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Technical Paper

A Hardware-in-the-Loop Test Bench for the Validation of Complex ECU Networks

2002-03-04
2002-01-0801
Due to the continuously increasing number of electronic control units (ECUs) in modern cars, and their growing complexity, automated tests not only of single ECUs but also of interconnected ECUs have become an important step in the development of automotive electronics. These tasks require new test systems. This paper describes the problems engineers face when developing and testing today's car electronics, as well as a high-end hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) tool set (hardware, software, models) applied to the testing of four networked ECUs for engine management, vehicle dynamics control, automatic transmission, and an active suspension system. The tool set comprises general features needed for HIL tests, like automated code generation for real-time models using MATLAB/Simulink and a comprehensive set of dedicated hardware (processor and I/O hardware).
Technical Paper

A Model-Based Reference Workflow for the Development of Safety-Related Software

2010-10-19
2010-01-2338
Model-based software development is increasingly being used to develop software for electronic control units (ECUs). When developing safety-related software, compared to non-safety-related software development, additional requirements specified by relevant safety-standards have to be met. Meeting these requirements should also be considered to be best practices for non-safety-related software. This paper introduces a model-based reference workflow for the development of safety-related software conforming to relevant safety-standards such as IEC 61508 and ISO 26262. The reference workflow discusses requirements traceability aspects, software architecture considerations that help to support modular development and ease the verification of model parts and the code generated from those model parts, and the selection and enforcement of modeling and coding guidelines.
Technical Paper

A New Calibration System for ECU Development

2003-03-03
2003-01-0131
Automotive manufacturers and suppliers of electronic control units (ECUs) will be challenged more and more in the future to reduce costs and the time needed for ECU development. At the same time, increasing requirements concerning exhaust gas emissions, drivability, onboard diagnostics and fuel consumption have led to the growing complexity of modern engines and the associated management systems. As a result, the number and complexity of control parameters and look-up tables in the ECU software is increasing dramatically. Thus, in powertrain applications especially, calibration development has become a time-consuming and cost-intensive stage in the overall ECU development process. This paper describes the current situation in calibration development and shows how the new dSPACE Calibration System will face this situation. It provides an overview of the main benefits of the tool, which has been designed in close cooperation with calibration engineers.
Technical Paper

A New Environment for Integrated Development and Management of ECU Tests

2003-03-03
2003-01-1024
Due to the rapidly increasing number of electronic control units (ECUs) in modern vehicles, software and ECU testing plays a major role within the development of automotive electronics. To ensure effective as well as efficient testing within the whole development process, a seamless transition in terms of the reusability of tests and test data as well as powerful and efficient means for developing and describing tests are required. This paper therefore presents a new integration approach for modern test development and test management. Besides a very easy-to-use way of describing tests graphically, the main focus of the new approach is on the management of a large number of tests, test data, and test results, allowing close integration into the automotive development processes.
Technical Paper

Advancements in Hardware-in-the-Loop Technology in Support of Complex Integration Testing of Embedded System Software

2011-04-12
2011-01-0443
Automotive technology is rapidly changing with electrification of vehicles, driver assistance systems, advanced safety systems etc. This advancement in technology is making the task of validation and verification of embedded software complex and challenging. In addition to the component testing, integration testing imposes even tougher requirements for software testing. To meet these challenges dSPACE is continuously evolving the Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) technology to provide a systematic way to manage this task. The paper presents developments in the HIL hardware technology with latest quad-core processors, FPGA based I/O technology and communication bus systems such as Flexray. Also presented are developments of the software components such as advanced user interfaces, GPS information integration, real-time testing and simulation models. This paper provides a real-world example of implication of integration testing on HIL environment for Chassis Controls.
Technical Paper

Advances in Rapid Control Prototyping - Results of a Pilot Project for Engine Control -

2005-04-11
2005-01-1350
The technological development in the field of automotive electronics is proceeding at almost break-neck speed. The functions being developed and integrated into cars are growing in complexity and volume. With the increasing number and variety of sensors and actuators, electronics have to handle a greater amount of data, and the acquisition and generation of I/O signals is also growing in complexity, for example, in engine management applications. Moreover, intelligent and complex algorithms need to be processed in a minimum of time. This all intensifies the need for Rapid Control Prototyping (RCP), a proven method of decisively speeding up the model-based software development process of automotive electronic control units (ECUs) [1],[2]. All these demanding tasks, including connecting sensors and actuators to the RCP system, need to be performed within a standard prototyping environment.
Technical Paper

Advantages and Challenges of Closed-Loop HIL Testing for Commercial and Off-Highway Vehicles

2009-10-06
2009-01-2841
Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) testing is used by commercial vehicle original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) in several fields of electronics development. HIL tests are a part of the standard development process for engine and machine control systems. For electronic control units (ECUs), not only the HIL test of the hardware but also the controller software validation is very important. For hardware diagnostics validation, a dynamic simulation of the real system could be omitted and an open-loop test of the controller is sufficient in most cases. For most controller software validation including OBD (on-board diagnosis) tests, detailed but real-time capable models have to be used. This article describes the needs and challenges of models in hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) based testing, taking into account the wide range of commercial and off-highway vehicles.
Journal Article

Applying Model-Based Design and Automatic Production Code Generation to Safety-Critical System Development

2009-04-20
2009-01-0747
Model-based software development and automatic code generation have become increasingly established in recent years. The automotive industry has widely adopted and successfully deployed these methods in many different series production programs worldwide. This brought various benefits, such as a reduction in development times, improved quality due to more precise specifications, and early verification and validation by means of simulation. At the same time, more and more safety-related and safety-critical systems have been - and will be -introduced into modern vehicles. Common examples are active front steering, adaptive cruise-control, and integrated chassis control. This leads to the question, if and how model-based design and automatic production code generation can be applied to the development of safety-critical systems.
Technical Paper

Automated Real-Time Testing of Electronic Control Units

2007-04-16
2007-01-0504
Today, hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation is common practice as a testing methodology for electronic control units (ECUs). An essential criterion for the efficiency of an HIL system is the availability of powerful test automation having access to all of its hardware and software components (including I/O channels, failure insertion units, bus communication controllers and diagnostic interfaces). The growing complexity of vehicle embedded systems, which are interconnected by bus systems (like CAN, LIN or FlexRay), result in hundreds or even thousands of tests that have to be done to ensure the correct system functionality. This is best achieved by automated testing. Automated testing usually is performed by executing tests on a standard PC, which is interconnected to the HIL system. However, higher demands regarding timing precision are hard to accomplish. As an example, ECU interaction has to be captured and responded to in the range of milliseconds.
Technical Paper

Automatic Generation of Production Quality Code for ECUs

1999-03-01
1999-01-1168
This paper describes a new production code generator that meets both the requirements of code developers for efficient and reliable production code, as well as the desire of system engineers to establish a control design process based on simulation models that double as executable specifications for the ECU software. The production code generator supports automatic scaling, generates optimized fixed-point C code for microcontrollers like the Motorola 683xx, Siemens C16x, and Hitachi SH-2, and produces ASAP2 [1] calibration information. Benchmark results show that the autogenerated code can match or even exceed the efficiency of typical handwritten production code. Code quality is assured by design and by systematic, automatic, and extremely comprehensive test procedures.
Technical Paper

Behavior Modeling Tools in an Architecture-Driven Development Process - From Function Models to AUTOSAR

2007-04-16
2007-01-0507
This paper will first introduce and classify the basic principles of architecture-driven software development and will briefly sketch the presumed development process. This background information is then used to explain extensions which enable current behavior modeling and code generation tools to operate as software component generators. The generation of AUTOSAR software components using dSPACE's production code generator TargetLink is described as an example.
Technical Paper

Combining Automotive System and Function Models to Support Code Generation and Early System Verification

2008-10-20
2008-21-0042
Function models have a well-established position in automotive software development. Formal system models, on the other hand, are rare. This article describes the various aspects of function and system models, focusing mainly on AUTOSAR-compatible models. It also depicts the challenges for future overall models that combine the function models and the system model, and the resulting benefits, such as early system verification via PC-based simulations.
Journal Article

Communication Infrastructure for Hybrid Test Systems - Demands, Options, and Current Discussions

2016-09-20
2016-01-2051
The application of a communication infrastructure for hybrid test systems is currently a topic in the aerospace industry, as also in other industries. One main reason is flexibility. Future laboratory tests means (LTMs) need to be easier to exchange and reuse than they are today. They may originate from different suppliers and parts of them may need to fulfill special requirements and thus be based on dedicated technologies. The desired exchangeability needs to be achieved although suppliers employ different technologies with regard to specific needs. To achieve interoperability, a standardized transport mechanism between test systems is required. Designing such a mechanism poses a challenge as there are several different types of data that have to be exchanged. Simulation data is a prominent example. It has to be handled differently than control data, for example. No one technique or technology fits perfectly for all types of data.
Technical Paper

Coupling HIL Simulations Over Long Distance - A Way Forward

2015-09-15
2015-01-2548
Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) testing is indispensable in the software development process for control units and has been an integral part of the software development process for years. Large HIL systems for integration tests are used to test the correct behavior of distributed functions and the communication between the control units. The vast development programs that are involved require building duplicates of such test systems or parts of them, due to the fact that the tasks are distributed between different companies or different departments within a company. However, there is an alternative to duplicating a test system. Instead of using a cloned system, coupling HIL systems over large distances is an alternate approach. This paper presents what requirements this coupling must fulfill and and describes a path-breaking method to fulfill them. In addition, results of an implementation are shown.
Technical Paper

Creating Test Patterns for Model-based Development of Automotive Software

2006-04-03
2006-01-1598
The importance of electronics, especially software, has greatly increased over the last few years. Efforts to maintain a high level of software quality have made testing an important part of the development process. With the advent of model-based development, testing methods can be used not only on code level, but also on model level. Next to test execution itself, test development is seen as the most time- and cost-intensive part of the testing process. This paper outlines and classifies current approaches to model-based test development, with the aim of providing guidelines for test developers for choosing the method best suited to the type of system under test and the test objective.
Technical Paper

DSP-Based Automotive Sensor Signal Generation for Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation

1994-03-01
940185
Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation is a technology where the actual vehicles, engines or other components are replaced by a real-time simulation in a simulation computer, based on a mathematical model. That simulation reads ECU (Electronic Control Unit) output signals which would normally go to actuators. On the other hand the simulation must output the sensor signals which make the ECU ‘think’ it controls a real system. Generating these signals can be very difficult. Signals may be complex, depend on on-line computed variables, and be required to be output at high timing resolution. This paper describes the problems and presents a solution which employs high-performance Digital Signal Processors (DSP) to generate such signals on-line by Direct-Digital-Synthesis (DDS).
Technical Paper

Development of Safety-Critical Software Using Automatic Code Generation

2004-03-08
2004-01-0708
In future cars, mechanical and hydraulic components will be replaced by new electronic systems (x-by-wire). A failure of such a system constitutes a safety hazard for the passengers as well as for the environment of the car. Thus electronics and in particular software are taking over more responsibility and safety-critical tasks. To minimize the risk of failure in such systems safety standards are applied for their development. The safety standard IEC 61508 has been established for automotive electronic systems. At the same time, automatic code generation is increasingly being used for automotive software development. This is to cope with today's increasing requirements concerning cost reduction and time needed for ECU development combined with growing complexity. However, automatic code generation is hardly ever used today for the development of safety-critical systems.
Technical Paper

Distributed Development of Large-Scale Model-Based Designs in Compliance with ISO 26262

2014-04-01
2014-01-0313
Embedded software in the car is becoming increasingly complex due to the growing number of software-based controller functions and the increasing complexity of the software itself. Model-based development with Simulink combined with TargetLink for automatic code generation helps significantly to improve the quality of the embedded software. The development of large-scale Simulink models in distributed teams is a challenging task, especially when developing safety-critical software that must fulfill requirements stated in the ISO 26262 [1] safety standard. In practice, many questions on how to avoid the pitfalls of distributed model-based development remain open, such as how to define an appropriate model architecture, handle model complexity, and achieve compliance with ISO 26262. The intent of this paper is threefold. Firstly, we summarize those requirements of ISO 26262 that are relevant for developing complex software in a distributed environment.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Two-Zone NOx Emission Simulation in Diesel Engine Hardware-in-the-Loop Applications

2016-09-27
2016-01-8083
Increasing diagnosis capabilities in modern engine electronic control units (ECUs), especially in the exhaust path, in terms of emission and engine aftertreatment control utilize on-board NOx prediction models. Nowadays it is an established approach at hardware-in-theloop (HIL) test benches to replicate the engine's steady-state NOx emissions on the basis of stationary engine data. However, this method might be unsuitable for internal ECU plausibility checks and ECU test conditions based on dynamic engine operations. Examples of proven methods for modeling the engine behavior in HIL system applications are so-called mean value engine models (MVEMs) and crank-angle-synchronous (in-cylinder) models. Of these two, only the in-cylinder model replicates the engine’s inner combustion process at each time step and can therefore be used for chemical-based emission simulation, because the formation of the relevant gas species is caused by the inner combustion states.
Technical Paper

Embedded Software Tools Enable Hybrid Vehicle Architecture Design and Optimization

2010-10-19
2010-01-2308
This presentation focuses on several examples of partnerships between tool suppliers and embedded software developers in which state-of-the-art tools are used to optimize a variety of electric and hybrid vehicle architectures. Projects with Automotive OEMs, Tier One Suppliers as well as with academic institutions will be described. Due to the growing complexity in multiple electronic control units (“ECUs”) inter-communicating over numerous network bus systems, combined with the challenge of controlling and maintaining charges for electric motors, vehicle development would be impossible without use of increasingly sophisticated tools. Hybrid drive trains are much more complex than conventional ones, they have at least one degree of freedom more.
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