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Technical Paper

Modeling of Dynamic Responses of Injectors for an Automotive Fuel Rail System

This paper presents a computer model for simulating dynamic responses inside an injector of an automotive fuel rail system. The injector contains a filter at the top, a coil spring in the middle, and a needle and orifices at the bottom. The equations of motion for unsteady one-dimensional flow are derived for the fluid flowing through the injector. The needle motion is described by a second order ordinary differential equation. The forces exerted on the needle include the magnetic force that controls the opening and closing of the injector and the coil spring force. To account for the loss of kinetic energy, we define two loss factors Ka and Kb. The former describes the loss of kinetic energy as fluid enters the injector through the filter at the top, and the latter depicts that as fluid is ejected into a large chamber through the passage between the needle and the needle seat and across four orifices at the bottom of the injector.
Technical Paper

Noise Analysis of Automotive Alternators

An extensive experimental study of noise generating mechanisms of two production models of automotive alternators is presented. It was established that aerodynamic noise (generated by cooling fans) is dominating at high speeds (above 3,000 rpm), while electromagnetic noise is the most intensive at low rpm. Two directions of noise reduction are proposed and validated: reduction of noise levels generated by alternators to be achieved by using axial flow fans for cooling instead of presently used bladed discs, and radical reduction of operating speed of alternators by using variable transmission ratio accessory drives.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Pressure Fluctuations Inside an Automotive Fuel Rail System

A computer model is developed for predicting pressure fluctuations inside an automotive electronic fuel rail system, which consists of six injectors connected in series through pipelines and a pressure regulator. The pressure fluctuations are mainly caused by opening and closing of injectors fired in a particular order. The needles that control the opening and closing of the injectors are modeled by mass- spring-dashpot systems, whose equations of motion are governed by a second order ordinary differential equations. A similar second order ordinary differential equation is used to describe the motion of the membrane with nonlinear stiffness inside the pressure regulator. The responses of injectors and pressure regulator are coupled by unsteady one-dimensional flow through the pipelines. The pressure fluctuations are also required to satisfy a one-dimensional damped wave equation. To validate this computer model, pressure fluctuations inside injectors and pipelines are calculated.