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Technical Paper

3-D Numerical Simulation of Transient Heat Transfer among Multi-Component Coupling System in Internal Combustion Chamber

A 3-D numerical analysis model of transient heat transfer among the multi-component coupling system in combustion chamber of internal combustion engine has been developed successfully in the paper. The model includes almost all solid components in combustion chamber, such as piston assembly, cylinder liner, cylinder head gasket, cylinder head, intake valves and exhaust valves, etc. With two different coupling heat transfer modes, one is the lubricant film heat conduction between two moving components, another is the contact heat conduction between two immovable solid components, and with the direct coupled-field analysis method of FEM, the heat transfer relation among the components is established. The simulation result dedicates the transient heat transfer process among the components such as moving piston assembly and cylinder liner, moving valves and cylinder head. The effect of cylinder head gasket on heat transfer among the components is also studied.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study on ESC Drive and Brake Control Based on Hierarchical Structure for Four-Wheel Hub-Motor-Driven Vehicle

Electronic Stability Control (ESC) is an important measure to proactively guarantee vehicle safety. In this paper, the method of four-wheel hub-motor torque control is compared with the traditional single-wheel hydraulic brake control in ESC system. The control strategy adopts the hierarchical structure. In upper controller, the stability of the vehicle is identified by threshold method, the additional yaw moment control uses a way to get the moment including feedforward and feedback parts based on the linear quadratic regulator (LQR). The medium controller is tire slip rate control, in order to get the optimal target slip rate from the upper additional yaw moment, a method of quadratic programming to optimize the longitudinal force is proposed for each wheel. The inputs of tire state for the magic tire model is introduced so as to calculate the target slip rate from the target longitudinal force.
Technical Paper

A Method of Battery State of Health Prediction based on AR-Particle Filter

Lithium-ion battery plays a key role in electric vehicles, which is critical to the system availability. One of the most important aspects in battery managements systems(BMS) in electric vehicles is the stage of health(SOH) estimation. The state of health (SOH) estimation is very critical to battery management system to ensure the safety and reliability of EV battery operation. The classical approach of current integration(coulomb counting) can't get the accurate values because of accumulative error. In order to provide timely maintenance and replacements of electric vehicles, several estimation approaches have been proposed to develop a reliable and accurate battery state of health estimation. A common drawback of previous algorithm is that the computation quantity is huge and not quite accurate, that is updated partially in this study.
Journal Article

A Novel Indirect Health Indicator Extraction Based on Charging Data for Lithium-Ion Batteries Remaining Useful Life Prognostics

In order to solve the environmental pollution and energy crisis, Electric Vehicles (EVs) have been developed rapidly. Lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery is the key power supply equipment for EVs, and the scientific and accurate prediction of its Remaining Useful Life (RUL) has become a hot topic in the field of new energy research. The internal resistance and capacity are often used to characterize the Li-ion battery State of Health (SOH) from which RUL is obtained. However, in practical applications, it is difficult to obtain internal resistance and capacity information by using the non-intrusive measurement method. Therefore, it is necessary to extract the measurable parameters to characterize the degradation of Li-ion battery. At present, the methods of extracting health indicators based on measurable parameters have gained preliminary results, but most of them are derived from the Li-ion battery discharging data.
Technical Paper

A Reduced Chemical Kinetic Mechanism of Toluene Reference Fuel (toluene/n-heptane) for Diesel Engine Combustion Simulations

In the present study, we developed a reduced chemical reaction mechanism consisted of n-heptane and toluene as surrogate fuel species for diesel engine combustion simulation. The LLNL detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for n-heptane was chosen as the base mechanism. A multi-technique reduction methodology was applied, which included directed relation graph with error propagation and sensitivity analysis (DRGEPSA), non-essential reaction elimination, reaction pathway analysis, sensitivity analysis, and reaction rate adjustment. In a similar fashion, a reduced toluene mechanism was also developed. The reduced n-heptane and toluene mechanisms were then combined to form a diesel surrogate mechanism, which consisted of 158 species and 468 reactions. Extensive validations were conducted for the present mechanism with experimental ignition delay in shock tubes and laminar flame speeds under various pressures, temperatures and equivalence ratios related to engine conditions.
Technical Paper

A Strategy to Recycle the Braking Energy of HEV with EMB

Recovering the braking energy and reusing it can significantly improve the fuel economy of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs).The battery ability of recovering electricity limits the improvement of the regenerative braking performance. As one way to solve this problem, the technology of brake-by-wire can be adopted in the HEVs to use the recovery dynamically. The use of high-power electrical equipment, such as electromechanical brake (EMB), is working in the form of brake-by-wire. Due to the nature of EMB, there exists an obvious coupling relationship between the energy flow and brake force distribution. In this paper, a brake force distribution controller is proposed in HEV with EMB, which can maximize braking energy recovery, compared with the conventional distribution control without EMB. Meanwhile, an energy flow strategy working with the distribution controller is designed, which is less limited to the performance of the battery.
Technical Paper

A Two-Stage Pressure Boost Device for Relieving Turbocharger Delay Effect by Means of Utilizing Engine Waste Heat

Turbochargers can improve vehicle dynamic performance and fuel economy and are applied widely nowadays. Due to the existence of turbocharger delay effect, acceleration delay and insufficient combustion are its disadvantages. By collecting high pressure gas which generates from the inertia of the turbine in the intake passage when the vehicle slows down, the gas can be supplied for the shortage while the vehicle is accelerating, which can reduce turbocharger delay effect directly. However, turbocharger delay effect changes a little at high speed and low speed which is subjected to the air inflation and short air-release time. This paper adds a set of pressure booster device on the existing inflating-deflating device, whose thermal energy comes from the compressed air and lubricating oil, to facilitate pressure increasing in inflating-deflating device and help the chamber change sooner, which avails to relieve the delay effect.
Journal Article

A Wavelet Neural Network Method to Determine Diesel Engine Piston Heat Transfer Boundary Conditions

This paper presents a method of calculating temperature field of the piston by using a wavelet neural network (WNN) to identify the unknown boundary conditions. Because of the complexity of the heat transfer and limitations of experimental conditions of heat transfer analysis of the piston in a diesel engine, boundary conditions of the piston temperature field were usually obtained empirically, and thus the result itself was uncertain. By employing the capability of resolution analysis from a wavelet neural network, the method obtains improved boundary heat transfer coefficients with a limited number of measured temperatures. Using FEA software iteratively, results show the proposed wavelet neural network analysis method improves the prediction of unknown boundary conditions and temperature distribution consistent with the experimental data with an acceptable error.
Technical Paper

Analysis and Modeling of Transmission Efficiency of Vehicle Driveline

This work analyzes the transmission efficiency of vehicle driveline including the gearbox, universal transmission and differential. Based on the structure of transmission, mathematic models are built to analyze transmission's characteristics. However, an experiment reveals the limitation of this method. Then, the paper statistically analyzes the experimental data and mainly analyzes the influencing factors. Then Neural Network is used to build the efficiency model. A method called “filling data and gradually extrapolating” is used when building neural network model. Finally, the neural network model is used in the simulation of fuel consumption. The conclusion is Neural Network model can imitate the transmission efficiency of vehicle driveline efficiently, but its internal structure is not clear so other modeling methods are needed to be found.
Technical Paper

Autopilot Strategy Based on Improved DDPG Algorithm

Deep Deterministic Policy Gradient (DDPG) is one of the Deep Reinforcement Learning algorithms. Because of the well perform in continuous motion control, DDPG algorithm is applied in the field of self-driving. Regarding the problems of the instability of DDPG algorithm during training and low training efficiency and slow convergence rate. An improved DDPG algorithm based on segmented experience replay is presented. On the basis of the DDPG algorithm, the segmented experience replay select the training experience by the importance according to the training progress to improve the training efficiency and stability of the training model. The algorithm was tested in an open source 3D car racing simulator called TORCS. The simulation results demonstrate the training stability is significantly improved compared with the DDPG algorithm and the DQN algorithm, and the average return is about 46% higher than the DDPG algorithm and about 55% higher than the DQN algorithm.
Technical Paper

Avoiding Accelerating Incorrectly While Steering with CAN Networks

People, vehicles and circumstances are the three key factors, which affect transportation systems. Offering more information to the driver and helping him observe on all sides so that he can make decisions correctly are of great importance for reducing accidents. According to the present traffic regulations, in this paper we focus on the rules and process used during steering and proposed to implement them in a car information central control system based on CAN. A comparison of the brake time between brake by driver and by radars revealed the great interest of using ECUs connected by CAN network.
Technical Paper

Battery Thermal Management System Using Water as a Phase Change Material

In these years, the advantages of using phase change material (PCM) in the thermal management of electric power battery has been wide spread. Because of the thermal conductivity of most phase change material (eg.wax) is low, many researchers choose to add high conductivity materials (such as black lead). However, the solid-liquid change material has large mass, poor flow-ability and corrosively. Therefore, it still stays on experiential stage. In this paper, the Thermal characteristics of power battery firstly be invested and the requirements of thermal management system also be discussed. Then a new PCM thermal management has been designed which uses pure water as liquid phase change material, adopts PCM with a reflux device for thermal management.
Technical Paper

Big-Data Based Online State of Charge Estimation and Energy Consumption Prediction for Electric Vehicles

Whether the available energy of the on-board battery pack is enough for the driver’s next trip is a major contributor in slowing the growth rate of Electric Vehicles (EVs). What’s more, the actual capacity of the battery pack depend on so many factors that a real-time estimation of the state of charge of the battery pack is often difficult. We proposed a big-data based algorithm to build a battery pack dynamic model for the online state of charge estimation and a stochastic model for the energy consumption prediction. And the good performance of sensors, high-bandwidth communication systems and cloud servers make it convenient to measure and collect the related data, which are grouped into three categories: standard, historical and real-time data. First a resistance-capacitance ( RC )-equivalent circuit is taken consideration to simplify the battery dynamics.
Technical Paper

Body Load Identification for BEV Based on Power Spectrum Decomposition under Road Excitation

As motor assembly of Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV) replaces engine system of Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) vehicle, interior structure-borne noise induced by road random excitation becomes more prominent under middle and high speed. The research is focused on central driving type BEV. In order to improve interior noise in middle and low frequency range, dynamic load of BEV body must be identified. Consequently the structural noise induced by road excitation is conducted. The limitations of common identification method for dynamic body load are analyzed. The applied several identification methods are proposed for deterministic dynamic load such as engine or motor. Random dynamic load generated by road excitation is different from deterministic dynamic load. The deterministic load identification method cannot be applied to the random load directly. An identification method of dynamic body load for BEV is presented based on power spectrum decomposition.
Technical Paper

Brake Guidance System for Commercial Vehicles with Coordinated Friction and Engine Brakes

Using friction brakes for long time can increase easily its temperature and lower vehicle brake performance in the downhill process. The drivers' hysteretic perception to future driving condition could mislead them to stop untimely the engine brake, and some other auxiliary braking devices are designed to increase the brake power for reduction of the friction brake torque. The decompression engine brake has complex structure and high cost, and the application of eddy current retarder or hydraulic retarder on the commercial vehicles is mainly limited to their cost and mass. In this paper, an innovative brake guidance system for commercial vehicles with coordinated friction brakes and engine brake is introduced to guide the drivers to minimize the use of the friction brakes on the downhill with consideration of future driving conditions, which is aimed at releasing the engine brake potential fully and controlling the friction brake temperature in safe range.
Technical Paper

Co-simulation Based Hydraulic Retarder Braking Control System

Hydraulic retarder has been widely applied on military vehicles and heavy commercial vehicles because of it could provide great brake torque and has lasting working time [1]. In order to reduce driver's frequent actions in braking process and prevent hydraulic retarder system from overheating, it is need to apply constant braking torque control, this control target has a strict requirement to hydraulic control system design. Many parameters often require repeated test to determine, which increases the R&D cost and extends the research cycle. This paper tries to find a time-efficient research method of hydraulic retarder control system through studying on a heavy military vehicle hydraulic retarder system. Hydraulic retarder model is set up through test data. The hydraulic control system is built based on AMESim. Controller model is set up based on PID control. The whole vehicle brake model is built based on MATLAB/Simulink.
Journal Article

Cracking Failure Analysis and Optimization on Exhaust Manifold of Engine with CFD-FEA Coupling

For fracture cracks that occurred in the tight coupling exhaust manifold durability test of a four-cylinder gasoline engine with EGR channel, causes and solutions for fracture failure were found with the help of CFD and FEA numerical simulations. Wall temperature and heat transfer coefficient of the exhaust manifold inside wall were first accurately obtained through the thermal-fluid coupling analysis, then thermal modal and thermoplastic analysis were acquired by using the finite element method, on account of the bolt pretightening force and the contact relationship between flange face and cylinder head. Results showed that the first-order natural frequency did not meet the design requirements, which was the main reason of fatigue fracture. However, when the first-order natural frequency was rising, the delta equivalent plastic strain was increasing quickly as well.
Journal Article

Design of the Linear Quadratic Control Strategy and the Closed-Loop System for the Active Four-Wheel-Steering Vehicle

In the field of active safety, the active four-wheel-steering (4WS) system seems to be an attractive alternative and an effective tool to improve the vehicles' handling stability in lane-keeping control performance. Under normal using condition, the vehicle's lateral acceleration is comparatively small, and the mathematic relationship between the small side force excitation and the small slip angle of the tire is in the linear region. Furthermore, the effects of roll, heave, and pitch motions are neglected as well as the dynamic characteristics of the tires and suspension system in this work. Therefore, the linear quadratic control (LQC) theory is used to ensure that the output of the 4WS control system can keep track of the desired yaw rate and zero-sideslip-angle response can also be realized at the same time.
Technical Paper

Development and Research of Laser Ranging Vehicle Driving Deviation Test System

Before the new car rolls from the line, due to assembly errors, inaccurate four-wheel positioning, etc., the vehicle will run off on a flat road, which will affect the driving comfort and safety. At present, most automobile manufacturers choose to perform the deviation test in the process of vehicle rolls from the line. Compared with other detection methods, the online deviation test system is developed with high precision of laser ranging, fast response and good reliability, which can realize fast and high-precision detection of vehicle deviation. In this paper, test system software is developed based on the LABVIEW, a variety of communication methods to build the communication system, using information check and queue task processing to control, to meet the test needs. Firstly, the calculation model of the deviation of the test system is established.
Technical Paper

Downhill Safety Assistant Driving System for Battery Electric Vehicles on Mountain Roads

When driving in mountainous areas, vehicles often encounter downhill conditions. To ensure safe driving, it is necessary to control the speed of vehicles. For internal combustion engine vehicles, auxiliary brake such as engine brake can be used to alleviate the thermal load caused by the continuous braking of the friction brake. For battery electric vehicles (BEVs), regenerative braking can be used as auxiliary braking to improve brake safety. And through regenerative braking, energy can be partly converted into electrical energy and stored in accumulators (such as power batteries and supercapacitors), thus extending the mileage. However, the driver's line of sight in the mountains is limited, resulting in a certain degree of blindness in driving, so it is impossible to fully guarantee the safety and energy saving of downhill driving.