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Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation on Spray Atomization and Fuel-Air Mixing Process in a Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

Numerical simulation has been widely used in the engine development process to improve the development quality, especially in the area of in-cylinder flow and fuel evaporation. In this paper, a fuel spray model for a gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine, calibrated against spray visualization in a spray bomb, is developed to characterize the fuel spray atomization, vaporization, and interaction with in-cylinder air flow. With this model, fuel atomization and fuel-air mixing process are thoroughly analyzed at full load operating conditions at both low and high speeds. It is shown that fuel spray at high speed is deflected towards intake side, leading to limited wall wetting, piston wetting, and good vaporization, due to intensive tumble flow and high temperature. The results from the numerical simulation provide important guideline for the development of a GDI engine.