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Technical Paper

A Study of LPG Lean Burn for a Small SI Engine

2002-10-21
2002-01-2844
This paper presents a study of LPG lean burn in a motorcycle SI engine. The lean burn limits are compared by several ways. The relations of lean burn limit with the parameters, such as engine speed, compression ratio and advanced spark ignition etc. are tested. The experimental results show that larger throttle opening, lower engine speed, earlier spark ignition timing, larger electrode gap and higher compression ratio will extend the lean burn limit of LPG. The emission of a LPG engine, especially on NOx emission, can be significantly reduced by means of the lean burn technology.
Journal Article

An Analysis of Lubricating Gap Flow in Radial Piston Machines

2014-09-30
2014-01-2407
Radial piston units find several applications in fluid power, offering benefits of low noise and high power density. The capability to generate high pressures makes radial piston pumps suitable for clamping function in machine tools and also to operate presses for sheet metal forming. This study is aimed at developing a comprehensive multidomain simulation tool to model the operation of a rotating cam type radial piston pump, with particular reference to the lubricating gap flow between the pistons and the cylinder block. The model consists of a first module which simulates the main flow through the unit according to a lumped parameter approach. This module evaluates the features of the displacing action accounting for the detailed evaluation of the machine kinematics and for the mechanical dynamics of the check valves used to control the timing for the connection of each piston chamber with the inlet and outlet port.
Technical Paper

An Elementary Simulation of Vibration Isolation Characteristics of Hydraulically Damped Rubber Mount of Car Engine

2001-04-30
2001-01-1453
Hydraulically damped rubber engine mounts (HDM) are an effective means of providing sufficient isolation from engine vibration while also providing significant damping to control the rigid body motions of the engine during normal driving conditions. This results in a system which exhibits a high degree of non-linearity in terms of both frequency and amplitude. The numerical simulation of vibration isolation characteristics of HDM is difficult due to the fluid-structure interaction between the main supporting rubber and fluid in chambers, the nonlinear material properties, the large deformation of rubber parts, structure contact problems among the inner parts, and the turbulent flow in the inertia track. In this paper an integrated numerical simulation analysis based on structural FEM and a lumped-parameter model of HDM is carried out.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Energy Consumption on Typical Main Cylinder Booster Based Brake-by-Wire System

2016-09-18
2016-01-1955
The traditional vacuum booster is gradually replaced by Brake-by-Wire system (BBW) in modern passenger car, especially Electric Vehicle (EV). Some mechanical and hydraulic components are replaced by electronic components in Brake-by-Wire system. Using BBW system in modern passenger vehicles can not only improve the automotive safety performance, reliability and stability, but also promote vehicle maneuverability, comfort, fuel economy and environmental protection. Although vehicle's braking performance is greatly improved by using BBW, the system will inevitably consume some energy of the vehicle power supply, thus introducing unexpected drawback in comparison with the traditional vacuum assist braking system, since it doesn't need any electric power. Therefore, the analysis of energy consumption on typical main cylinder booster based BBW system under typical driving cycles will contribute to advanced design of current advanced braking system.
Technical Paper

Automobile Interior Noise Prediction Based on Energy Finite Element Method

2011-04-12
2011-01-0507
For the purpose of predicting the interior noise of a passenger automobile at middle and high frequency, an energy finite element analysis (EFEA) model of the automobile was created using EFEA method. The excitations including engine mount excitation and road excitation were measured by road experiment at a speed of 120 km/h. The sound excitation was measured in a semi-anechoic chamber. And the wind excitation was calculated utilizing numeric computation method of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The sound pressure level (SPL) and energy density contours of the interior acoustic cavity of the automobile were presented at 2000 Hz. Meanwhile, the flexural energy density and flexural velocity of body plates were calculated. The SPL of interior noise was predicted and compared with the corresponding value of experiment.
Journal Article

Cold and Warm Start Characteristics using HVO and RME Blends in a V6 Diesel Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-1306
The first several cycles determine the quality of an engine start. Low temperatures and air/fuel ratio cause incomplete combustion of the fuel. This can lead to dramatic increases in HC and PM emissions. In order to meet Euro V legislation requirements which have stricter cold start emission levels, it is critical to study the characteristics of cold and warm starting of engines in order to develop an optimized operation. The NO and THC emissions were measured by fast CLD and Fast FID gas analyzers respectively and PM in both nucleation and accumulation modes were measured by DMS500. The coolant temperature was controlled in order to guarantee the experiment repeatability. The results show that at cold start using RME60 produced higher NO and lower THC than the other tested fuels while combustion of HVO60 produced a similar level of NO but lower THC compared with mineral diesel. Meanwhile, the nucleation mode of mineral diesel was similar to RME60 but higher than HVO60.
Technical Paper

Combustion and Emissions Characteristics of a Small Spark-Ignited LPG Engine

2002-05-06
2002-01-1738
This paper presents an experimental study of the emission characteristics of a small Spark-Ignited, LPG engine. A single cylinder, four-stroke, water-cooled, 125cc SI engine for motorcycle is modified for using LPG fuel. The power output of LPG is above 95% power output of gasoline. The emission characteristics of LPG are compared with the gasoline. The test result shows that LPG for small SI engine will help to reduce the emission level of motorcycles. The HC and CO emission level can be reduced greatly, but NOx emissions are increased. The emission of motorcycle using LPG shows the potential to meet the more strict regulation.
Technical Paper

Combustion and Emissions of Ethanol Fuel (E100) in a Small SI Engine

2003-10-27
2003-01-3262
An air-cooled, four-stroke, 125 cc electronic gasoline fuel injection SI engine for motorcycles is altered to burn ethanol fuel. The effects of nozzle orifice size, fuel injection duration, spark timing and the excess air/ fuel ratio on engine power output, fuel and energy consumptions and engine exhaust emission levels are studied on an engine test bed. The results show that the maximum engine power output is increased by 5.4% and the maximum torque output is increased by 1.9% with the ethanol fuel in comparison with the baseline. At full load and 7000 r/min, HC emission is decreased by 38% and CO emission is decreased 46% on average over the whole engine speed range. However, NOx levels are increased to meet the maximum power output. The experiments of the spark timing show that the levels of HC and NOx emission are decreased markedly by the delay of spark timing.
Technical Paper

Control System Design for Variable Nozzle Turbocharger

2009-06-11
2009-01-1668
The electronic control system of the variable nozzle turbocharger (VNT) was designed. The actuator is the electro-hydraulic servo proportional solenoid. The signals of the engine pedal position sensor, the engine speed sensor, the boost pressure sensor, the intake air temperature sensor, and the ambient pressure sensor are sampled and filtered. The engine working condition is estimated. The control algorithm was designed as the closed-loop feedback digital PI control together with the open-loop feed forward control. The gain-scheduled PI control method is applied to improve the robustness. The control system was calibrated at the turbocharger test bench and the engine test bench. The results indicate the designed control system has good performance for the boost pressure control under the steady and transient conditions.
Technical Paper

Coordinating Control Oriented Research on Algorithm of Engine Torque Estimation for Parallel Hybrid Electric Powertrain System

2004-03-08
2004-01-0424
The internal combustion engine and motor should be controlled coordinately to meet the demand of smooth power transfer and good drivability especially during transient conditions for parallel hybrid powertrain system. This paper presents the essential technology of how to estimate the engine torque by the measurement and processing of instantaneous crankshaft speed. One multi-injection gasoline engine and one turbocharged diesel engine are selected to manifest the algorithm of engine torque estimation and the experiments show fairly good results for both engines. Consequently an engine torque sensor can be easily calibrated and applied to feedback engine torque in coordinating control.
Technical Paper

Determination of Aeration of Oil in High Pressure Chamber of Hydraulic Lash Adjuster in Valve Train

1999-03-01
1999-01-0646
Use of a hydraulic lash adjuster (HLA) in the valve train has some problems as well as several advantages. One of the problems is less stiffness of valve train, which may be further reduced when aeration of the oil in the oil circuit occurs. The much lower stiffness will lead to malfunction, noise and damage with the valve train. So the aeration of oil in HLA high pressure chamber must be considered in modeling and simulation of the valve train. Since air dissolved capacity in the oil varies with pressure, aeration (undissolved air content) in the high pressure chamber is different from that in the oil circuit. So far, only the air content in the oil circuit has been measured, and few reports have been found on determining the aeration in HLA of an operating valve train. Based on knowledge that HLA collapse is caused by compressibility and leakage of oil, a method of determining the aeration of the oil in the high pressure chamber is introduced.
Technical Paper

Development of the Main Controller of Compressed Natural Gas Engine Based on the 32-Digit PowerPC561

2008-06-23
2008-01-1738
To realize the precise control of injection and ignition of compressed natural gas engine, the 32-Digit PowerPC561 was selected as the single-chip microcomputer for the compressed natural gas engine. The signal processing module, controller module and power driver module of the engine control system were introduced successively. In the injection valve drive circuit, a new design method realized the ‘Peak&Hold’ drive current wave shape, which reduced the software work of injection development. In the ignition module circuit, the feedback of the time of ignition persistence and preliminary coil close period were successfully realized. The Engine Control Unit (ECU) has flexible control functions, which fulfill the requirements of engine control system.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Characteristic Analysis of a Hydraulic Engine Mount with Lumped Model Based on Finite Element Analysis

2003-05-05
2003-01-1462
Hydraulic Engine Mount (HEM) is now widely used as a highly effective vibration isolator in automotive powertrain. A lumped parameter model is a traditional model for modeling the dynamic characteristics of HEM, in which the system parameters are usually obtained by experiments. In this paper, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method and nonlinear Finite Element Analysis (FEA) are used to determine the system parameters. A Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI) FEA technique is used to estimate the parameters of volumetric compliances, equivalent piston area, inertia and resistance of the fluid in the inertia track and decoupler of a HEM. A nonlinear FEA method is applied to determine the dynamic stiffness of rubber spring of the HEM. The system parameters predicated by FEA are compared favorably with experimental data and/or analytical solutions.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Injection Characteristics on Heat Release and Emissions in a DI Diesel Engine Operated on DME

2001-09-24
2001-01-3634
In this study, an experimental investigation was conducted using a direct injection single-cylinder diesel engine equipped with a test common rail fuel injection system to clarify how dimethyl ether (DME) injection characteristics affect the heat release and exhaust emissions. For that purpose the common rail fuel injection system (injection pressure: 15 MPa) and injection nozzle (0.55 × 5-holes, 0.70 × 3-holes, same total holes area) have been used for the test. First, to characterize the effect of DME physical properties on the macroscopic spray behavior: injection quantity, injection rate, penetration, cone angle, volume were measured using high-pressure injection chamber (pressure: 4MPa). In order to clarify effects of the injection process on HC, CO, and NOx emissions, as well as the rate of heat release were investigated by single-cylinder engine test. The effects of the injection rate and swirl ratio on exhaust emissions and heat release were also investigated.
Journal Article

Experimental Investigation of the Mechanical Behavior of Aluminum Adhesive Joints under Mixed-Mode Loading Conditions

2018-04-03
2018-01-0105
In recent years, structural adhesives have rapidly become the preferred alternative to resistance spot welding in fabricating stronger, lighter aluminum connections. Connections inevitably undergo and must withstand complex quasi-static and/or dynamic loads during their service life. Therefore, understanding how loading conditions affect the mechanical behavior of adhesive joints is vital to their design and the advancement of structural safety. Quasi-static and dynamic tests are performed to analyze both the strength and failure modes of aluminum 6062 substrates bonded by an adhesive (Darbond EP-1506) for an array of loading directions. An Arcan test device, which enables application of mixed-mode loads ranging from pure peel (mode I) to pure shear (mode II) to the adhesive layer, is employed in quasi-static testing. A self-designed medium-speed test machine is utilized to perform dynamic testing.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study on Source Identification of Bus Floor's Vibration

2014-04-01
2014-01-0014
To find out the main excitation sources of a bus floor's vibration, modal analysis and spectral analysis were respectively performed in the paper. First we tested the vibration modal of the bus's floor under the full-load condition, and the first ten natural frequencies and vibration modes were obtained for the source identification of the bus floor's vibration. Second the vibration characteristic of the bus floor was measured in an on-road experiment. The acceleration sensors were arranged on the bus's floor and the possible excitation sources of the bus, which includes engine mounting system, driveline system, exhaust system, and wheels. Then the on-road experiment was carefully conducted on a highway under the four kinds of test condition: in-situ acceleration, uniform velocity (90km/h, 100km/h, 110km/h, 120km/h), uniform acceleration with top gear, and stall sliding condition with neutral gear.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Analytical Property Characterization of a Self-Damped Pneumatic Suspension System

2010-10-05
2010-01-1894
This study investigates the fundamental stiffness and damping properties of a self-damped pneumatic suspension system, based on both the experimental and analytical analyses. The pneumatic suspension system consists of a pneumatic cylinder and an accumulator that are connected by an orifice, where damping is realized by the gas flow resistance through the orifice. The nonlinear suspension system model is derived and also linearized for facilitating the properties characterization. An experimental setup is also developed for validating both the formulated nonlinear and linearized models. The comparisons between the measured data and simulation results demonstrate the validity of the models under the operating conditions considered. Two suspension property measures, namely equivalent stiffness coefficient and loss factor, are further formulated.
Technical Paper

Glow Plug Assisted Compression Ignition (GA-CI) in Cold Conditions

2017-10-08
2017-01-2288
Low temperature combustion (LTC) is an advanced combustion mode, which can achieve low emissions of NOx and PM simultaneously, and keep relatively high thermal efficiency at the same time. However, one of the major challenges for LTC is the cold condition. In cold conditions, stable compression ignition is hard to realize, while thermal efficiency and emissions deteriorate, especially for gasoline or fuel with high octane number. This study presents using pressure sensor glow plugs (PSG) to realize Glow plug assisted compression ignition (GA-CI) at cold conditions. Further, a glow plug control unit (GPCU) is developed, a closed-loop power feedback control algorithm is introduced based on GPCU. In the experiment, engine coolant temperature is swept. Experimental results show that GA-CI has earlier combustion phases, larger combustion duration and higher in-cylinder pressure. And misfire is avoided, cycle-to-cycle variations are greatly reduced.
Technical Paper

Impact Theory Based Total Cylinder Sampling System and its Application

2008-06-23
2008-01-1795
A novel non-destroy repeatable-use impact theory based total cylinder sampling system has been established. This system is mainly composed of a knocking body and a sampling valve. The knocking body impacts the sampling valve with certain velocity resulting in huge force to open the sampling valve and most of the in-cylinder gas has been dumped to one sampling bag for after-treatment. The feasibility and sampling response characteristics of this impact theory based total cylinder sampling system were investigated by engine bench testing. Within 0 to 35°CA ATDC (Crank Angle After Top Dead Center) sample timing 50 percent to 80 percent of in-cylinder mass would be sampled, which was a little less compared with the traditional system. The half decay period of pressure drop was 10 to 20 degrees crank angle within 0 to 60°CA ATDC sample timing, which was about 2-3 times of the traditional system.
Journal Article

Impact of Particle Characteristics and Engine Conditions on Deposit-Induced Pre-Ignition and Superknock in Turbocharged Gasoline Engines

2017-10-08
2017-01-2345
Low Speed Pre-Ignition (LSPI), also referred to as superknock or mega-knock is an undesirable turbocharged engine combustion phenomenon limiting fuel economy, drivability, emissions and durability performance. Numerous researchers have previously reported that the frequency of Superknock is sensitive to engine oil and fuel composition as well as engine conditions in controlled laboratory and engine-based studies. Recent studies by Toyota and Tsinghua University have demonstrated that controlled induction of particles into the combustion chamber can induce pre-ignition and superknock. Afton and Tsinghua recently developed a multi-physics approach which was able to realistically model all of the elementary processes known to be involved in deposit induced pre-ignition. The approach was able to successfully simulate deposit induced pre-ignition at conditions where the phenomenon has been experimentally observed.
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