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Technical Paper

42V Automotive Power Systems

2001-08-20
2001-01-2465
With the increase of hotel and ancillary loads and replacement of engine driven mechanical and hydraulic loads with electrical loads, automotive systems are becoming more electric. This is the concept of More Electric Cars (MEC) that necessitates a higher system voltage, such as the proposed 42V, for conventional cars. In this paper, the development of the 42V electric power system for vehicle applications is reviewed. The system architecture and motor drive problems associated with the 42V electric power system are analyzed. Solutions to these problems are also discussed.
Technical Paper

42V Integrated Starter/Alternator Systems

2003-06-23
2003-01-2258
The increasing power demand in vehicles has resulted in a need for a higher onboard generation capacity. With the increasing generation requirement, the torque levels of the generator are found to closely converge with that of the starter motor. Hence, integrating the two machines and using a single machine for the two purposes would be technically viable and economically advantageous. This results in a more compact design solution as well. The Integrated Starter/Alternator (ISA) will be integrated directly to the crankshaft of the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) and deliver 5 kW average and 12-15 kW peak power at 42V.
Technical Paper

A Method of Battery State of Health Prediction based on AR-Particle Filter

2016-04-05
2016-01-1212
Lithium-ion battery plays a key role in electric vehicles, which is critical to the system availability. One of the most important aspects in battery managements systems(BMS) in electric vehicles is the stage of health(SOH) estimation. The state of health (SOH) estimation is very critical to battery management system to ensure the safety and reliability of EV battery operation. The classical approach of current integration(coulomb counting) can't get the accurate values because of accumulative error. In order to provide timely maintenance and replacements of electric vehicles, several estimation approaches have been proposed to develop a reliable and accurate battery state of health estimation. A common drawback of previous algorithm is that the computation quantity is huge and not quite accurate, that is updated partially in this study.
Technical Paper

A Modular Approach to Powertrain Modeling and Shift Quality Analysis

1995-02-01
950419
A library of macro modules has been written that represent elements common to powertrains of off-highway equipment with diesel powerplants and powershift transmissions. This library allows users to easily and quickly develop complex models of a wide range of vehicle and transmission configurations. These simulation models can be used to evaluate dynamic loadings on the powertrain components, evaluate shift quality, develop control systems and address other powertrain dynamic problems. The library makes use of EASY5 simulation language features to effectively handle such drivetrain nonlinearities as backlash, coulomb friction and hard stops.
Journal Article

A Novel Indirect Health Indicator Extraction Based on Charging Data for Lithium-Ion Batteries Remaining Useful Life Prognostics

2017-06-17
2017-01-9078
In order to solve the environmental pollution and energy crisis, Electric Vehicles (EVs) have been developed rapidly. Lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery is the key power supply equipment for EVs, and the scientific and accurate prediction of its Remaining Useful Life (RUL) has become a hot topic in the field of new energy research. The internal resistance and capacity are often used to characterize the Li-ion battery State of Health (SOH) from which RUL is obtained. However, in practical applications, it is difficult to obtain internal resistance and capacity information by using the non-intrusive measurement method. Therefore, it is necessary to extract the measurable parameters to characterize the degradation of Li-ion battery. At present, the methods of extracting health indicators based on measurable parameters have gained preliminary results, but most of them are derived from the Li-ion battery discharging data.
Technical Paper

A Strategy to Recycle the Braking Energy of HEV with EMB

2014-09-28
2014-01-2542
Recovering the braking energy and reusing it can significantly improve the fuel economy of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs).The battery ability of recovering electricity limits the improvement of the regenerative braking performance. As one way to solve this problem, the technology of brake-by-wire can be adopted in the HEVs to use the recovery dynamically. The use of high-power electrical equipment, such as electromechanical brake (EMB), is working in the form of brake-by-wire. Due to the nature of EMB, there exists an obvious coupling relationship between the energy flow and brake force distribution. In this paper, a brake force distribution controller is proposed in HEV with EMB, which can maximize braking energy recovery, compared with the conventional distribution control without EMB. Meanwhile, an energy flow strategy working with the distribution controller is designed, which is less limited to the performance of the battery.
Journal Article

A Wavelet Neural Network Method to Determine Diesel Engine Piston Heat Transfer Boundary Conditions

2012-09-10
2012-01-1760
This paper presents a method of calculating temperature field of the piston by using a wavelet neural network (WNN) to identify the unknown boundary conditions. Because of the complexity of the heat transfer and limitations of experimental conditions of heat transfer analysis of the piston in a diesel engine, boundary conditions of the piston temperature field were usually obtained empirically, and thus the result itself was uncertain. By employing the capability of resolution analysis from a wavelet neural network, the method obtains improved boundary heat transfer coefficients with a limited number of measured temperatures. Using FEA software iteratively, results show the proposed wavelet neural network analysis method improves the prediction of unknown boundary conditions and temperature distribution consistent with the experimental data with an acceptable error.
Technical Paper

Analysis and Modeling of Transmission Efficiency of Vehicle Driveline

2014-04-01
2014-01-1779
This work analyzes the transmission efficiency of vehicle driveline including the gearbox, universal transmission and differential. Based on the structure of transmission, mathematic models are built to analyze transmission's characteristics. However, an experiment reveals the limitation of this method. Then, the paper statistically analyzes the experimental data and mainly analyzes the influencing factors. Then Neural Network is used to build the efficiency model. A method called “filling data and gradually extrapolating” is used when building neural network model. Finally, the neural network model is used in the simulation of fuel consumption. The conclusion is Neural Network model can imitate the transmission efficiency of vehicle driveline efficiently, but its internal structure is not clear so other modeling methods are needed to be found.
Technical Paper

Automotive Interprofessional Projects (IPRO®) Program at Illinois Institute of Technology

2005-09-07
2005-01-3465
The Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT) Interprofessional Projects (IPRO®) Program engages multidisciplinary teams of students in semester-long projects, with a total of thirty to thirty-five different projects offered every semester. This program greatly contributes to IIT's signature undergraduate education experience, with each interprofessional course delivering a team-oriented, project-based requirement within the undergraduate curriculum. Among its many benefits, each interprofessional course offers students the opportunity to integrate the education and research environment of the university to tackle real-world problems. In the process, students get the chance to develop and emerge from the experience with maturity, confidence, and valuable professional skills that are highly sought after in the workplace, simultaneously preparing them for the realities of today's global, highly-competitive environment [1].
Technical Paper

Autopilot Strategy Based on Improved DDPG Algorithm

2019-11-04
2019-01-5072
Deep Deterministic Policy Gradient (DDPG) is one of the Deep Reinforcement Learning algorithms. Because of the well perform in continuous motion control, DDPG algorithm is applied in the field of self-driving. Regarding the problems of the instability of DDPG algorithm during training and low training efficiency and slow convergence rate. An improved DDPG algorithm based on segmented experience replay is presented. On the basis of the DDPG algorithm, the segmented experience replay select the training experience by the importance according to the training progress to improve the training efficiency and stability of the training model. The algorithm was tested in an open source 3D car racing simulator called TORCS. The simulation results demonstrate the training stability is significantly improved compared with the DDPG algorithm and the DQN algorithm, and the average return is about 46% higher than the DDPG algorithm and about 55% higher than the DQN algorithm.
Technical Paper

Avoiding Accelerating Incorrectly While Steering with CAN Networks

2004-03-08
2004-01-0200
People, vehicles and circumstances are the three key factors, which affect transportation systems. Offering more information to the driver and helping him observe on all sides so that he can make decisions correctly are of great importance for reducing accidents. According to the present traffic regulations, in this paper we focus on the rules and process used during steering and proposed to implement them in a car information central control system based on CAN. A comparison of the brake time between brake by driver and by radars revealed the great interest of using ECUs connected by CAN network.
Technical Paper

Battery Thermal Management System Using Water as a Phase Change Material

2017-10-08
2017-01-2454
In these years, the advantages of using phase change material (PCM) in the thermal management of electric power battery has been wide spread. Because of the thermal conductivity of most phase change material (eg.wax) is low, many researchers choose to add high conductivity materials (such as black lead). However, the solid-liquid change material has large mass, poor flow-ability and corrosively. Therefore, it still stays on experiential stage. In this paper, the Thermal characteristics of power battery firstly be invested and the requirements of thermal management system also be discussed. Then a new PCM thermal management has been designed which uses pure water as liquid phase change material, adopts PCM with a reflux device for thermal management.
Technical Paper

Big-Data Based Online State of Charge Estimation and Energy Consumption Prediction for Electric Vehicles

2016-04-05
2016-01-1200
Whether the available energy of the on-board battery pack is enough for the driver’s next trip is a major contributor in slowing the growth rate of Electric Vehicles (EVs). What’s more, the actual capacity of the battery pack depend on so many factors that a real-time estimation of the state of charge of the battery pack is often difficult. We proposed a big-data based algorithm to build a battery pack dynamic model for the online state of charge estimation and a stochastic model for the energy consumption prediction. And the good performance of sensors, high-bandwidth communication systems and cloud servers make it convenient to measure and collect the related data, which are grouped into three categories: standard, historical and real-time data. First a resistance-capacitance ( RC )-equivalent circuit is taken consideration to simplify the battery dynamics.
Technical Paper

Body Load Identification for BEV Based on Power Spectrum Decomposition under Road Excitation

2014-06-30
2014-01-2044
As motor assembly of Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV) replaces engine system of Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) vehicle, interior structure-borne noise induced by road random excitation becomes more prominent under middle and high speed. The research is focused on central driving type BEV. In order to improve interior noise in middle and low frequency range, dynamic load of BEV body must be identified. Consequently the structural noise induced by road excitation is conducted. The limitations of common identification method for dynamic body load are analyzed. The applied several identification methods are proposed for deterministic dynamic load such as engine or motor. Random dynamic load generated by road excitation is different from deterministic dynamic load. The deterministic load identification method cannot be applied to the random load directly. An identification method of dynamic body load for BEV is presented based on power spectrum decomposition.
Technical Paper

Brake Guidance System for Commercial Vehicles with Coordinated Friction and Engine Brakes

2017-09-17
2017-01-2508
Using friction brakes for long time can increase easily its temperature and lower vehicle brake performance in the downhill process. The drivers' hysteretic perception to future driving condition could mislead them to stop untimely the engine brake, and some other auxiliary braking devices are designed to increase the brake power for reduction of the friction brake torque. The decompression engine brake has complex structure and high cost, and the application of eddy current retarder or hydraulic retarder on the commercial vehicles is mainly limited to their cost and mass. In this paper, an innovative brake guidance system for commercial vehicles with coordinated friction brakes and engine brake is introduced to guide the drivers to minimize the use of the friction brakes on the downhill with consideration of future driving conditions, which is aimed at releasing the engine brake potential fully and controlling the friction brake temperature in safe range.
Technical Paper

Case Study of an Electric-Hydraulic Hybrid Propulsion System for a Heavy Duty Electric Vehicle

2016-09-27
2016-01-8112
In order to improve efficiency and increase the operation of electric vehicles, assistive energy regeneration systems can be used. A hydraulic energy recovery system is modeled to be used as a regenerative system for supplementing energy storage for a pure electric articulated passenger bus. In this study a pump/motor machine is modeled to transform kinetic energy into hydraulic energy during braking, to move the hydraulic fluid from the low pressure reservoir to the hydraulic accumulator. The simulation of the proposed system was used to estimate battery savings. It was found that on average, approximately 39% of the battery charge can be saved when using a real bus driving cycle.
Technical Paper

Co-simulation Based Hydraulic Retarder Braking Control System

2009-10-06
2009-01-2907
Hydraulic retarder has been widely applied on military vehicles and heavy commercial vehicles because of it could provide great brake torque and has lasting working time [1]. In order to reduce driver's frequent actions in braking process and prevent hydraulic retarder system from overheating, it is need to apply constant braking torque control, this control target has a strict requirement to hydraulic control system design. Many parameters often require repeated test to determine, which increases the R&D cost and extends the research cycle. This paper tries to find a time-efficient research method of hydraulic retarder control system through studying on a heavy military vehicle hydraulic retarder system. Hydraulic retarder model is set up through test data. The hydraulic control system is built based on AMESim. Controller model is set up based on PID control. The whole vehicle brake model is built based on MATLAB/Simulink.
Technical Paper

Constant Power Load Characteristics in Multi-Converter Automotive Power Electronic Intensive Systems

2005-09-07
2005-01-3451
Intensifying demands for higher fuel economy from one hand and environmental concerns from the other are driving advanced automotive power systems to be more electric. As a result, automotive electrical systems with higher capacity and more complexity are needed to cope with this expanding electrification trend. As different electrical applications and loads are being introduced in automobiles, multi-converter intensive power electronic systems are emerging as the next generation of the advanced automotive electrical systems. In fact, power electronic converters and electric motor drives are inevitable parts of more electric automotive power systems. When power electronic converters and electric motor drives are tightly regulated to improve system performance and efficiency, they present negative impedance characteristics of constant power loads to the entire automotive electrical system. This destabilizing effect may cause system instability.
Technical Paper

Design and Implementation of a Mobile Single-Phase AC Power Supply for Land Vehicles with 28V/200V Dual Voltage Alternators

2003-06-23
2003-01-2297
In land vehicles with high-power electrical loads, other than the low-voltage DC bus (14V, 28V, or 42V) for the low-power conventional loads, a high-voltage bus, e.g., 200V DC, is required for high-power loads such as hotel loads and electrically-assisted propulsion systems. In addition, some advanced electrical loads including luxury loads and AC power point require 120V, 60Hz AC voltage. These land vehicles include heavy duty, fire fighting, and military vehicles. There are two traditional approaches in obtaining a dual DC voltage bus system. The first one is to obtain the low-voltage DC from the alternator and boost it to the high-voltage DC. The second method is to obtain the high-voltage DC directly from the alternator and reduce it to the low-voltage. Both approaches require additional step-up or step-down power conversion stages, which inherently result in a reduced efficiency. In this paper, a new approach with a 28V/200V dual voltage alternator is considered.
Journal Article

Design of the Linear Quadratic Control Strategy and the Closed-Loop System for the Active Four-Wheel-Steering Vehicle

2015-05-05
2015-01-9107
In the field of active safety, the active four-wheel-steering (4WS) system seems to be an attractive alternative and an effective tool to improve the vehicles' handling stability in lane-keeping control performance. Under normal using condition, the vehicle's lateral acceleration is comparatively small, and the mathematic relationship between the small side force excitation and the small slip angle of the tire is in the linear region. Furthermore, the effects of roll, heave, and pitch motions are neglected as well as the dynamic characteristics of the tires and suspension system in this work. Therefore, the linear quadratic control (LQC) theory is used to ensure that the output of the 4WS control system can keep track of the desired yaw rate and zero-sideslip-angle response can also be realized at the same time.
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