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A Guide for the Damaging Effects of Tire and Wheel Failures

2007-11-26
CURRENT
AIR5699
Consideration for the damaging effects to aircraft from the failure of wheels and tires should be evaluated. This document discusses the types of problems in-service aircraft have experienced and methodology in place to assist the designers when evaluating threats for new aircraft design. The purpose of this document is to provide a history of in-service problems, provide a historical summary of the design improvements made to wheels and tires during the past 40 years and to offer methodology which has been used to help designers assess the threat to ensure the functionality of systems and equipment located in and around the landing gear and in wheel wells.
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A Guide to Landing Gear System Integration

2005-12-14
HISTORICAL
AIR5451
The landing gear system is a major airframe system that needs to be integrated very efficiently to minimize the penalties of weight, cost, dispatch reliability and maintenance. As the landing gear system business develops and large scale teaming arrangements and acquisitions become increasingly common, it may be desirable in some instances to procure an Integrated Landing Gear System. This document provides guidelines and useful references for developing an integrated landing gear system for an aircraft and is divided into four sections: Landing Gear Configuration Requirements (Section 3) Landing Gear Functional Requirements (Section 4) Landing Gear System Integrity Requirements (Section 5) Landing Gear Program Requirements (Section 6) The landing gear system encompasses all landing gear structural and subsystem elements. Structural elements include shock struts, braces, fittings, pins, wheels, tires and brakes.
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A Guide to Landing Gear System Integration

2017-07-12
CURRENT
AIR5451A
The landing gear system is a major and safety critical airframe system that needs to be integrated efficiently to meet the overall aircraft program goals of minimizing the penalties of weight, cost, dispatch reliability and maintenance. As the landing gear system business develops and large-scale teaming arrangements and acquisitions become increasingly common, it may be desirable in some instances to procure an Integrated Landing Gear System. This document provides guidelines and useful references for developing an integrated landing gear system for an aircraft. The document structure is divided into four sections: Landing Gear System Configuration Requirements (Section 3) Landing Gear System Functional Requirements (Section 4) Landing Gear System Integrity Requirements (Section 5) Landing Gear System Program Requirements (Section 6) The landing gear system encompasses all landing gear structural and subsystem elements.
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AEROSPACE LANDING GEAR SYSTEMS TERMINOLOGY

1997-01-01
HISTORICAL
AIR1489A
This report has been compiled by the Landing Gear Systems Terminology panel of SAE Committee A-5 (Aerospace Landing Gear Systems). It represents an effort to gather together those terms commonly used within the discipline.
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AIRCRAFT FLOTATION ANALYSIS

1993-04-01
HISTORICAL
AIR1780
The substance of this report is divided into five parts. The first part deals with flotation analysis features and definitions to acquaint the engineer with elements common to the various methods and the meanings of the terms used. The second part identifies and describes the various methods used. To accomplish the minimum intent of this report, techniques could be limited to those needed for flotation analysis only. Because of the close relation between flotation analysis and runway design, methods for the latter are included. In fact, runway design criteria are used for flotation and evaluation in some cases, and are periodically the governing procedure in specific, if isolated, instances. From time to time, it may be necessary to deal with runways built to obsolete criteria. Therefore, a listing of most of these constitutes the third part.
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Aerospace Landing Gear - FAA Regulatory History - Airplane Wheels, Tires, and Brakes

2007-08-02
HISTORICAL
AIR5697
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) contains regulatory and guidance information related to airplane wheels, tires, and brakes. It contains certain Civil Air Regulations (CAR) and Federal Aviation Regulations (formerly referred to as FARs) from Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) in their current version as well as the historical versions. This gives the reader an ability to assemble certain CAR/CFR parts as they existed at any date in the past (referred to as a Regulatory Basis). A certain amount of preamble explanatory material is included, which led to the regulatory rule changes (Amendments to the CFR).
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Aerospace Landing Gear - FAA Regulatory History - Airplane Wheels, Tires, and Brakes

2012-10-15
CURRENT
AIR5697A
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) contains regulatory and guidance information related to airplane wheels, tires, and brakes. It contains certain Civil Air Regulations (CAR) and Federal Aviation Regulations (formerly referred to as FARs) from Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) in their current version as well as the historical versions. This gives the reader an ability to assemble certain CAR/CFR parts as they existed at any date in the past (referred to as a Regulatory Basis). A certain amount of preamble explanatory material is included, which led to the regulatory rule changes (Amendments to the CFR).
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Aerospace Landing Gear Systems Terminology

2012-05-31
CURRENT
AIR1489C
This report has been compiled by the Landing Gear Systems Terminology Panel of SAE Committee A-5 (Aerospace Landing Gear Systems). It represents an effort to gather together those terms commonly used within the discipline. Some terms are of course common to other disciplines as well. Others, however, are unique in form and/or meaning to the landing gear discipline. The need has been noted to set these terms down and provide a standard definition in order that communication within the discipline may be conducted with a common understanding. Full use has been made of available published information, and a list of references is provided. See also References (a) to (e). Terms listed are usually applicable to a general functional area of landing gear disciplines. These general functional areas include; landing impact, directional ground control, velocity control (acceleration, retardation, and arrestment), structural support, ground flotation, and ground maintenance.
Standard

Aerospace Landing Gear Systems Terminology

2001-06-01
HISTORICAL
AIR1489B
This report has been compiled by the Landing Gear Systems Terminology panel of SAE Committee A-5 (Aerospace Landing Gear Systems). It represents an effort to gather together those terms commonly used within the discipline. Some terms are of course common to other disciplines as well. Others, however, are unique in form and/or meaning to the Landing Gear discipline. The need has been noted to set these terms down and provide a standard definition in order that communication within the discipline may be conducted with a common understanding. Full use has been made of available published information, and a list of references is provided. See also References (a) to (e). Terms listed are usually applicable to a general functional area of Landing Gear disciplines. These general functional areas include; landing impact, directional ground control, velocity control (acceleration, retardation, and arrestment), structural support, ground flotation, and ground maintenance.
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Aerospace Landing Gear Systems Terminology

1977-04-01
HISTORICAL
AIR1489
This report has been compiled by the Landing Gear Systems Terminology panel of SAE Committee A-5 (Aerospace Landing Gear Systems). It represents an effort to gather together those terms commonly used within the discipline. Some terms are of course common to other disciplines as well. Others, however, are unique in form and/or meaning to the Landing Gear discipline. The need has been noted to set these terms down and provide a standard definition in order that communication within the discipline may be conducted with a common understanding. Full use has been made of available published information, and a list of references is provided.
Standard

Aircraft Flotation Analysis

1994-02-01
CURRENT
AIR1780A
This document is divided into five parts. The first part deals with flotation analysis features and definitions to acquaint the engineer with elements common to the various methods and the meanings of the terms used. The second part identifies and describes the various methods used. To accomplish the minimum intent of this document, techniques could be limited to those needed for flotation analysis only; however, because of the close relation between flotation analysis and runway design, methods for the latter are also included. In fact, runway design criteria are used for flotation and evaluation in some cases, and are periodically the governing procedure in specific, if isolated, instances. From time to time, it may be necessary to deal with runways built to obsolete criteria. Therefore, a listing of most of these constitutes the third part.
Standard

Aircraft Ground Flotation Analysis Methods

2016-12-01
CURRENT
ARP1821B
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) includes recommended ground flotation analysis methods for both paved and unpaved airfields with application to both commercial and military aircraft.
Standard

Aircraft Ground Flotation Analysis Methods

2001-04-01
HISTORICAL
ARP1821A
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) includes recommended ground flotation analysis methods for both paved and unpaved airfields.
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Aircraft Shimmy Analysis Methods and Data Requirements

2013-10-21
WIP
AIR6280
This Aerospace Information Report will summarize several existing aircraft landing gear shimmy analysis techniques and provide guidance on the synthesis and testing of tire properties, strut properties, and other landing gear mechanical properties that support the various shimmy analysis methods. This AIR is applicable to large and small fixed wing and rotary wing aircraft for military or civilian use.
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Catalog of Landing Gear Systems and Suppliers

2015-12-27
CURRENT
AIR5631A
The purpose of this document is to provide a listing for current commercial and military aircraft landing gear systems and their types and manufacturers. Data has been provided for the following commercial aircraft types; wide body jet airliners, narrow body jet airliners, and turboprop/commuter aircraft and the following military aircraft types; fighter, bomber, cargo, attack, surveillance, tanker and helicopter categories. The aircraft that have been included in this document are in operational service either with airlines, business, cargo or military operators. No information is presented for aircraft that are currently being developed or that are not in extensive usage. This document will provide an informational reference for landing gear engineers to access when evaluating other gear and aircraft systems. Future revisions of this document will add aircraft as they enter into service.
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Catalog of Landing Gear Systems and Suppliers

2009-02-19
HISTORICAL
AIR5631
The purpose of this document is to provide a listing for current commercial and military aircraft landing gear systems and their types and manufacturers. Data has been provided for the following aircraft types: wide body jet airliners, narrow body jet airliners, turboprop/commuter aircraft, cargo/transport aircraft and fighter/attack aircraft. The aircraft that have been included in this document are in operational service either with airlines, business, cargo or military operators. No information is presented for aircraft that are currently being developed or that are not in extensive usage. This document will provide an informational reference for landing gear engineers to access when evaluating other gear and aircraft systems.
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Effects of Extremely Cold Temperature on Landing Gear Operation

2016-03-15
WIP
AIR6411
Provide information and guidance for landing gear operation in cold temperature environment. Covers all operational aspects on ground and in flight. Includes effects on: tires, wheels, brakes, shock strut, seals, and actuation.
Standard

GLAND DESIGN: SCRAPER, LANDING GEAR, INSTALLATION

1994-04-01
HISTORICAL
AS4052
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) covers an alternate gland design for the installation of scraper/wiper rings in the lower end of landing gear shock struts for the purpose of contaminant exclusion. The defined scraper gland covered by this document, as shown in Table 1, is a variant of MIL-G-5514, the accepted gland standard for MS28775. Piston diameters, gland internal diameters, and the groove sidewall angles and surface finish are defined by MIL-G-5514, but the gland outer retaining wall diameter is changed. AS4088 is similar to this document, but was developed by SAE A-6 for flight control and general purpose cylinders. It differs from this document primarily by the clearance between the rod (piston) and outer gland wall. Since landing gears are more susceptible to dirt contamination, the additional clearance provides a larger path to allow excessive dirt accumulation to exit the gland.
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