the fuel. This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation of cold starting of a high speed diesel engine with ULSD (Ultra Low Sulphur Diesel) and JP8 (Jet Propulsion) fuels at ambient temperature (25°C). A detailed analysis is made of the autoignition and combustion of the two fuels in the first few cycles in the cold start transient. In addition, a comparison is made between these processes for the two fuels during idle operation.
Technical Paper

Combined Control Strategy for Engine Rotate Speed in the Shift Process of Automated Mechanical Transmission

2004-03-08
2004-01-0427
For the purpose of lessening fuel consumption, engine noise, shift jerk and clutch friction work in the shift process of Automatic Mechanical Transmission (AMT), a fuzzy-bang bang dual mode control strategy for engine rotate speed is put forward in this paper, which takes the advantages of time optimal control and fuzzy control. The combined control strategy is applied to the shift process control of AMT test minibus named SC6350 and proved to be successful by the experimental results.
Technical Paper

Control Strategy of Hybrid Electric Vehicle with Double Planetary Gear Sets

2015-04-14
2015-01-1216
Hybrid Electric Vehicles with a power split system provide a variety of possibilities to promote the fuel economy of vehicles and better adapt to various driving conditions. In this paper, a new power split system of a hybrid electric bus which consists of double planetary gear sets and a clutch is introduced. The system is able to decouple both the torque and speed of the engine from the road load, which makes it possible for the engine to operate on its optimal operation line (OOL). Considering the features of the system configuration and bus driving cycle, the driving mode of the bus is divided into Electric Vehicle (EV) mode, Electric Variable Transmission (EVT) mode and Parallel mode. By controlling the engagement of the clutch at high vehicle speed (after the mechanical point), the system operates in the parallel mode rather than EVT mode. This avoids the problem that the system efficiency sharply declines in high speed region which EVT configurations are generally faced with.
Technical Paper

Design and Analysis of Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicles for Heavy-Duty Truck Applications in a Total Cost of Ownership Framework

2018-07-13
2018-01-5025
Due to the potential on decreasing fuel consumption and design flexibility, parallel configurations are widely used for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). However, the fuel economy and economic profitability of parallel HEVs for heavy-duty truck applications under Chinese driving conditions still need to be investigated. It is uneasy to improve the fuel economy of parallel HEVs with a single electric motor from control perspective only. In this article, the battery size of the architecture is optimized by using the dynamic programming (DP) approach, based on a dynamic degradation model of the LiFePO4 battery. Moreover, based on the DP results, a near-optimal control strategy of the hybrid powertrain system for online application is proposed. Finally, with two economic assumptions, the initial costs, operation costs, and payback periods are obtained in a total cost of ownership framework perspective.
Journal Article

Deterioration of B20 from Compression Ignition Engine Operation

2010-10-25
2010-01-2120
Biodiesel has been widely accepted as an alternative for fossil-derived diesel fuel for use in compression ignition (CI) engines. Poor oxidative stability and cold flow properties restrict the use of biodiesel beyond current B20 blend levels (20% biodiesel in 80% ULSD) for vehicle applications. Maintaining the properties of B20 as specified by ASTM D7476-08 is important because, once out of spec, B20 may cause injector coke formation, fuel filter plugging, increased exhaust emissions, and overall loss of engine performance. While the properties of fresh B20 may be within the specifications, under engine operating and longer storage conditions B20 could deteriorate. In a diesel engine, the fuel that goes to the injector and does not enter the cylinder is recycled back to the fuel tank. The re-circulated fuel returns to the fuel tank at an elevate temperature, which can cause thermal oxidation.
Technical Paper

Develop Hybrid Transit Buses for Chinese Cities1

2003-03-03
2003-01-0087
This paper summarized the first phase research work to develop hybrid transit buses for China, including driving cycle analysis, performance requirements setting, key components first dimensioning, configuration choosing, saving potential estimate and parametric study. Through these fundamental works, we realize that (1) the Chinese urban bus cycle has some specialties compared with foreign ones, and these specialties cause differences on the design criteria and design results of the hybrid buses; (2) the parallel configuration is better than the series one for the Chinese cycle from both fuel consumption and cost points of view.
Technical Paper

Developing Modeling and Simulation Tools in Class to Prepare Engineering Students for the Automotive Industry

2014-04-01
2014-01-1914
The Wayne State University EcoCAR2 team provided its members with Modeling and Simulation training course for the second summer of the competition. EcoCAR2 is a three-year Advanced Vehicle Technology Competition (AVTC) sponsored by General Motors and the Department of Energy. The course lasted three months and included 45 hours of formal lectures and class hands-on work and an estimated one hundred and fifty hours in home assignments that directly contributed to the team's deliverables. The course described here is unique. The design and class examples were extracted from an in-house complete vehicle simulation and control code to ensure hands-on, interactive training based on real-world problems. The course investigated the physics behind every major powertrain component of a hybrid electric vehicle and the different ways to model the components into a full vehicle simulation.
Technical Paper

Development of a Virtual Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle Test Bed Based on Battery-in-the-Loop

2004-03-08
2004-01-0306
Battery is a vital part of a fuel cell hybrid vehicle, and also the most difficult part to model due to its nonlinearity. Therefore, This paper presents an integrated software-hardware solution to simulate the fuel cell vehicle power train more accurately based on battery-in-the-loop, with the aid of RT-LAB™. Moreover, the average modeling technique is used together with RT-LAB's distributed cluster technology to realize real-time simulation of the Field-Oriented Controlled induction motor drive, and the Boost DC/DC converter. As a result, a virtual test bed, which is very similar to actual power train, is set up. Finally, on this test bed some tests are performed to verify the existing battery model and soc estimation method, and to give more accurate fuel consumption results.
Technical Paper

Effect of Ash on Gasoline Particulate Filter Using an Accelerated Ash Loading Method

2018-04-03
2018-01-1258
Gasoline particulate filter (GPF) is considered a suitable solution to meet the increasingly stringent particle number (PN) regulations for both gasoline direct injection (GDI) and multi-port fuel injection (MPI) engines. Generally, GDI engines emit more particulate matter (PM) and PN. In recent years, GDI engines have gained significant market penetration in the automobile industry owing to better fuel economy and drivability. In this study, an accelerated ash loading method was tested by doping lubricating oil into the fuel for a GDI engine. Emission tests were performed at different ash loads with different driving cycles and GPF combinations. The results showed that the GPF could significantly reduce particle emissions to meet the China 6 regulation. With further ash loading, the filtration efficiency increased above 99% and the effects on fuel consumption and backpressure were found to be limited, even with an ash loading of up to 50 g/l.
Technical Paper

Effect of Fuel Detergent on Injector Deposit Formation and Engine Emissions in a Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Engine

2017-10-08
2017-01-2247
Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines have been developed rapidly in recent years, driven by stringent legislative requirements on vehicle fuel efficiency and emissions. However, one challenge facing GDI is the formation of particulate emissions, particularly with the presence of injector tip deposits. The Chinese market features some gasoline fuels that contain no detergent additives and are prone to deposit formation, which can affect engine performance and emissions. The use of detergent additives to mitigate the formation of injector deposits in a GDI engine was investigated in this study by testing a 1.5L turbocharged GDI engine available in the Chinese market. The engine was operated both on base gasoline and on gasoline dosed with detergent additives to evaluate the effect on injector deposit formation and engine performance and emissions.
Technical Paper

Effect of Injection Pressure and Swirl Motion on Diesel Engine-out Emissions in Conventional and Advanced Combustion Regimes

2006-04-03
2006-01-0076
The fuel injection pressure and the swirl motion have a great impact on combustion in small bore HSDI diesel engines running on the conventional or advanced combustion concepts. This paper examines the effects of injection pressure and the swirl motion on engine-out emissions over a wide range of EGR rates. Experiments were conducted on a single cylinder, 4-valve, direct injection diesel engine equipped with a common rail injection system. The pressures and temperatures in the inlet and exhaust surge tanks were adjusted to simulate turbocharged engine conditions. The load and speed of the engine were typical to highway cruising operation of a light duty vehicle. The experiments covered a wide range of injection pressures, swirl ratios and injection timings. Engine-out emission measurements included hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, smoke (in Bosch Smoke Units, BSU) and NOx.
Technical Paper

Effect of Thermodynamic Conditions on Spark Ignition to Compression Ignition in Ultra-Lean Mixture Using Rapid Compression Machine

2019-04-02
2019-01-0963
Compression ratio and specific heat ratio are two dominant factors influencing engine thermal efficiency. Therefore, ultra-lean burn may be one method to deal with increasingly stringent fuel consumption and emission regulations in the approaching future. To achieve high efficiency and clean combustion, innovative combustion modes have been applied on research engines including homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI), spark-assisted compression ignition (SACI), and gasoline direct-injection compression ignition (GDCI), etc. Compared to HCCI, SACI can extend the load range and more easily control combustion phase while it is constrained by the limit of flame propagation. For SACI with ultra-lean burn in engines, equivalence ratio (φ), rich-fuel mixture around spark plug, and supercharging are three essentials for combustion stability.
Technical Paper

Effects of Environmental Parameters on Real-World NOx Emissions and Fuel Consumption for Heavy-Duty Diesel Trucks Using an OBD Approach

2018-09-10
2018-01-1817
OBD (On-Board Diagnostic) test system is applied to research influences of environmental parameters (altitude and environment temperature) on real-world NOx emission and fuel consumption for heavy-duty diesel trucks in this paper. The research results indicate that altitude and environment temperature have great influence on NOx emission rate and fuel consumption. High altitude in range of 3000~4000 m results in NOx emission rate is lower than low and moderate temperature because of air intake amount decreasing. However the fuel consumption rate is higher than lower altitude because altitude influences real-time changes of air inflow and combustion conditions in the cylinder of the engine. NOx emission rate and fuel consumption is more stable at different vehicle speed, VSP and RPM at high altitude, and NOx emission rate fluctuate dramatically at low and moderate altitude. The fuel consumption rate is higher at 10~20 °C than that at lower and higher temperature.
Technical Paper

Energetic Macroscopic Representation Based Energy Management Strategy for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Taking into Account Demand Power Optimization

2017-10-08
2017-01-2208
To further explore the potential of fuel economy for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), a methodology of demand power optimization is proposed. The fuel consumption depends not only on the EMS, but also on the way to operate vehicle. A control strategy to adjust driver’s demand before power splitting is necessary. To get accurate and reliable control strategy, two aspects are the most important. First, a rigorous and organized modeling approach is a base to describe complicated powertrain system of HEV. The energetic macroscopic representation (EMR) is a graphical synthetic description of electromechanical conversion system based on energy flow. A powertrain architecture of HEV is described explicitly via the EMR. Second, the effectiveness of EMS and the reasonability of driving operations are vital.
Technical Paper

Energy Management and Design Optimization for a Power-Split, Heavy-Duty Truck

2017-10-08
2017-01-2450
Power-split configuration is highlighted as the most popular concept for full hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). However, the energy management and design of power-split heavy duty truck under Chinese driving conditions still need to be investigated. In this paper, the parametric design, a rule-based control strategy and an equivalent consumption minimization strategy (ECMS) for the power-split heavy duty truck are presented. Besides, the influence of a penalty factor also discussed under ECMS algorithm. Meanwhile, two different methods to search the engine operation point have been proposed and the reason of different economy performance is presented by using energy flow chart. And the simulation results show both fuel consumption can satisfy the second phase fuel consumption standard and the third phase fuel consumption standard which will be implemented in 2020, under C-WTVC (Chinese-World Transient Vehicle Cycle).
Technical Paper

Equivalent Drive Cycle Analysis, Simulation, and Testing - Wayne State University's On-Road Route for EcoCAR2

2013-04-08
2013-01-0549
The Wayne State University (WSU) EcoCAR2 student team is participating in a design competition for the conversion of a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu into a plug-in hybrid. The team created a repeatable on-road test drive route using local public roads near the university that would be of similar velocity ranges contained in the EcoCAR2 4-Cycle Drive Schedule - a weighted combination of four different EPA-based drive cycles (US06 split into city and highway portions, all of the HWFET, first 505 seconds portion of UDDS). The primary purpose of the team's local on-road route was to be suitable for testing the team's added hybrid components and control strategy for minimizing petroleum consumption and tail pipe emissions. Comparison analysis of velocities was performed between seven local routes and the EcoCAR2 4-Cycle Drive Schedule. Three of the seven local routes had acceptable equivalence for velocity (R₂ ≻ 0.80) and the team selected one of them to be the on-road test drive route.
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