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Technical Paper

A New Environment for Integrated Development and Management of ECU Tests

Due to the rapidly increasing number of electronic control units (ECUs) in modern vehicles, software and ECU testing plays a major role within the development of automotive electronics. To ensure effective as well as efficient testing within the whole development process, a seamless transition in terms of the reusability of tests and test data as well as powerful and efficient means for developing and describing tests are required. This paper therefore presents a new integration approach for modern test development and test management. Besides a very easy-to-use way of describing tests graphically, the main focus of the new approach is on the management of a large number of tests, test data, and test results, allowing close integration into the automotive development processes.
Technical Paper

Advancements in Hardware-in-the-Loop Technology in Support of Complex Integration Testing of Embedded System Software

Automotive technology is rapidly changing with electrification of vehicles, driver assistance systems, advanced safety systems etc. This advancement in technology is making the task of validation and verification of embedded software complex and challenging. In addition to the component testing, integration testing imposes even tougher requirements for software testing. To meet these challenges dSPACE is continuously evolving the Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) technology to provide a systematic way to manage this task. The paper presents developments in the HIL hardware technology with latest quad-core processors, FPGA based I/O technology and communication bus systems such as Flexray. Also presented are developments of the software components such as advanced user interfaces, GPS information integration, real-time testing and simulation models. This paper provides a real-world example of implication of integration testing on HIL environment for Chassis Controls.
Journal Article

Applying Model-Based Design and Automatic Production Code Generation to Safety-Critical System Development

Model-based software development and automatic code generation have become increasingly established in recent years. The automotive industry has widely adopted and successfully deployed these methods in many different series production programs worldwide. This brought various benefits, such as a reduction in development times, improved quality due to more precise specifications, and early verification and validation by means of simulation. At the same time, more and more safety-related and safety-critical systems have been - and will be -introduced into modern vehicles. Common examples are active front steering, adaptive cruise-control, and integrated chassis control. This leads to the question, if and how model-based design and automatic production code generation can be applied to the development of safety-critical systems.
Technical Paper

Automatic Generation of Production Quality Code for ECUs

This paper describes a new production code generator that meets both the requirements of code developers for efficient and reliable production code, as well as the desire of system engineers to establish a control design process based on simulation models that double as executable specifications for the ECU software. The production code generator supports automatic scaling, generates optimized fixed-point C code for microcontrollers like the Motorola 683xx, Siemens C16x, and Hitachi SH-2, and produces ASAP2 [1] calibration information. Benchmark results show that the autogenerated code can match or even exceed the efficiency of typical handwritten production code. Code quality is assured by design and by systematic, automatic, and extremely comprehensive test procedures.
Technical Paper

Behavior Modeling Tools in an Architecture-Driven Development Process - From Function Models to AUTOSAR

This paper will first introduce and classify the basic principles of architecture-driven software development and will briefly sketch the presumed development process. This background information is then used to explain extensions which enable current behavior modeling and code generation tools to operate as software component generators. The generation of AUTOSAR software components using dSPACE's production code generator TargetLink is described as an example.
Technical Paper

Combining Automotive System and Function Models to Support Code Generation and Early System Verification

Function models have a well-established position in automotive software development. Formal system models, on the other hand, are rare. This article describes the various aspects of function and system models, focusing mainly on AUTOSAR-compatible models. It also depicts the challenges for future overall models that combine the function models and the system model, and the resulting benefits, such as early system verification via PC-based simulations.
Journal Article

Communication Infrastructure for Hybrid Test Systems - Demands, Options, and Current Discussions

The application of a communication infrastructure for hybrid test systems is currently a topic in the aerospace industry, as also in other industries. One main reason is flexibility. Future laboratory tests means (LTMs) need to be easier to exchange and reuse than they are today. They may originate from different suppliers and parts of them may need to fulfill special requirements and thus be based on dedicated technologies. The desired exchangeability needs to be achieved although suppliers employ different technologies with regard to specific needs. To achieve interoperability, a standardized transport mechanism between test systems is required. Designing such a mechanism poses a challenge as there are several different types of data that have to be exchanged. Simulation data is a prominent example. It has to be handled differently than control data, for example. No one technique or technology fits perfectly for all types of data.
Technical Paper

Coupling HIL Simulations Over Long Distance - A Way Forward

Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) testing is indispensable in the software development process for control units and has been an integral part of the software development process for years. Large HIL systems for integration tests are used to test the correct behavior of distributed functions and the communication between the control units. The vast development programs that are involved require building duplicates of such test systems or parts of them, due to the fact that the tasks are distributed between different companies or different departments within a company. However, there is an alternative to duplicating a test system. Instead of using a cloned system, coupling HIL systems over large distances is an alternate approach. This paper presents what requirements this coupling must fulfill and and describes a path-breaking method to fulfill them. In addition, results of an implementation are shown.
Technical Paper

Creating Test Patterns for Model-based Development of Automotive Software

The importance of electronics, especially software, has greatly increased over the last few years. Efforts to maintain a high level of software quality have made testing an important part of the development process. With the advent of model-based development, testing methods can be used not only on code level, but also on model level. Next to test execution itself, test development is seen as the most time- and cost-intensive part of the testing process. This paper outlines and classifies current approaches to model-based test development, with the aim of providing guidelines for test developers for choosing the method best suited to the type of system under test and the test objective.
Technical Paper

Development of Safety-Critical Software Using Automatic Code Generation

In future cars, mechanical and hydraulic components will be replaced by new electronic systems (x-by-wire). A failure of such a system constitutes a safety hazard for the passengers as well as for the environment of the car. Thus electronics and in particular software are taking over more responsibility and safety-critical tasks. To minimize the risk of failure in such systems safety standards are applied for their development. The safety standard IEC 61508 has been established for automotive electronic systems. At the same time, automatic code generation is increasingly being used for automotive software development. This is to cope with today's increasing requirements concerning cost reduction and time needed for ECU development combined with growing complexity. However, automatic code generation is hardly ever used today for the development of safety-critical systems.
Technical Paper

Distributed Development of Large-Scale Model-Based Designs in Compliance with ISO 26262

Embedded software in the car is becoming increasingly complex due to the growing number of software-based controller functions and the increasing complexity of the software itself. Model-based development with Simulink combined with TargetLink for automatic code generation helps significantly to improve the quality of the embedded software. The development of large-scale Simulink models in distributed teams is a challenging task, especially when developing safety-critical software that must fulfill requirements stated in the ISO 26262 [1] safety standard. In practice, many questions on how to avoid the pitfalls of distributed model-based development remain open, such as how to define an appropriate model architecture, handle model complexity, and achieve compliance with ISO 26262. The intent of this paper is threefold. Firstly, we summarize those requirements of ISO 26262 that are relevant for developing complex software in a distributed environment.
Technical Paper

Embedded Software Tools Enable Hybrid Vehicle Architecture Design and Optimization

This presentation focuses on several examples of partnerships between tool suppliers and embedded software developers in which state-of-the-art tools are used to optimize a variety of electric and hybrid vehicle architectures. Projects with Automotive OEMs, Tier One Suppliers as well as with academic institutions will be described. Due to the growing complexity in multiple electronic control units (“ECUs”) inter-communicating over numerous network bus systems, combined with the challenge of controlling and maintaining charges for electric motors, vehicle development would be impossible without use of increasingly sophisticated tools. Hybrid drive trains are much more complex than conventional ones, they have at least one degree of freedom more.
Journal Article

Engine in the Loop: Closed Loop Test Bench Control with Real-Time Simulation

The complexity of automobile powertrains grows continuously. At the same time, development time and budget are limited. Shifting development tasks to earlier phases (frontloading) increases the efficiency by utilizing test benches instead of prototype vehicles (road-to-rig approach). Early system verification of powertrain components requires a closed-loop coupling to real-time simulation models, comparable to hardware-in-the-loop testing (HiL). The international research project Advanced Co-Simulation Open System Architecture (ACOSAR) has the goal to develop a non-proprietary communication architecture between real-time and non-real-time systems in order to speed up the commissioning process and to decrease the monetary effort for testing and validation. One major outcome will be a generic interface for coupling different simulation tools and real-time systems (e.g. HiL simulators or test benches).

Flexible Real-Time Simulation of Truck and Trailer Configurations

Real-time simulation of truck and trailer combinations can be applied to hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) systems for developing and testing electronic control units (ECUs). The large number of configuration variations in vehicle and axle types requires the simulation model to be adjustable in a wide range. This paper presents a modular multibody approach for the vehicle dynamics simulation of single track configurations and truck-and-trailer combinations. The equations of motion are expressed by a new formula which is a combination of Jourdain's principle and the articulated body algorithm. With the proposed algorithm, a robust model is achieved that is numerically stable even at handling limits. Moreover, the presented approach is suitable for modular modeling and has been successfully implemented as a basis for various system definitions. As a result, only one simulation model is needed for a large variety of track and trailer types.
Journal Article

Flexible Real-Time Simulation of Truck and Trailer Configurations

Real-time simulation of truck and trailer combinations can be applied to hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) systems for developing and testing electronic control units (ECUs). The large number of configuration variations in vehicle and axle types requires the simulation model to be adjustable in a wide range. This paper presents a modular multibody approach for the vehicle dynamics simulation of single track configurations and truck-and-trailer combinations. The equations of motion are expressed by a new formula which is a combination of Jourdain's principle and the articulated body algorithm. With the proposed algorithm, a robust model is achieved that is numerically stable even at handling limits. Moreover, the presented approach is suitable for modular modeling and has been successfully implemented as a basis for various system definitions. As a result, only one simulation model is needed for a large variety of track and trailer types.
Technical Paper

From Virtual Testing to HIL Testing - Towards Seamless Testing

To make the development of complex aircraft systems manageable and economical, tests must be performed as early as possible in the development process. The test goals are already set in advance before the first hardware for the ECUs exists, to be able to make statements about the system functions or possible malfunctions. This paper describes the requirements on and solutions for test systems for ECUs that arise from these goals. It especially focuses on how a seamless workflow and consistent use of test systems and necessary software tools can be achieved, from the virtual test of ECUs, which exist only as models, up to the test of real hardware. This will be shown in connection with a scalable, fully software-configurable hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) technology. The paper also covers the seamless use of software tools that are required for HIL testing throughout the different test phases, enabling the reuse of work products throughout the test phases.
Technical Paper

Hardware-in-the-Loop Test of Battery Management Systems

The essential task of a battery management system (BMS) is to consistently operate the high-voltage battery in an optimum range. Due to the safety-critical nature of its components, prior testing of a BMS is absolutely necessary. Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation is a cost-effective and efficient tool for this. Testing the BMS on a HIL test bench requires an electronics unit to simulate the cell voltages and a scalable real-time battery model. This paper describes a HIL system that enables comprehensive testing of BMS components. Hardware and software solutions are proposed for the high requirements of these tests. The individual components are combined to make a modular system, and safety-critical aspects are examined. The paper shows that the system as developed fulfills all the requirements derived from the different test scenarios for BMS systems.
Technical Paper

Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing of Networked Electronics at Ford

The number of electrical and electronic components in modern vehicles is constantly growing. Increasingly, functionalities are being distributed across several electronic control units (ECUs). While suppliers themselves are responsible for ensuring that individual ECUs function properly, only the OEM can test distributed functions. Moreover, with the volume of testing steadily growing, automated sequences are absolutely essential. To test electronic networks in the vehicle, Ford Europe is using platform-based hardware-in-the-loop simulation with integrated failure insertion. The company is setting up a uniform, project-independent procedure, from standardized test definition to automated test sequences on a virtual vehicle, right through to structured evaluation.
Technical Paper

How to Do Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation Right

Not only is the number of electronic control units (ECUs) in modern vehicles constantly increasing, the software of the ECUs is also becoming more complex. Both make testing a central task within the development of automotive electronics. Testing ECUs in real vehicles is time-consuming and costly, and comes very late in the automotive development process. It is therefore increasingly being replaced by laboratory tests using hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation. While new software functions are still being developed or optimized, other functions are already undergoing certain tests, mostly on module level but also on system and integration level. To achieve the highest quality, testing must be done as early as possible within the development process. This paper describes the various test phases during the development of automotive electronics (from single function testing to network testing of all the ECUs of a vehicle).
Technical Paper

Hybrid Drivetrain Simulation for Hardware-in-the-Loop Applications

This paper describes challenges and possible solution of hybrid electrical vehicles test systems with a special focus on hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) test bench. The degree of novelty of this work can be seen in the fact that development and test of ECU for hybrid electrical powertrains can move more and more from mechanical test benches with real automotive components to HIL test systems. The challenging task in terms of electrical interface between an electric motor ECU and an HIL system and necessary real-time capable simulation models for electric machines have been investigated and partly solved. Even cell balancing strategies performed by battery management systems (BMU) can be developed and tested using HIL technology with battery simulation models and a precise cell voltage simulation on electrical level.