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Technical Paper

A Multi-mode Control Strategy for EV Based on Typical Situation

2017-03-28
2017-01-0438
A multitude of recent studies are suggestive of the EV as a paramount representative of the NEV, its development direction is transformed from “individuals adapt to vehicles” to “vehicles serve for occupants”. The multi-mode drive control technology is relatively mature in traditional auto control sphere, however, a host of EV continues to use a single control strategy, which lacks of flexibility and diversity, little if nothing interprets the vehicle performances. Furthermore, due to the complex road environment and peculiarity of vehicle occupants that different requirement has been made for vehicle performance. To solve above problems, this paper uses the key technology of mathematical statistics process in MATLAB, such as the mean, linear fitting and discrete algorithms to clean up, screening and classification the original data in general rules, and based on short trips in the segments of kinematics analysis method to establish a representative of quintessential driving cycle.
Technical Paper

A Study of LPG Lean Burn for a Small SI Engine

2002-10-21
2002-01-2844
This paper presents a study of LPG lean burn in a motorcycle SI engine. The lean burn limits are compared by several ways. The relations of lean burn limit with the parameters, such as engine speed, compression ratio and advanced spark ignition etc. are tested. The experimental results show that larger throttle opening, lower engine speed, earlier spark ignition timing, larger electrode gap and higher compression ratio will extend the lean burn limit of LPG. The emission of a LPG engine, especially on NOx emission, can be significantly reduced by means of the lean burn technology.
Technical Paper

A Study on Nonlinear Stiffness Characteristic of Air Spring for a Bus

2002-11-18
2002-01-3092
Using the nonlinear finite element analysis, three nonlinear characteristics of the rubber gasbag of the air spring on the bus are thoroughly analyzed, including the nonlinear characteristic of the rubber gasbag with multi layers of composite materials, the nonlinear large displacement geometry characteristic of the rubber gasbag on working, and the nonlinear contact characteristic of the rubber gasbag when contacts the pedestal and the top cover plate. A model is build and the nonlinear characteristic of the air spring on the bus is analyzed using the ABAQUS software. At last, the article discusses parameters that influence on the characteristic of the air spring for the bus.
Technical Paper

Active Noise Control Method Considering Auditory Characteristics

2012-04-16
2012-01-0993
In contrast to functionality and reliability, which are more and more assumed to be a natural and necessary condition of any vehicle, the performance of Noise, Vibration and Harshness (NVH) now belongs to those features which play an essential role for the customer's purchasing decision. Sound design and vehicle interior noise control are essential parts of NVH. One tool of the NVH solution toolbox is Active Noise Control (ANC). ANC technology aims to cancel unwanted noise by generating an “anti-noise” with equal amplitude and opposite phase. Owing to the fact that human hearing has selective sensitivity for different critical bands, a new control strategy of ANC, which selectively controls the noise of specific bandwidths according to the result of specific loudness and retains the part of noise created by the normal running of facilities, trying to attenuate the unwanted and unacceptable noise, has been proposed in this paper.
Technical Paper

Aeroelastic Response and Structural Improvement for Heavy-Duty Truck Cab Deflectors

2019-01-14
2019-01-5004
Numerical simulations on the fluid-structure interaction were conducted using commercial software STAR-CCM+ and ABAQUS. The aeroelastic responses of a deflector under several different working conditions were simulated utilizing finite volume and finite element methods to investigate the aeroelastic problem of automotive deflectors. Results showed that the structural response of a top deflector is minimal under the influence of aerodynamics given its large structural stiffness. The size of the top deflector was optimised by using thickness as a variable. The volume and quality of the top deflector were significantly reduced, and its lightweight performance was improved to satisfy the stiffness performance requirement. The vibration of a side deflector structure was mainly induced by the turbulence on the structure surface. The amplitude of vibration was small and the vibration gradually converged in a few seconds without obvious regularity.
Technical Paper

An Elementary Simulation of Vibration Isolation Characteristics of Hydraulically Damped Rubber Mount of Car Engine

2001-04-30
2001-01-1453
Hydraulically damped rubber engine mounts (HDM) are an effective means of providing sufficient isolation from engine vibration while also providing significant damping to control the rigid body motions of the engine during normal driving conditions. This results in a system which exhibits a high degree of non-linearity in terms of both frequency and amplitude. The numerical simulation of vibration isolation characteristics of HDM is difficult due to the fluid-structure interaction between the main supporting rubber and fluid in chambers, the nonlinear material properties, the large deformation of rubber parts, structure contact problems among the inner parts, and the turbulent flow in the inertia track. In this paper an integrated numerical simulation analysis based on structural FEM and a lumped-parameter model of HDM is carried out.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Energy Consumption on Typical Main Cylinder Booster Based Brake-by-Wire System

2016-09-18
2016-01-1955
The traditional vacuum booster is gradually replaced by Brake-by-Wire system (BBW) in modern passenger car, especially Electric Vehicle (EV). Some mechanical and hydraulic components are replaced by electronic components in Brake-by-Wire system. Using BBW system in modern passenger vehicles can not only improve the automotive safety performance, reliability and stability, but also promote vehicle maneuverability, comfort, fuel economy and environmental protection. Although vehicle's braking performance is greatly improved by using BBW, the system will inevitably consume some energy of the vehicle power supply, thus introducing unexpected drawback in comparison with the traditional vacuum assist braking system, since it doesn't need any electric power. Therefore, the analysis of energy consumption on typical main cylinder booster based BBW system under typical driving cycles will contribute to advanced design of current advanced braking system.
Journal Article

Analysis of Performance Parameters of Torsional Vibration Damper Under Various Operating Conditions

2013-04-08
2013-01-1488
The performance parameters of torsional vibration damper, including stiffness and damping, have great influence on the torsional vibration of automobile driveline. At present, the research on torsional vibration damper mainly concentrates on the torsional stiffness, but rarely on the torsional damping characteristics. This paper systematically studied the effect of torsional stiffness and damping on torsional vibration of automobile driveline under uniform speed conditions, accelerated and decelerated conditions, idling conditions and resonance conditions. The requirements on stiffness and damping of various operating conditions were summarized. The effect and requirements researched were useful to performance match design of torsional vibration damper.
Technical Paper

Automatic Drive Train Management System for 4WD Vehicle Based on Road Situation Identification

2018-04-03
2018-01-0987
The slip ratio of vehicle driving wheels is easily beyond a reasonable range in the complex and changeable driving conditions. In order to achieve the adaptive acceleration slip regulation of four-wheel driving (4WD) vehicle, a fuzzy control strategy of Automatic Drive Train Management (ADM) system based on road situation identification was proposed in this paper. Firstly, the influence on the control strategy of ADM system was analyzed from two aspects, which included the different road adhesion coefficients and the vehicle’s ramp driving state. In the meantime several quantitative expressions of relevant control parameters were derived. Secondly, the fuzzy logic control algorithm was adopted to design a road situation identification subsystem and a ramp driving state identification subsystem respectively. The former was based on the μ-S curve model, and the latter was based on the vehicle driving equilibrium equation.
Technical Paper

Automobile Interior Noise Prediction Based on Energy Finite Element Method

2011-04-12
2011-01-0507
For the purpose of predicting the interior noise of a passenger automobile at middle and high frequency, an energy finite element analysis (EFEA) model of the automobile was created using EFEA method. The excitations including engine mount excitation and road excitation were measured by road experiment at a speed of 120 km/h. The sound excitation was measured in a semi-anechoic chamber. And the wind excitation was calculated utilizing numeric computation method of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The sound pressure level (SPL) and energy density contours of the interior acoustic cavity of the automobile were presented at 2000 Hz. Meanwhile, the flexural energy density and flexural velocity of body plates were calculated. The SPL of interior noise was predicted and compared with the corresponding value of experiment.
Technical Paper

Braking Force Identification of EMB Using Recursive Least-squares Method and Disturbance Observer Iteratively

2018-04-03
2018-01-1381
An identification method using recursive least-squares method with moving data window and reduced-order disturbance observer iteratively is proposed in this paper to identify fast time-varying braking force in the electronic mechanical braking system (EMB). For the type of EMB which generates braking force by balls screw and motor mounted beside wheel, the actuator will go rapidly to eliminate clearance at beginning of braking process by means of raising the braking response speed, and at the same time, increasing the motor output torque which might be far larger than required. The proposed identification method is able to identify the point of contact between the brake pads and the disk in time by identifying the change of break force, and the torque of motor will be changed in time to reduce the braking force overshoot so that brake locking is avoided.
Technical Paper

CATARC New Type Drivetrain NVH Test Facility

2019-04-02
2019-01-0788
A vehicle’s NVH performance has a significant impact on the user experience of the driver and passengers. About one-third of the vehicle complaints are related to NVH performance. As the core component of the vehicle, the drivetrain’s NVH characteristics have a significant impact on vehicle comfort. How to reliably and stably reproduce the specific condition of the whole vehicle through the test method, and obtain the highly consistent objective data for analyzing and improving the NVH characteristics of the drivetrain is of great significance in engineering. For this purpose, China Automotive Technology Research Center Co., Ltd. (CATARC) designed and built a new type drivetrain NVH test facility, which consists of five dynamometers, and can carry horizontal/vertical, front/rear drive or four-wheel drive structures including powertrain, transmission, and rear axle, or even a whole vehicle.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Particulate Emissions Fueled with LPG and Gasoline in a Small SI Engine

2004-10-25
2004-01-2901
This paper presents experimental studies of particulate emissions in a small SI engine fueled with LPG and gasoline fuels. A single cylinder, four-stroke, water-cooled, 125cc EFI engine with gasoline fuel is used as the baseline engine. Characteristics of the particulate emissions of the two fuels are compared. Test results show that: there are great quantities of particulate emissions for both fuels, but the total numbers of particulate emissions for the two fuels are generally in the same level. The distribution of the particulate sizes is in bimodal type for the gasoline, but for the LPG its first peak is not markedly in some conditions. The particulate sizes of the second peak for the two fuels appear at about the same size. At middle loads and 3000r/min, the particulate emissions for both of the two fuels are the greatest.
Journal Article

Cold and Warm Start Characteristics using HVO and RME Blends in a V6 Diesel Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-1306
The first several cycles determine the quality of an engine start. Low temperatures and air/fuel ratio cause incomplete combustion of the fuel. This can lead to dramatic increases in HC and PM emissions. In order to meet Euro V legislation requirements which have stricter cold start emission levels, it is critical to study the characteristics of cold and warm starting of engines in order to develop an optimized operation. The NO and THC emissions were measured by fast CLD and Fast FID gas analyzers respectively and PM in both nucleation and accumulation modes were measured by DMS500. The coolant temperature was controlled in order to guarantee the experiment repeatability. The results show that at cold start using RME60 produced higher NO and lower THC than the other tested fuels while combustion of HVO60 produced a similar level of NO but lower THC compared with mineral diesel. Meanwhile, the nucleation mode of mineral diesel was similar to RME60 but higher than HVO60.
Technical Paper

Combined Control Strategy for Engine Rotate Speed in the Shift Process of Automated Mechanical Transmission

2004-03-08
2004-01-0427
For the purpose of lessening fuel consumption, engine noise, shift jerk and clutch friction work in the shift process of Automatic Mechanical Transmission (AMT), a fuzzy-bang bang dual mode control strategy for engine rotate speed is put forward in this paper, which takes the advantages of time optimal control and fuzzy control. The combined control strategy is applied to the shift process control of AMT test minibus named SC6350 and proved to be successful by the experimental results.
Technical Paper

Combustion and Emissions Characteristics of a Small Spark-Ignited LPG Engine

2002-05-06
2002-01-1738
This paper presents an experimental study of the emission characteristics of a small Spark-Ignited, LPG engine. A single cylinder, four-stroke, water-cooled, 125cc SI engine for motorcycle is modified for using LPG fuel. The power output of LPG is above 95% power output of gasoline. The emission characteristics of LPG are compared with the gasoline. The test result shows that LPG for small SI engine will help to reduce the emission level of motorcycles. The HC and CO emission level can be reduced greatly, but NOx emissions are increased. The emission of motorcycle using LPG shows the potential to meet the more strict regulation.
Technical Paper

Combustion and Emissions of Ethanol Fuel (E100) in a Small SI Engine

2003-10-27
2003-01-3262
An air-cooled, four-stroke, 125 cc electronic gasoline fuel injection SI engine for motorcycles is altered to burn ethanol fuel. The effects of nozzle orifice size, fuel injection duration, spark timing and the excess air/ fuel ratio on engine power output, fuel and energy consumptions and engine exhaust emission levels are studied on an engine test bed. The results show that the maximum engine power output is increased by 5.4% and the maximum torque output is increased by 1.9% with the ethanol fuel in comparison with the baseline. At full load and 7000 r/min, HC emission is decreased by 38% and CO emission is decreased 46% on average over the whole engine speed range. However, NOx levels are increased to meet the maximum power output. The experiments of the spark timing show that the levels of HC and NOx emission are decreased markedly by the delay of spark timing.
Technical Paper

Commercial Vehicles Thrust Rod Static and Dynamic Characteristics Analysis

2016-10-17
2016-01-2345
In order to study the static and dynamic characteristics of the thrust rod. Based on the multi-body dynamics theory, the dynamic model of the thrust rod and the vehicle system is established by using ADAMS software. The limit braking condition is simulated, and the limit braking load of the thrust rod is obtained. Thrust rod finite element model is established, the load calculation value and rubber test data as a finite element analysis of input conditions, using ABAQUS software to carry on the stiffness and strength analysis, analysis results show that the strength meets the requirement, and the stiffness and strength calculation result is in good agreement with the sample test, accurately describes the finite element model. The analytical method used can be used to predict the stiffness of the thrust rod.
Technical Paper

Comparative Analysis of Truck Ride Comfort of 4 Degree of Freedom Rigid-Elastic Model with 2 Degree of Freedom Rigid Model

2015-04-14
2015-01-0615
In order to study the influence of body flexibility on the truck ride comfort, a 4 DOF half vibration model of truck based on the motion synthesis between rigid body and body flexibility is established using elastic beam theory of equal section with both free ends. At the same time, a corresponding 2 DOF rigid vibration model is also built. The frequency response functions of system and response variables of two models are derived based on front wheel. The power spectral densities and the root mean square values of body acceleration, dynamic deflections and relative dynamic loads are obtained. By comparing the simulation results of rigid-elastic model and rigid model, it shows that body flexibility has a great impact on truck ride comfort and it cannot be ignored.
Technical Paper

Computational Accuracy and Efficiency of the Element Types and Sizes for Car Acoustic Finite Element Model

2014-04-01
2014-01-0890
Automobile cabin acoustical comfort is one of the main features that may attract customers to purchase a new car. The acoustic cavity mode of the car has an effect on the acoustical comfort. To identify the factors affecting computing accuracy of the acoustic mode, three different element type and six different element size acoustic finite element models of an automobile passenger compartment are developed and experimentally assessed. The three different element type models are meshed in three different ways, tetrahedral elements, hexahedral elements and node coupling tetrahedral and hexahedral elements (tetra-hexahedral elements). The six different element size models are meshed with hexahedral element varies from 50mm to 75mm. Modal analysis test of the passenger car is conducted using loudspeaker excitation to identify the compartment cavity modes.
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