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Technical Paper

04 Emission Reduction by Cylinder Wall Injection in 2-Stroke S.I. Engines

2002-10-29
2002-32-1773
A direct injection system in which fuel was injected through the cylinder wall was developed and detailed investigation was made for the purpose of reducing short-circuit of fuel in 2-stroke engines. As a result of dynamo tests using 430cc single cylinder engine, it was found that the injector was best attached at a location as close to TDC as possible on the rear transfer port side, and that the entire amount of fuel should be injected towards the piston top surface. Emissions were worsened if fuel was injected towards the exhaust port or spark plug. Although the higher injection pressure resulted in large emissions reduction effects, it did not have a significant effect on fuel consumption. When a butterfly exhaust valve, known to be effective against irregular combustion in the light load range, was applied, it was found to lead to further reductions in HC emission and fuel consumption while also improving combustion stability.
Technical Paper

Advanced Super Charge System for Small Engines

1999-09-28
1999-01-3318
The specific output of 4-cycle engines are generally smaller than that of 2-cycle engines. Increasing engine speed is one method to improve the specific output, however, it contains some disadvantages in application. Hence, improvement in torque with the 4-cycle engine is desirable. Although torque could be improved by super-charging, it seems difficult to apply existing systems for small displacement engines due to problems of their size and cost. We have, therefore, newly developed a super-charging system named Advanced Crankcase Super Charge (hereinafter referred to as ACSC) using a crankcase as a supercharger. In this study, we made a 50cc single cylinder prototype engine with ACSC and carried out the engine unit tests and actual running tests on a scooter. From these tests, the torque that is twice as that of the naturally aspirated engine was obtained.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study of Connecting Rod Big Ends

1995-02-01
950202
Connecting rod design factors, such as geometric shape, capscrew torque and materials can significantly affect bore distortion and assembly stress. In this paper, experiments using different materials were conducted on several connecting rod big-ends with various shapes, bosses and bolts. The results show that the distortion of the big-end bore and the bolt stress are influenced considerably by the big-end shape, the bolt axial tension and the material under inertia force. It was also observed that the bolt bending stress and the load separating the big-end joint surface could be calculated with high accuracy using three-dimensional FEM in the initial connecting rod design.
Technical Paper

Analyses of Cycle-to-Cycle Variation of Combustion and In-Cylinder Flow in a Port Injection Gasoline Engine Using PIV and PLIF Techniques

2017-10-08
2017-01-2213
Reduction in the cycle-to-cycle variation (CCV) of combustion in internal combustion engines is required to reduce fuel consumption, exhaust emissions, and improve drivability. CCV increases at low load operations and lean/dilute burn conditions. Specifically, the factors that cause CCV of combustion are the cyclic variations of in-cylinder flow, in-cylinder distributions of fuel concentration, temperature and residual gas, and ignition energy. However, it is difficult to measure and analyze these factors in a production engine. This study used an optically accessible single-cylinder engine in which combustion and optical measurements were performed for 45 consecutive cycles. CCVs of the combustion and in-cylinder phenomena were investigated for the same cycle. Using this optically accessible engine, the volume inside the combustion chamber, including the pent-roof region can be observed through a quartz cylinder.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Behavior of Liquid in a Fuel Tank

1988-11-01
881782
The behavior of the liquid in the motorcycle fuel tank is an interesting theme from the viewpoint of the fuel meter construction, as effected by variance in the fuel pressure resulting from acceleration or deceleration, etc. It can be assumed that the behavior of the liquid in the fuel tank will be affected by the running pattern, the shape and capacity of the fuel tank, etc. Here is a report on an experiment recently made to observe how the liquid behaves in a partially fully enclosed tank. We simplified the tank shape and the involved conditions (to actually observe the behavior of the inside liquid by the suspension method.) Then we have analized the effectes according to different liquid containers, to different velocities, and to different liquid volumes as well as the time history variance in the internal pressure.
Technical Paper

Combustion Noise of Two-Stroke Gasoline Engines and its Reduction Techniques

1989-05-01
891125
In order to obtain more reduction of two-stroke motorcycle engine noise than usual, it becomes necessary to make improvements within the combustion process itself. This study was carried out for two objectives. One is the investigation of the relationship between combustion and noise, and the other one is the development of noise reduction techniques. As the result, it was discovered that there was a significant correlation between engine noise and (dP/dθ)max, called the maximum rate of cylinder pressure rise. Therefore, the reduction of the (dP/dθ) max was recognized to be effective for engine noise reduction. The optimized alteration of combustion chamber shape is the most effective noise reduction technique, because it is able to reduce (dP/dθ) max without any sacrifice of engine power. In fact, the level of noise reduction can be predicted by one of the parameters obtained from the combustion chamber shape.
Technical Paper

Development and Operation of a 1kW Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Stack

2009-11-03
2009-32-0031
Yamaha Motor Co., Ltd. has been developing 1kW generator system of direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). The performance and durability characterization of a 1kW DMFC stack that the weight of the stack was decreased 20% in comparison with that of previous stack was evaluated. The DMFC operation condition was optimized from the design of experiment and the results of the net output. The overall system efficiency of the Yamaha DMFC system using the stack became a maximum in current 20A, was 30%. The stack was generated at 20A under the Daily Start up and Shutdown (DSS) condition for 1500h. This report describes some latest results concerning the durability characterization, which were obtained in the NEDO's project.
Technical Paper

Development of CVT Shift Dynamic Simulation Model with Elastic Rubber V-Belt

2011-11-08
2011-32-0518
This paper presents a practical simulation model of the rubber V-belt CVT which is widely used as a low cost driveline element for small displacement motorcycles. The characteristic of this CVT is determined by the axial force balance between driver and driven pulleys, and the elastic force of a rubber V-belt. Because these axial and elastic forces are calculated by the kinematic and FEM analysis, a large-scale simulation model which costs long execution time for the calculation is needed to estimate the characteristic of CVT. This calculation uses the one-dimensional simulation model built up with MATLAB and SIMULINK environment, so that it was possible to get the calculation result with relatively low execution time. The elastic deformation of the rubber V-Belt was calculated by a simple spring model which was verified by experiments and FEM.
Technical Paper

Development of Computerized Lubrication System of 2-Stroke Gasoline Engines for Exhaust Smoke Reduction

1995-09-01
951800
YAMAHA MOTOR CO., LTD. has developed the YCLS system described in this report. The YCLS provides electrical support for a mechanical oil pump to offset its disadvantage. This system can reduce oil consumption at low engine speeds. As a result, it achieves its aim of reducing exhaust smoke, thus improving the dirty image of 2-stroke gasoline engines. Since the system reduces oil consumption in actual operation, it can be said that the technology contributes to resource saving.
Technical Paper

Development of Fracture Splitting Method for Case Hardened Connecting Rods

2004-09-27
2004-32-0064
The fracture splitting (FS) method for case hardened connecting rods has been developed to improve engine performance while decreasing production costs. The FS method is widely used for automotive connecting rods because it effectively improves their productivity. Normalized forging steels, microalloyed forging steels and powder metals have generally been used as the material in the FS method as they are easily split due to their brittleness. On the other hand, the materials to be used for high performance motorcycles are case hardened low carbon steels because they allow the connecting rods to be lightweight due to their high fatigue strengths. These materials, which have a hardened area of approx. 0.5mm in depth from the surface, have a ductile texture inside. This texture obstructs the crack propagation and makes the split force too high to split without deforming the bearing area.
Journal Article

Development of Fracture-Split Connecting Rods Made of Titanium Alloy for Use on Supersport Motorcycles

2015-11-17
2015-32-0830
A connecting rod made of titanium alloy is effective for lower fuel consumption and higher power output comparing to a steel one because the titanium connecting rod enables to reduce the weight of both of reciprocating and rotating parts in an entire engine substantially. But up to now, it has been adopted only to expensive and small-lot production models because a material cost is high, a processing is difficult and a wear on a sliding area should be prevented. In order to adopt the titanium connecting rods into a more types of motorcycles, appropriate materials, processing methods and surface treatment were considered. Hot forging process was applied not only to reduce a machining volume but also to enhance a material strength and stiffness. And the fracture-splitting (FS) method for the big-end of the titanium connecting rod was put into a practical use.
Technical Paper

Development of Magnetostriction-type Load Sensor for Measurement System Using Motorcycle Testing Robot

2002-03-04
2002-01-1073
A control system for auto driving of motorcycle using anthropomorphic robot has been developed to efficiently evaluate a motorcycle with high accuracy, the performance of which is becoming higher. For magnetostriction-type load sensor, which is absolutely necessary for this system, the strain gauge type load cell has been used conventionally. However, the detection sensitivity, strength, and responsibility have not been satisfied completely under engine vibration conditions. To solve this problem, a magnetostriction-type load sensor has been newly developed. As a result of the tests with actual machines, it is found that this magnetostriction-type load sensor satisfies the conditions necessary for the motorcycle drive control system and measurement system.
Technical Paper

Development of Motorcycle Engine Starting System Simulation Considering Air-Fuel Ratio Control

2017-11-05
2017-32-0045
Recently the response of the engine speed at starting has more importance than ever for quick start satisfying rider’s needs, as well as exhaust emissions. We have developed a simulation for studying engine and starter specifications, engine control algorithm and other engine control parameters. This system can be utilized to realize appropriate starting time by considering air-fuel ratio under various conditions. This paper addresses what are taken account of in our method. Examples applying this to a conventional motorcycle engine are shown.
Technical Paper

Development of Pollution-Free Rapid Plating System

1985-11-11
852264
It is in the plating process that the worst bottleneck occurs in plant automation. We, however, have succeeded in making our plating process free from pollution and compact, allowing us to install this system within a production line and consequently establish a continuous production line resulting in a decrease in plating cost to about 1/2 of the previous cost. We have achieved an excellent chrome plating speed of 60µ/min, by placing an anode relatively close to the part to be plated and by sending the plating solution into the space between the two by means of a pump. This provides a plating speed 100 times faster than with conventional methods, while improving the quality of the plating coat considerably. The system is optimum for functional platings, and can be used for the plating of shock absorber rods, engine valves, engine cylinders, etc.
Technical Paper

Effect by Fuel Cut with the Strong Hybrid Motorcycle to Improve the Fuel Consumption

2012-10-23
2012-32-0086
Any improvements of the fuel economy with engines are always required for all petroleum fuel vehicles. The goal of such improvements must lead to reduce fuel consumption of the engines. However it may cause some deterioration with riding feeling that is one of the most important characteristics of the motorcycles. Yamaha has developed the strong hybrid motorcycle "HV-X"(hereafter the motorcycle). The motorcycle consists of a 4-stroke 250 cm₃ a cylinder engine and two 300V AC motors with a planetary gear set. The motorcycle reduces fuel consumption without severe influence onto the drive performance by utilizing the electric power.
Technical Paper

Effects on Fuel Economy and NOx Emission Using Stratified Charge and EGR System for a Single Cylinder Motorcycle Engine

2008-09-09
2008-32-0018
In this study, lean combustion concept was investigated to realize better Fuel Economy (FE) on a single cylinder motorcycle engine. A low-pressure direct injection (DI) system was applied to realize lean stratified combustion concept with good combustion stability. In addition, Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) system applicable to small motorcycle engines was used to attain FE improvement and NOx reduction. EGR gas temperature and EGR return position were focused on and effects on FE and NOx were investigated. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) was used to reveal EGR distribution and air motion in both the intake port and the cylinder. As a result, the influence of the stratified charge, EGR temperature and EGR return position on FE and NOx were explained quantitatively. These techniques were effective in reducing NOx and improving FE for a single cylinder motorcycle engine.
Technical Paper

Flow, Combustion and Emissions in a Five-Valve Research Gasoline Engine

2001-09-24
2001-01-3556
The in-cylinder flow, mixture distribution, combustion and exhaust emissions in a research, five-valve purpose-built gasoline engine are discussed on the basis of measurements obtained using laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV), fast spark-plug hydrocarbon sampling, flame imaging and NOx/HC emissions using fast chemiluminescent and flame ionisation detectors/analysers. These measurements have been complemented by steady flow testing of various cylinder head configurations, involving single- and three-valve operation, in terms of flow capacity and in-cylinder tumble strength.
Journal Article

Friction Measurement of Al-17%Si Monolithic Cylinder with using Newly Developed Floating Liner Device

2014-11-11
2014-32-0052
The improvement of fuel consumption is the most important issue for engine manufactures from the viewpoint of energy and environment conservation. A piston-cylinder system plays an important role for the reduction of an engine friction. For the improvement of the frictional behavior of the piston-cylinder system, it is beneficial to observe and analyze the frictional waveforms during an engine operation. To meet the above-mentioned demand, frictional waveforms were measured with using the renewed floating liner device. In the newly developed floating liner device, an actual cylinder block itself was used as a test specimen. The measured single cylinder was an aluminum monolithic type made of hypereutectic Al-17%Si alloy using a high pressure die casting process. The combined piston was a light weight forged piston and a DLC coated piston ring was used. For the measurement, 110cc air cooled single cylinder engine was used.
Technical Paper

Fuel Cell System for Two-Wheeled Vehicles

2005-10-12
2005-32-0077
Direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) system is a compact lightweight system as it eliminates the need of a complex reformer unit. Moreover, since the methanol-water-solution used as fuel does not correspond to a flammable substance, it is thought that convenience is high. We have developed the hybrid scooter integrated with the DMFC system and the Li-ion rechargeable batteries, and optimized various parameters related to the performance and the efficiency. The power output of the DMFC system was adjusted to the value necessary for a constant ground run in 30 km/h of a commercial small electric scooter. All the system components had to be constituted in the limited space and under the restricted weight conditions. The net-power-output of the system was examined under various air flow rate, fuel flow rate and methanol concentration conditions.
Technical Paper

Fuel Injection System for Small Motorcycles

2003-09-15
2003-32-0084
Attempts have been made to develop an electronically controlled fuel injection system that is ideal for small motorcycles, cost-efficient, compact, and electric power-saving while maintaining accuracy. For reducing the number of sensors and cost, highly accurate methods have been developed for the measurement of intake air mass, detection of acceleration, distinction of engine stroke, and estimation of atmospheric pressure without using a throttle position sensor, cam timing sensor, and barometric sensor in such a manner as to carry out sampling with the intake manifold pressure of single-cylinder engines synchronizing with the crank angle. For compactness and electric power saving, an injector and in-tank fuel pump module have been developed for small motorcycles.
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