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Technical Paper

An Experimental Study of Connecting Rod Big Ends

Connecting rod design factors, such as geometric shape, capscrew torque and materials can significantly affect bore distortion and assembly stress. In this paper, experiments using different materials were conducted on several connecting rod big-ends with various shapes, bosses and bolts. The results show that the distortion of the big-end bore and the bolt stress are influenced considerably by the big-end shape, the bolt axial tension and the material under inertia force. It was also observed that the bolt bending stress and the load separating the big-end joint surface could be calculated with high accuracy using three-dimensional FEM in the initial connecting rod design.
Technical Paper

Analyses of Cycle-to-Cycle Variation of Combustion and In-Cylinder Flow in a Port Injection Gasoline Engine Using PIV and PLIF Techniques

Reduction in the cycle-to-cycle variation (CCV) of combustion in internal combustion engines is required to reduce fuel consumption, exhaust emissions, and improve drivability. CCV increases at low load operations and lean/dilute burn conditions. Specifically, the factors that cause CCV of combustion are the cyclic variations of in-cylinder flow, in-cylinder distributions of fuel concentration, temperature and residual gas, and ignition energy. However, it is difficult to measure and analyze these factors in a production engine. This study used an optically accessible single-cylinder engine in which combustion and optical measurements were performed for 45 consecutive cycles. CCVs of the combustion and in-cylinder phenomena were investigated for the same cycle. Using this optically accessible engine, the volume inside the combustion chamber, including the pent-roof region can be observed through a quartz cylinder.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Behavior of Liquid in a Fuel Tank

The behavior of the liquid in the motorcycle fuel tank is an interesting theme from the viewpoint of the fuel meter construction, as effected by variance in the fuel pressure resulting from acceleration or deceleration, etc. It can be assumed that the behavior of the liquid in the fuel tank will be affected by the running pattern, the shape and capacity of the fuel tank, etc. Here is a report on an experiment recently made to observe how the liquid behaves in a partially fully enclosed tank. We simplified the tank shape and the involved conditions (to actually observe the behavior of the inside liquid by the suspension method.) Then we have analized the effectes according to different liquid containers, to different velocities, and to different liquid volumes as well as the time history variance in the internal pressure.
Technical Paper

Application of FEM Analysis Using Loads Predicted from Strain Measurement in Motorcycle Frame Development

This paper presents an approach for efficiently evaluating motorcycle main frame strength using external loads predicted from measured strain data in our development process. The loads are calculated by simple matrix inversion, and can be used as boundary conditions of static analysis that resembles actual phenomena. The advantage of this method is that it allows relatively precise reproduction of actual boundary conditions without the data usually needed for dynamic simulation such as tire and suspension characteristics which often take large amount of time and man-hour to obtain. Although this approach is simple and common practice, there are a lot of things to be concerned for gaining useful results in a broad range of stages in the motorcycle main frame development process. How we effectively make use of this approach is going to be introduced here.
Technical Paper

Application of Vibration Simulation Methods to the Design of Motorcycles

Recently it is becoming more necessary than ever to carry out performance prediction and factor analysis at the initial design by-computer aided engineering (CAE), in order to ensure the high performance, safety and reliability of motorcycles and also to shorten the lead time of product development. Finite element method (FEM) plays a crucial role in this respect. In particular, since the vibration characteristic is one of the most important evaluation items, the demand for accurate vibration prediction at the initial design has become much more intense. In recent years, vibration simulation methods have achieved remarkable progress, and especially the substructural synthesis method (SSM), combined with FEM, is used as an effective tool for the requirements.
Technical Paper

Combustion Noise of Two-Stroke Gasoline Engines and its Reduction Techniques

In order to obtain more reduction of two-stroke motorcycle engine noise than usual, it becomes necessary to make improvements within the combustion process itself. This study was carried out for two objectives. One is the investigation of the relationship between combustion and noise, and the other one is the development of noise reduction techniques. As the result, it was discovered that there was a significant correlation between engine noise and (dP/dθ)max, called the maximum rate of cylinder pressure rise. Therefore, the reduction of the (dP/dθ) max was recognized to be effective for engine noise reduction. The optimized alteration of combustion chamber shape is the most effective noise reduction technique, because it is able to reduce (dP/dθ) max without any sacrifice of engine power. In fact, the level of noise reduction can be predicted by one of the parameters obtained from the combustion chamber shape.
Technical Paper

Development of Advanced Propeller Damper (Shift Dampener System)

Generally, the gearshift mechanism for outboard motors shifts into forward or reverse gear without using the synchromesh arrangement (dog clutch engagement)(See Fig.1). This type of shift mechanism has advantages in simple structure and in saving space and cost, but at the same time, this is often the source of problem due to the abrasion caused by the hitting of gear against the dog clutch before the engagement, as well as large gearshift shock and noise. In addition, the outboard motor horsepower is getting bigger in recent years. As they are equipped with bigger and heavier engines and propellers, the shifting shock and noise tend to become more severe. For this reason, the improvement in this aspect is required. We looked into the way to reduce the shock and noise by means of propellers, because the propeller can be mounted and replaced easily, which allows the effective improvement to be spread to the outboard motors already in the market.
Technical Paper

Development of CVT Shift Dynamic Simulation Model with Elastic Rubber V-Belt

This paper presents a practical simulation model of the rubber V-belt CVT which is widely used as a low cost driveline element for small displacement motorcycles. The characteristic of this CVT is determined by the axial force balance between driver and driven pulleys, and the elastic force of a rubber V-belt. Because these axial and elastic forces are calculated by the kinematic and FEM analysis, a large-scale simulation model which costs long execution time for the calculation is needed to estimate the characteristic of CVT. This calculation uses the one-dimensional simulation model built up with MATLAB and SIMULINK environment, so that it was possible to get the calculation result with relatively low execution time. The elastic deformation of the rubber V-Belt was calculated by a simple spring model which was verified by experiments and FEM.
Technical Paper

Development of Compact Continuously Variable Transmission Engine for Motorcycles

The continuously variable transmission (CVT) with a rubber belt used in scooters is also regarded as a potential automatic transmission mechanism for conventional motorcycles. By making this system more compact and building it into the engine, a motorcycle CVT engine has been developed that is about the same size as a manual transmission (MT) engine. During driving with a CVT, heat is generated by friction at the sheaves, and therefore it was necessary to secure a certain length of belt to ensure that external air flows efficiently to the sheaves. However, making the CVT more compact restricted the belt length, which decreased cooling performance and increased the number of bends in the belt, making it difficult to maintain durability. To address this issue, a plastic resin drive belt and newly designed sheaves were adopted, and durability of more than that of a scooter was achieved.
Technical Paper

Development of Fracture Splitting Method for Case Hardened Connecting Rods

The fracture splitting (FS) method for case hardened connecting rods has been developed to improve engine performance while decreasing production costs. The FS method is widely used for automotive connecting rods because it effectively improves their productivity. Normalized forging steels, microalloyed forging steels and powder metals have generally been used as the material in the FS method as they are easily split due to their brittleness. On the other hand, the materials to be used for high performance motorcycles are case hardened low carbon steels because they allow the connecting rods to be lightweight due to their high fatigue strengths. These materials, which have a hardened area of approx. 0.5mm in depth from the surface, have a ductile texture inside. This texture obstructs the crack propagation and makes the split force too high to split without deforming the bearing area.
Journal Article

Development of Fracture-Split Connecting Rods Made of Titanium Alloy for Use on Supersport Motorcycles

A connecting rod made of titanium alloy is effective for lower fuel consumption and higher power output comparing to a steel one because the titanium connecting rod enables to reduce the weight of both of reciprocating and rotating parts in an entire engine substantially. But up to now, it has been adopted only to expensive and small-lot production models because a material cost is high, a processing is difficult and a wear on a sliding area should be prevented. In order to adopt the titanium connecting rods into a more types of motorcycles, appropriate materials, processing methods and surface treatment were considered. Hot forging process was applied not only to reduce a machining volume but also to enhance a material strength and stiffness. And the fracture-splitting (FS) method for the big-end of the titanium connecting rod was put into a practical use.
Technical Paper

Development of Magnetostriction-type Load Sensor for Measurement System Using Motorcycle Testing Robot

A control system for auto driving of motorcycle using anthropomorphic robot has been developed to efficiently evaluate a motorcycle with high accuracy, the performance of which is becoming higher. For magnetostriction-type load sensor, which is absolutely necessary for this system, the strain gauge type load cell has been used conventionally. However, the detection sensitivity, strength, and responsibility have not been satisfied completely under engine vibration conditions. To solve this problem, a magnetostriction-type load sensor has been newly developed. As a result of the tests with actual machines, it is found that this magnetostriction-type load sensor satisfies the conditions necessary for the motorcycle drive control system and measurement system.
Technical Paper

Development of Motorcycle Engine Starting System Simulation Considering Air-Fuel Ratio Control

Recently the response of the engine speed at starting has more importance than ever for quick start satisfying rider’s needs, as well as exhaust emissions. We have developed a simulation for studying engine and starter specifications, engine control algorithm and other engine control parameters. This system can be utilized to realize appropriate starting time by considering air-fuel ratio under various conditions. This paper addresses what are taken account of in our method. Examples applying this to a conventional motorcycle engine are shown.
Journal Article

Development of New Concept Two-Wheel Steering System for Motorcycles

This paper describes the development of a new concept two-wheel steering system for realizing motorcycle motion control. By considering the whole of the main frame as the rear-wheel steering axis, it was possible to move the rear-wheel steering system from the conventional installation position at the rear arm to the head pipe. As a result, the developed two-wheel steering system is both lightweight and compact. This two-wheel steering system was installed in a motorcycle, and starting and stopping tests were carried out with two people riding on the motorcycle. The test results confirmed that the two-wheel steering system is capable of changing the motion characteristics of the motorcycle in actual riding. Furthermore, by calculating the equivalent wheel alignment of this system, this paper also theoretically demonstrates that these changes in motion characteristics are caused by changes in caster and trail.
Technical Paper

Development of Pollution-Free Rapid Plating System

It is in the plating process that the worst bottleneck occurs in plant automation. We, however, have succeeded in making our plating process free from pollution and compact, allowing us to install this system within a production line and consequently establish a continuous production line resulting in a decrease in plating cost to about 1/2 of the previous cost. We have achieved an excellent chrome plating speed of 60µ/min, by placing an anode relatively close to the part to be plated and by sending the plating solution into the space between the two by means of a pump. This provides a plating speed 100 times faster than with conventional methods, while improving the quality of the plating coat considerably. The system is optimum for functional platings, and can be used for the plating of shock absorber rods, engine valves, engine cylinders, etc.
Technical Paper

Development of a Piston Secondary Motion Analysis Program with Elastically Deformable Piston Skirt

An original multi-body dynamics simulation program for reciprocating engine system with elastically deformable piston skirt was developed in order to understand and examine the secondary motion of piston. This program uses specialized equations of motion using only the rotational degree of freedom of each components taking the valiation of rotating speed of crank into account. In order to validate the practical use of this program, the calculations were compared with the measurements on the piston motion of a two-stroke engine for motorcycles and a four-stroke engine for automobiles, and good agreements were obtained between them.
Technical Paper

Effect by Fuel Cut with the Strong Hybrid Motorcycle to Improve the Fuel Consumption

Any improvements of the fuel economy with engines are always required for all petroleum fuel vehicles. The goal of such improvements must lead to reduce fuel consumption of the engines. However it may cause some deterioration with riding feeling that is one of the most important characteristics of the motorcycles. Yamaha has developed the strong hybrid motorcycle "HV-X"(hereafter the motorcycle). The motorcycle consists of a 4-stroke 250 cm₃ a cylinder engine and two 300V AC motors with a planetary gear set. The motorcycle reduces fuel consumption without severe influence onto the drive performance by utilizing the electric power.
Technical Paper

Effects of Surface Compound Layer on Bending Fatigue Strength of Nitrided Chromium-Molybdenum Steel

Carburized and quenched materials with high fatigue strength are often used for motorcycle engine parts. Nitrided materials exhibit less deformation during heat treatment than carburized and quenched materials, so if the same or higher fatigue strength can be achieved with nitrided materials as with carburized and quenched materials, the geometric precision of parts can be increased and we can reduce engine noise as well as power loss. When the fatigue strengths of a nitrided material with its compound layer surface put into γ’ phase through nitriding potential control (hereafter, G), and a nitrided material put into ε phase (hereafter, E) were measured, the results showed the fatigue strength of the G to be about 11% higher than that of carburized and quenched materials. It was inferred that the strength of the compound layer determines fatigue strength.
Technical Paper

Effects on Fuel Economy and NOx Emission Using Stratified Charge and EGR System for a Single Cylinder Motorcycle Engine

In this study, lean combustion concept was investigated to realize better Fuel Economy (FE) on a single cylinder motorcycle engine. A low-pressure direct injection (DI) system was applied to realize lean stratified combustion concept with good combustion stability. In addition, Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) system applicable to small motorcycle engines was used to attain FE improvement and NOx reduction. EGR gas temperature and EGR return position were focused on and effects on FE and NOx were investigated. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) was used to reveal EGR distribution and air motion in both the intake port and the cylinder. As a result, the influence of the stratified charge, EGR temperature and EGR return position on FE and NOx were explained quantitatively. These techniques were effective in reducing NOx and improving FE for a single cylinder motorcycle engine.
Technical Paper

Flow, Combustion and Emissions in a Five-Valve Research Gasoline Engine

The in-cylinder flow, mixture distribution, combustion and exhaust emissions in a research, five-valve purpose-built gasoline engine are discussed on the basis of measurements obtained using laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV), fast spark-plug hydrocarbon sampling, flame imaging and NOx/HC emissions using fast chemiluminescent and flame ionisation detectors/analysers. These measurements have been complemented by steady flow testing of various cylinder head configurations, involving single- and three-valve operation, in terms of flow capacity and in-cylinder tumble strength.