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Technical Paper

A Comparison of a Semi-Active Inerter and a Semi-Active Suspension

2010-10-05
2010-01-1903
Inerters have become a hot topic in recent years, especially in vehicle, train, and building suspension systems. The performance of a passive inerter and a semi-active inerter was analyzed and compared with each other and it showed that the semi-active inerter has much better performance than the passive inerter, especially with the Hybrid control method. Eight different layouts of suspensions were analyzed with a quarter car model in this paper. The adaptation of dimensionless parameters was considered for a semi-active suspension and the semi-active inerters. The performance of the semi-active inerter suspensions with different layouts was compared with a semi-active suspension with a conventional parallel spring-damper arrangement. It shows a semi-active suspension, with more simple configuration and lower cost, has similar or better compromise between ride and handling than a semi-active inerter with the Hybrid control.
Technical Paper

A Novel Three Steps Composited Parameter Matching Method of an Electromagnetic Regenerative Suspension System

2019-04-02
2019-01-0173
The electromagnetic regenerative suspension has attracted much attention recently due to its potential to improve ride comfort and handling stability, at the same time recover kinetic energy which is typically dissipated in traditional shock absorbers. The key components of a ball-screw regenerative suspension system are a motor, a ball screw and a nut. For this kind of regenerative suspension, its damping character is determined by the motor's torque-speed capacity, which is different from the damping character of the traditional shock absorber. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a systematic approach for the parameter matching of ball-screw regenerative suspension, so that the damping character provided by it can ensure ride comfort and handling stability. In this paper, a 2-DOF quarter vehicle simulation model with regenerative suspension is constructed. The effects of the inertia force on ride comfort and handling stability are analyzed.
Technical Paper

Active Steering and Anti-Roll Shared Control for Enhancing Roll Stability in Path Following of Autonomous Heavy Vehicle

2019-04-02
2019-01-0454
Rollover accident of heavy vehicle during cornering is a serious road safety problem worldwide. In the past decade, based on the active intervention into the heavy vehicle roll dynamics method, researches have proposed effective anti-roll control schemes to guarantee roll stability during cornering. Among those studies, however, roll stability control strategies are generally derived independent of front steering control inputs, the interactive control characteristic between steering and anti-roll system have not been thoroughly investigated. In this paper, a novel roll stability control structure that considers the interaction between steering and anti-roll system, is presented and discussed.
Technical Paper

An Optimization of Suspension Linkages for Wheel-Legged Vehicle

2019-04-02
2019-01-0167
The guiding mechanism of vehicle suspension can keep the wheels moving along planned trajectory. The geometrical design of the reasonable suspension guide mechanism can reduce the vibration transmitted to the body, improve trafficability and handling stability. The vehicle suspension design method was applied to the wheel-legged vehicle, enhancing ride performance. The optimization of suspension hard points can be obtained by using single variable method, adjusting each hard point coordinate independently. It is also widely recommended by using intelligent algorithm to solve well-designed multi-objective parameter optimization function. In this study, the multi-objective parameter optimization function was solved by using the NSGA-II (Non-dominated Sorted Genetic Algorithm-II). Computer simulations with half-car model were used to support the analysis in this study. ADAMS multibody dynamics software was also used to verify the reliability of the results.
Journal Article

Analysis of Performance Parameters of Torsional Vibration Damper Under Various Operating Conditions

2013-04-08
2013-01-1488
The performance parameters of torsional vibration damper, including stiffness and damping, have great influence on the torsional vibration of automobile driveline. At present, the research on torsional vibration damper mainly concentrates on the torsional stiffness, but rarely on the torsional damping characteristics. This paper systematically studied the effect of torsional stiffness and damping on torsional vibration of automobile driveline under uniform speed conditions, accelerated and decelerated conditions, idling conditions and resonance conditions. The requirements on stiffness and damping of various operating conditions were summarized. The effect and requirements researched were useful to performance match design of torsional vibration damper.
Journal Article

Assessment of Ride Comfort and Braking Performance Using Energy-Harvesting Shock Absorber

2015-04-14
2015-01-0649
Conventional viscous shock absorbers, in parallel with suspension springs, passively dissipate the excitation energy from road irregularity into heat waste, to reduce the transferred vibration which causes the discomfort of passengers. Energy-harvesting shock absorbers, which have the potential of conversion of kinetic energy into electric power, have been proposed as semi-active suspension to achieve better balance between the energy consumption and suspension performance. Because of the high energy density of the rotary shock absorber, a rotational energy-harvesting shock absorber with mechanical motion rectifier (MMR) is used in this paper. This paper presents the assessment of vehicle dynamic performance with the proposed energy-harvesting shock absorber in braking process. Moreover, a PI controller is proposed to attenuate the negative effect due to the pitch motion.
Technical Paper

Attitude Control of the Vehicle with Six In-Wheel Drive and Adaptive Hydro Pneumatic Suspensions

2019-04-02
2019-01-0456
The ability of actively adjusting attitude provides a great advantage for those vehicles used in special environments such as off-road environment with extreme terrains and obstacles. It can improve vehicles’ stability and performance. This paper proposes an attitude control system for realizing the active attitude adjustment and vehicle motion control in the same time. The study is based on a vehicle with six wheel independent drive and six independent suspensions (6WIDIS), which is a kind of unmanned vehicle with six in-wheel drives and six independent hydro pneumatic suspensions. With the hydro- pneumatic suspensions, the vehicle’s attitude can be actively adjusted. This paper develops a centralized- distributed control strategy with attitude information obtained by multi-sensor fusion, which can coordinate the complex relationship among the six wheels and suspensions. The attitude control system consists of three parts.
Technical Paper

Calculation and Analysis of Stiffness of Taper-Leaf Spring with Variable Stiffness

2014-04-01
2014-01-0929
Aiming at the difficulty of sovling the stiffness calculation of taper-leaf spring with variable stiffness, a combined method was proposed, which combine superposition method and finite difference method. Then the calculation results of different differential segments were compared with experimental results. The compared results show that the proposed method is effective and simple. So it has some practical significance in designing the taper-leaf spring. In addition, based on the stiffness test of the taper-leaf spring, the proper adjustments to the correction factor of the single parabolic leaf spring stiffness formula was recommended(ξ =0.92-0.96).
Technical Paper

Chassis Tuning Study of a Commercial Vehicle

2015-03-10
2015-01-0016
This paper presents the study of chassis tuning of a commercial vehicle, which has a rear suspension with dual stage leaf spring assembly and a front suspension with double wishbone torsion bar. To balance the handling and ride performance of the vehicle, it is necessary to tune the key suspension parameters of the chassis including the dual stage stiffness of the leaf spring, the contact load of the leaf spring, the torsional rigidity of the torsion bar, the force curve of the front and rear dampers etc. The chassis tuning process of a physical commercial vehicle was first put forward. In the proposed flowchart, the kinematics and statics of front & rear suspensions were checked at the beginning of the tuning. Then the tire mechanical characteristics were tested by using a plate-type tire tester and the inertial parameters of the vehicle were indirectly measured. The K&C characteristics of front and rear suspensions were also tested and compared with the benchmark vehicle's.
Journal Article

Cooperative Optimization of Vehicle Ride Comfort and Handling Stability by Integrated Control Strategy

2012-04-16
2012-01-0247
Vehicle needs suspension and steering systems with different features to fit different driving conditions. In normal straight driving condition, soft suspension and heavy steering systems are needed to achieve better ride comfort and straight line driving stability; in turning conditions, hard suspension and lightweight steering systems are needed to get better handing stability. The semi-active suspension system with Magneto-Rheological dampers can improve the ride comfort and handling performance of vehicle. Electrical power steering system is developed rapidly due to its portable and flexible operations as well as stable steering performance.
Technical Paper

Design and Control of Torque Feedback Device for Driving Simulator Based on MR Fluid and Coil Spring Structure

2018-04-03
2018-01-0689
Since steering wheel torque feedback is one of the crucial factors for drivers to gain road feel and ensure driving safety, it is especially important to simulate the steering torque feedback for a driving simulator. At present, steering wheel feedback torque is mainly simulated by an electric motor with gear transmission. The torque response is typically slow, which can result in drivers’ discomfort and poor driving maneuverability. This paper presents a novel torque feedback device with magnetorheological (MR) fluid and coil spring. A phase separation control method is also proposed to control its feedback torque, including spring and damping torques respectively. The spring torque is generated by coil spring, the angle of coil spring can be adjusted by controlling a brushless DC motor. The damping torque is generated by MR fluid, the damping coefficient of MR fluid can be adjusted by controlling the current of excitation coil.
Technical Paper

Design of Robust Active Load-Dependent Vehicular Suspension Controller via Static Output Feedback

2013-09-24
2013-01-2367
In this paper, we focus on the active vehicular suspension controller design. A quarter-vehicle suspension system is employed in the system analysis and synthesis. Due to the difficulty and cost in the measuring of all the states, we only choose two variables to construct the feedback loop, that is, the control law is a static-output-feedback (SOF) control. However, the sensor reduction would induce challenges in the controller design. One of the main challenges is the NP-hard problem in the corresponding SOF controller design. In order to deal with this challenge, we propose a two-stage design method in which a state-feedback controller is firstly designed and then the state-feedback controller is used to decouple the nonlinear conditions. To better compensate for the varying vehicle load, a robust load-dependent control strategy is adopted. The proposed design methodology is applied to a suspension control example.
Technical Paper

Effect of Imposed Faults on a Distributor Injection System

1974-02-01
740531
The effects of several faults on different parameters in a distributor injection system are studied both theoretically and experimentally. The faults imposed on a healthy system are: fuel leaks between the pump and injector, improper adjustment of the injector opening pressure, a broken or missing injector spring, plugged nozzle holes, and a stuck-closed needle. The injector parameters examined include maximum fuel pressures reached at different locations in the system, needle lift, injection lag, and injection rate.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Analytical Property Characterization of a Self-Damped Pneumatic Suspension System

2010-10-05
2010-01-1894
This study investigates the fundamental stiffness and damping properties of a self-damped pneumatic suspension system, based on both the experimental and analytical analyses. The pneumatic suspension system consists of a pneumatic cylinder and an accumulator that are connected by an orifice, where damping is realized by the gas flow resistance through the orifice. The nonlinear suspension system model is derived and also linearized for facilitating the properties characterization. An experimental setup is also developed for validating both the formulated nonlinear and linearized models. The comparisons between the measured data and simulation results demonstrate the validity of the models under the operating conditions considered. Two suspension property measures, namely equivalent stiffness coefficient and loss factor, are further formulated.
Technical Paper

Heat Generation Mechanism and Failure Analysis of Shock Absorber

2015-04-14
2015-01-0607
This paper proposes a theoretical model to interpret the heat generation mechanism and thermal failure of shock absorber. For a common structure of double-tube shock absorber, all frictions between two contacting components of shock absorber are calculated particularly. The heat generation mechanism and heat distribution can be explained with the theoretical model. Thermal failure is a recurrent malfunction for traditional shock absorbers, which leads to shorten the service lives of vehicle components. Heat generation experiments are accomplished to validate the thermal degeneration of shock absorber. So this study is meaningful to develop a new system of vibration attenuation with satisfying reliability, which is essential to improve the riding comfort and handling stability of vehicles.
Technical Paper

Improving Light Bus Handling and Stability by Anti-roll Bar and Bushing Adjustment

2015-03-10
2015-01-0026
In order to improve the handling and stability of a light bus at high speed, a virtual model was established in Adams-Car and its anti-roll bar and bushing parameters were virtually optimized. The tyre mechanical characteristics were firstly tested by using a plate-type tyre tester and the Magic Formula parameters of the tyre were obtained. Then the virtual bus model's handling performance were studied by the simulation of central steering test and steady static circular test. An optimal matching method was put forward. By using genetic algorithm to conduct optimization, the optimised parameters were obtained. After that the anti-roll bar and bushing samples were respectively manufactured. At last, the comparative trials were performed in an automotive proving ground, and the subjective evaluation of the light bus's handling and stability was taken by three specialized assessors.
Technical Paper

Modeling Considerations in Use of Boundary Element Methods With Substructures

1984-04-01
840735
The boundary integral equation method (BIEM) of analysis was applied to problems involving beams, thick plates and stress concentration regions. Beam and plate problems were considered to provide guidelines for use of the three-dimensional BIEM to analyze brackets and other components which have “solid like” regions as well as regions which are “beam or plate like”. In unsubstructured form the BIEM produced results in excellent agreement with exact solutions from elasticity theory for plates with length/thickness ratios as large as 40. Loading cases included bending by terminal couples and flexure by terminal loads. Using substructuring, CP times were reduced. CP times for both the IBM 3084 and the CDC CYBER 205 were obtained, the influence of varying integration orders discussed, and techniques to assess the accuracy of computed results were described.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Dynamic Responses of Injectors for an Automotive Fuel Rail System

1999-03-01
1999-01-0795
This paper presents a computer model for simulating dynamic responses inside an injector of an automotive fuel rail system. The injector contains a filter at the top, a coil spring in the middle, and a needle and orifices at the bottom. The equations of motion for unsteady one-dimensional flow are derived for the fluid flowing through the injector. The needle motion is described by a second order ordinary differential equation. The forces exerted on the needle include the magnetic force that controls the opening and closing of the injector and the coil spring force. To account for the loss of kinetic energy, we define two loss factors Ka and Kb. The former describes the loss of kinetic energy as fluid enters the injector through the filter at the top, and the latter depicts that as fluid is ejected into a large chamber through the passage between the needle and the needle seat and across four orifices at the bottom of the injector.
Technical Paper

Modelling and Simulation of a Magnetorheological Fluid Damper with Multi-Accumulator during Mode Shifting

2019-04-02
2019-01-0856
In a monotube magnetorheological fluid damper (MRFD), there usually exists a compensation chamber with designated initial gas pressure. This enclosed compensation chamber works as an air spring to some degree to provide force to the working piston. In this work, in order to extend the external damping force range and improve the controlling efficiency, a structure of MRFD with three additional accumulators is proposed. These additional accumulators are connected to the atmosphere through an air pump and the compensation chamber with a barometric valve. The external damping force range thus can be rapidly adjusted through mode shifting with this configuration. A mathematical model of this damper with coupled effects between the air and the magnetorheological fluid (MRF) is developed. Comparing the bench tests results with some simulation outcomes, the simulation model of this MRFD is validated.
Technical Paper

One Calculation Method of the Contact Load of a Two-Level Variable Stiffness Suspension

2015-03-10
2015-01-0042
This paper presented one calculation method of the contact load, which is the load acted on the spring at the moment when the second-level stiffness of the spring just begins to work. In the proposed method, the contact load calculation mainly based on the dynamic load of the unsprung mass and the road grades and the commonly driving speed were also considered. A semiempirical formula of the contact load was put forward. Then the contact load of the commercial bus's rear suspension was respectively calculated by using the proposed formula and traditional methods(geometric mean method and average load method) to compare each other and to verify the new method. Later, the spring samples were respectively manufactured based on the calculation results. At last, the validation tests were respectively performed in an automotive proving ground.
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