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Technical Paper

4WID/4WIS Electric Vehicle Modeling and Simulation of Special Conditions

2011-09-13
2011-01-2158
This paper introduces the characteristics of the 4 wheel independent driving/4 wheel independent steering (4WID/4WIS) electric vehicle (EV). Models of Subsystems and the vehicle are constructed based on Matlab/simulink. The vehicle model allows the inputs of different drive torques and steer angles of four wheels. The dynamic characteristics of drive motors and steer motors are considered, and also it can reflect the vehicle longitudinal dynamics change due to the increase of the mass and inertia of the four wheels. Besides, drive mode selection function that is unique to this type vehicle is involved. Simulations and analyses of crab, oblique driving and zero radius turning which are the special conditions of 4WID/4WIS EV are conducted. The results show that the model can reflect the dynamic response characteristics. The model can be used to the simulation analyses of handling, stability, energy saving and control strategies verification of 4WID/4WIS EVs.
Technical Paper

A Comprehensive Testing and Evaluation Approach for Autonomous Vehicles

2018-04-03
2018-01-0124
Performance testing and evaluation always plays an important role in the developmental process of a vehicle, which also applies to autonomous vehicles. The complex nature of an autonomous vehicle from architecture to functionality demands even more quality-and-quantity controlled testing and evaluation than ever before. Most of the existing testing methodologies are task-or-scenario based and can only support single or partial functional testing. These approaches may be helpful at the initial stage of autonomous vehicle development. However, as the integrated autonomous system gets mature, these approaches fall short of supporting comprehensive performance evaluation. This paper proposes a novel hierarchical and systematic testing and evaluation approach to bridge the above-mentioned gap.
Technical Paper

A Driving Simulator Study of Young Driver’s Behavior under Angry Emotion

2019-04-02
2019-01-0398
The driving behaviors of young drivers under the influence of anger are analyzed by driving simulator in this paper. A total of 12 subjects are enrolled during the experiment. Standardized videos are utilized to induce the driver's anger emotion. And the driver's electrocardiogram (ECG) signal is collected synchronously and compared before and after emotional trigger, which prove the validity of emotional trigger. Based on the result, the driver's driving performance under the straight road and the curve under normal state and angry state are compared and analyzed. The results of independent sample t-test show that there are significant differences in the running time of straight sections and the standard deviation of steering wheel angle in curves between normal and angry states. In conclusion, the longitudinal and lateral operation of drivers is unstable in angry state and the driver will be more destructive to the regular driving behavior.
Technical Paper

A Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulator for Vehicle Adaptive Cruise Control Systems by Using xPC Target

2007-08-05
2007-01-3596
A HIL simulator for developing vehicle adaptive cruise control systems is presented in this paper. The xPC target is used to establish real-time simulation environment. The simulator is composed of a virtual vehicle model, real components of an ACC system like ECU, electronic throttle and braking modulator, a user interface to facilitate simulation, and brake and accelerator pedals to make interactive driver inputs easier. The vehicle model is validated against data from field test. Tests of an ACC controller in the real-time are conducted on the simulator.
Technical Paper

A New Method to Accelerate Road Test Simulation on Multi-Axial Test Rig

2017-03-28
2017-01-0200
Road test simulation on test rig is widely used in the automobile industry to shorten the development circles. However, there is still room for further improving the time cost of current road simulation test. This paper described a new method considering both the damage error and the runtime of the test on a multi-axial test rig. First, the fatigue editing technique is applied to cut the small load in road data to reduce the runtime initially. The edited road load data could be reproduced on a multi-axial test rig successfully. Second, the rainflow matrices of strains on different proving ground roads are established and transformed into damage matrices based on the S-N curve and Miner rules using a reduction method. A standard simulation test for vehicle reliability procedure is established according to the proving ground schedule as a target to be accelerated.
Technical Paper

A New Type of Electro-Hydraulic Power Steering System for Heavy-Duty Commercial Vehicles

2015-04-14
2015-01-1502
The earth's fossil energy is not limitless, and we should be taking advantage of the highly developed fields of science and technology to utilize it more efficiently and to create a fully environmentally friendly life. Considering the prodigious amount of vehicles in the world today, even a small improvement in their energy-saving performance could have a significant impact. In this paper, a new type of electro-hydraulic power steering (EHPS) system is described. It has two main advantages. First, it can significantly decrease the demand on the motor so that it can be used for a wider range of vehicles. Second, its pressure-flow characteristic can be programmed and is more flexible than hydraulic power steering (HPS) system. A prototype with a 500 W motor was applied to a truck with a front load of 2,700 kg, and static steer sweep tests were conducted to validate its feasibility.
Technical Paper

A Novel Three Steps Composited Parameter Matching Method of an Electromagnetic Regenerative Suspension System

2019-04-02
2019-01-0173
The electromagnetic regenerative suspension has attracted much attention recently due to its potential to improve ride comfort and handling stability, at the same time recover kinetic energy which is typically dissipated in traditional shock absorbers. The key components of a ball-screw regenerative suspension system are a motor, a ball screw and a nut. For this kind of regenerative suspension, its damping character is determined by the motor's torque-speed capacity, which is different from the damping character of the traditional shock absorber. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a systematic approach for the parameter matching of ball-screw regenerative suspension, so that the damping character provided by it can ensure ride comfort and handling stability. In this paper, a 2-DOF quarter vehicle simulation model with regenerative suspension is constructed. The effects of the inertia force on ride comfort and handling stability are analyzed.
Technical Paper

A Study of LPG Lean Burn for a Small SI Engine

2002-10-21
2002-01-2844
This paper presents a study of LPG lean burn in a motorcycle SI engine. The lean burn limits are compared by several ways. The relations of lean burn limit with the parameters, such as engine speed, compression ratio and advanced spark ignition etc. are tested. The experimental results show that larger throttle opening, lower engine speed, earlier spark ignition timing, larger electrode gap and higher compression ratio will extend the lean burn limit of LPG. The emission of a LPG engine, especially on NOx emission, can be significantly reduced by means of the lean burn technology.
Technical Paper

An Elementary Simulation of Vibration Isolation Characteristics of Hydraulically Damped Rubber Mount of Car Engine

2001-04-30
2001-01-1453
Hydraulically damped rubber engine mounts (HDM) are an effective means of providing sufficient isolation from engine vibration while also providing significant damping to control the rigid body motions of the engine during normal driving conditions. This results in a system which exhibits a high degree of non-linearity in terms of both frequency and amplitude. The numerical simulation of vibration isolation characteristics of HDM is difficult due to the fluid-structure interaction between the main supporting rubber and fluid in chambers, the nonlinear material properties, the large deformation of rubber parts, structure contact problems among the inner parts, and the turbulent flow in the inertia track. In this paper an integrated numerical simulation analysis based on structural FEM and a lumped-parameter model of HDM is carried out.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Energy Consumption on Typical Main Cylinder Booster Based Brake-by-Wire System

2016-09-18
2016-01-1955
The traditional vacuum booster is gradually replaced by Brake-by-Wire system (BBW) in modern passenger car, especially Electric Vehicle (EV). Some mechanical and hydraulic components are replaced by electronic components in Brake-by-Wire system. Using BBW system in modern passenger vehicles can not only improve the automotive safety performance, reliability and stability, but also promote vehicle maneuverability, comfort, fuel economy and environmental protection. Although vehicle's braking performance is greatly improved by using BBW, the system will inevitably consume some energy of the vehicle power supply, thus introducing unexpected drawback in comparison with the traditional vacuum assist braking system, since it doesn't need any electric power. Therefore, the analysis of energy consumption on typical main cylinder booster based BBW system under typical driving cycles will contribute to advanced design of current advanced braking system.
Technical Paper

Automobile Interior Noise Prediction Based on Energy Finite Element Method

2011-04-12
2011-01-0507
For the purpose of predicting the interior noise of a passenger automobile at middle and high frequency, an energy finite element analysis (EFEA) model of the automobile was created using EFEA method. The excitations including engine mount excitation and road excitation were measured by road experiment at a speed of 120 km/h. The sound excitation was measured in a semi-anechoic chamber. And the wind excitation was calculated utilizing numeric computation method of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The sound pressure level (SPL) and energy density contours of the interior acoustic cavity of the automobile were presented at 2000 Hz. Meanwhile, the flexural energy density and flexural velocity of body plates were calculated. The SPL of interior noise was predicted and compared with the corresponding value of experiment.
Journal Article

Cold and Warm Start Characteristics using HVO and RME Blends in a V6 Diesel Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-1306
The first several cycles determine the quality of an engine start. Low temperatures and air/fuel ratio cause incomplete combustion of the fuel. This can lead to dramatic increases in HC and PM emissions. In order to meet Euro V legislation requirements which have stricter cold start emission levels, it is critical to study the characteristics of cold and warm starting of engines in order to develop an optimized operation. The NO and THC emissions were measured by fast CLD and Fast FID gas analyzers respectively and PM in both nucleation and accumulation modes were measured by DMS500. The coolant temperature was controlled in order to guarantee the experiment repeatability. The results show that at cold start using RME60 produced higher NO and lower THC than the other tested fuels while combustion of HVO60 produced a similar level of NO but lower THC compared with mineral diesel. Meanwhile, the nucleation mode of mineral diesel was similar to RME60 but higher than HVO60.
Technical Paper

Combustion and Emissions Characteristics of a Small Spark-Ignited LPG Engine

2002-05-06
2002-01-1738
This paper presents an experimental study of the emission characteristics of a small Spark-Ignited, LPG engine. A single cylinder, four-stroke, water-cooled, 125cc SI engine for motorcycle is modified for using LPG fuel. The power output of LPG is above 95% power output of gasoline. The emission characteristics of LPG are compared with the gasoline. The test result shows that LPG for small SI engine will help to reduce the emission level of motorcycles. The HC and CO emission level can be reduced greatly, but NOx emissions are increased. The emission of motorcycle using LPG shows the potential to meet the more strict regulation.
Technical Paper

Combustion and Emissions of Ethanol Fuel (E100) in a Small SI Engine

2003-10-27
2003-01-3262
An air-cooled, four-stroke, 125 cc electronic gasoline fuel injection SI engine for motorcycles is altered to burn ethanol fuel. The effects of nozzle orifice size, fuel injection duration, spark timing and the excess air/ fuel ratio on engine power output, fuel and energy consumptions and engine exhaust emission levels are studied on an engine test bed. The results show that the maximum engine power output is increased by 5.4% and the maximum torque output is increased by 1.9% with the ethanol fuel in comparison with the baseline. At full load and 7000 r/min, HC emission is decreased by 38% and CO emission is decreased 46% on average over the whole engine speed range. However, NOx levels are increased to meet the maximum power output. The experiments of the spark timing show that the levels of HC and NOx emission are decreased markedly by the delay of spark timing.
Technical Paper

Control System Design for Variable Nozzle Turbocharger

2009-06-11
2009-01-1668
The electronic control system of the variable nozzle turbocharger (VNT) was designed. The actuator is the electro-hydraulic servo proportional solenoid. The signals of the engine pedal position sensor, the engine speed sensor, the boost pressure sensor, the intake air temperature sensor, and the ambient pressure sensor are sampled and filtered. The engine working condition is estimated. The control algorithm was designed as the closed-loop feedback digital PI control together with the open-loop feed forward control. The gain-scheduled PI control method is applied to improve the robustness. The control system was calibrated at the turbocharger test bench and the engine test bench. The results indicate the designed control system has good performance for the boost pressure control under the steady and transient conditions.
Technical Paper

Coordinating Control Oriented Research on Algorithm of Engine Torque Estimation for Parallel Hybrid Electric Powertrain System

2004-03-08
2004-01-0424
The internal combustion engine and motor should be controlled coordinately to meet the demand of smooth power transfer and good drivability especially during transient conditions for parallel hybrid powertrain system. This paper presents the essential technology of how to estimate the engine torque by the measurement and processing of instantaneous crankshaft speed. One multi-injection gasoline engine and one turbocharged diesel engine are selected to manifest the algorithm of engine torque estimation and the experiments show fairly good results for both engines. Consequently an engine torque sensor can be easily calibrated and applied to feedback engine torque in coordinating control.
Technical Paper

Design and Control of Torque Feedback Device for Driving Simulator Based on MR Fluid and Coil Spring Structure

2018-04-03
2018-01-0689
Since steering wheel torque feedback is one of the crucial factors for drivers to gain road feel and ensure driving safety, it is especially important to simulate the steering torque feedback for a driving simulator. At present, steering wheel feedback torque is mainly simulated by an electric motor with gear transmission. The torque response is typically slow, which can result in drivers’ discomfort and poor driving maneuverability. This paper presents a novel torque feedback device with magnetorheological (MR) fluid and coil spring. A phase separation control method is also proposed to control its feedback torque, including spring and damping torques respectively. The spring torque is generated by coil spring, the angle of coil spring can be adjusted by controlling a brushless DC motor. The damping torque is generated by MR fluid, the damping coefficient of MR fluid can be adjusted by controlling the current of excitation coil.
Technical Paper

Design of Automatic Parallel Parking System Based on Multi-Point Preview Theory

2018-04-03
2018-01-0604
As one of advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS), automatic parking system has great market prospect and application value. In this paper, based on an intelligent vehicle platform, an automatic parking system is designed by using multi-point preview theory. The vehicle kinematics model was established, based on Ackermann steering principle. By analyzing working conditions of parallel parking, complex constraint condition of parking trajectory is established and reference trajectory based on sine wave is proposed. In addition, combined with multi-point preview theory, the design of trajectory following controller for automatic parking is completed. The cost function is designed, which consider the trajectory following effect and the degree of easy handling. The optimization of trajectory following control is completed by using the cost function.
Technical Paper

Determination of Aeration of Oil in High Pressure Chamber of Hydraulic Lash Adjuster in Valve Train

1999-03-01
1999-01-0646
Use of a hydraulic lash adjuster (HLA) in the valve train has some problems as well as several advantages. One of the problems is less stiffness of valve train, which may be further reduced when aeration of the oil in the oil circuit occurs. The much lower stiffness will lead to malfunction, noise and damage with the valve train. So the aeration of oil in HLA high pressure chamber must be considered in modeling and simulation of the valve train. Since air dissolved capacity in the oil varies with pressure, aeration (undissolved air content) in the high pressure chamber is different from that in the oil circuit. So far, only the air content in the oil circuit has been measured, and few reports have been found on determining the aeration in HLA of an operating valve train. Based on knowledge that HLA collapse is caused by compressibility and leakage of oil, a method of determining the aeration of the oil in the high pressure chamber is introduced.
Technical Paper

Development and Verification of Control Algorithm for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor of the Electro-Mechanical Brake Booster

2019-04-02
2019-01-1105
To meet the new requirements of braking system for modern electrified and intelligent vehicles, various novel electro-mechanical brake boosters (Eboosters) are emerging. This paper is aimed at a new type of the Ebooster, which is mainly consisted of a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM), a two-stage reduction transmission and a servo mechanism. Among them, the PMSM is a vital actuator to realize the functions of the Ebooster. To get fast response of the Ebooster system, a novel control strategy employing a maximum torque per ampere (MTPA) control with current compensation decoupling and current-adjusting adaptive flux-weakening control is proposed, which requires the PMSM can operate in a large speed range and maintain a certain anti-load interference capability. Firstly, the wide speed control strategy for the Ebooster’s PMSM is designed in MATLAB/Simulink.
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