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AIRCRAFT NOSE WHEEL STEERING/CENTERING SYSTEMS

1991-03-01
HISTORICAL
AIR1752
This document covers both military aircraft (land-based and ship-based) and commercial aircraft. It is intended that the document be continually updated as new aircraft and/or new "lessons learned" become available.
Standard

AIRCRAFT TAIL BUMPERS

1984-09-01
HISTORICAL
AIR1800
This document covers the field of civilian, commercial and military airplanes and helicopters. This summary of tail bumper design approaches may be used by design personnel as a reference and guide for future airplanes and helicopters that require tail bumpers. Those described herein will consist of simple rub strips, structural loops with a wear surface for runway contact, retractable installations with replaceable shock absorbers and wear surfaces and complicated retractable tail landing gears with shock strut, wheels and tires. The information will be presented as a general description of the installation, its components and their functions.
Standard

ARRESTING HOOK INSTALLATION, LAND BASED AIRCRAFT, EMERGENCY

1978-04-01
HISTORICAL
ARP1538
This document covers the recommended criteria and performance requirements for the design and installation of an aircraft emergency arresting hook intended for use with emergency runway arresting systems. Design criteria for fully operational hooks and for carrier based aircraft hook installations are contained in specification MIL-A-18717.
Standard

Aircraft Tail Bumpers

1997-07-01
CURRENT
AIR1800A
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) covers the field of civilian, commercial and military airplanes and helicopters. This summary of tail bumper design approaches may be used by design personnel as a reference and guide for future airplanes and helicopters that require tail bumpers. Those described herein will consist of simple rub strips, structural loops with a wear surface for runway contact, retractable installations with replaceable shock absorbers and wear surfaces and complicated retractable tail landing gears with shock strut, wheels and tires. The information will be presented as a general description of the installation, its components and their functions.
Standard

Arresting Hook Installation, Land Based Aircraft, Emergency

1998-02-01
HISTORICAL
ARP1538A
This document covers the recommended criteria and performance requirements for the design and installation of an aircraft emergency arresting hook intended for use with emergency runway arresting systems. Design criteria for fully operational hooks and for carrier based aircraft hook installations are contained in specification MIL-A-18717.
Standard

CRACK INITIATION AND GROWTH CONSIDERATIONS FOR LANDING GEAR STEEL WITH EMPHASIS ON AERMET 100

1997-06-01
HISTORICAL
AIR5052
Steel alloys, such as AF1410 (AMS 6527, UNS K92571) and AerMet 100 (AMS 6532), have been developed which have improved Fracture Toughness characteristics compared to the current landing gear steel alloy, 300M (AMS 6419 and AMS 6257, MIL-S-8844, UNS K44220). The 300M steel is the most widely used material in current landing gear designs. It has been successfully used in thousands of applications. The use of the 300M material necessitates a safe life design criterion where components are retired after one-fourth to one-sixth the laboratory test life. This criterion was established in part due to the relatively low fracture toughness of low-alloy steel in the 260 to 300 ksi strength range. The high fracture tough alloys give comparable strength levels with an increase in fracture toughness and better resistance to stress corrosion cracking. These alloys may make possible the consideration of new procedures for operation, maintenance, and inspection.
Standard

Design Recommendations for Spare Seals in Landing Gear Shock Struts

2017-06-09
CURRENT
ARP4912C
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) provides recommendations on cavity design, the installation of elastomer type spare seals in these cavities, and information surrounding elastomer material properties after contact with typical shock absorber hydraulic fluid(s) or grease. This ARP is primarily concerned with the use of spare seals on shock absorbers where only a single dynamic seal is fitted and in contact with the slider/shock absorber piston at any one time. These shock absorbers typically have a spare (dynamic) seal gland located on the outer diameter of the lower seal carrier. This spare seal gland is intended to house a spare elastomer contact seal. Split Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) backup rings can also be installed in the spare seal cavity. During operation, if the fitted dynamic shock absorber standard seal begins to fail/leak, then the aircraft can be jacked up, allowing the lower gland nut of the shock absorber to be dropped down.
Standard

Development and Qualification of Composite Landing Gears

2010-10-07
CURRENT
AIR5552
This information report provides general guidance for the design considerations, qualification in endurance, strength and fatigue of landing gear using composite components as principle structural elements. The information discussed herein includes the development and evaluation of design data considering: the potential for imbedded manufacturing defects, manufacturing process variations, the component operating environment, potential damage threats in service, rework and overhaul, and inspection processes. This AIR mainly discusses the use of thick composites for landing gear structural components. Considerations and recommendations provided in this AIR may therefore differ greatly from considerations and recommendations found in widely accepted composite design references such as CMH-17 and Advisory Circulars such as AC 20-107(B).
Standard

External Hydraulic Fluid Leakage Definition for Landing Gear Shock Absorbers

2018-07-25
CURRENT
ARP6408
The purpose of this SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) is to provide a practical definition of external hydraulic fluid leakage exhibited by landing gear shock absorbers/struts. The definition will outline normal (acceptable weepage) and excessive leakage (unacceptable leakage) of shock absorbers/struts that is measurable. The definition of leakage is applicable to new gear assemblies, refurbished/remanufactured (overhauled) shock absorbers/struts, leakage of shock absorbers/struts encountered during acceptance flights, newly delivered and in-service aircraft. This ARP is intended to provide guidelines for acceptable leakage of landing gear shock absorbers/struts between the ambient temperatures of -65 °F (-54 °C) and 130 °F (54 °C) and to outline the procedure for measuring such leakage. The specific limits that are applied to any particular aircraft shall be adjusted by the aircraft manufacturer before inclusion in the applicable maintenance manual.
Standard

Gland Design: Nominal 3/8 Inch Cross Section for Compression-Type Seals

2019-06-17
CURRENT
AS4832A
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) offers gland details for a 0.364 inch (9.246 mm) cross-section gland (nominal 3/8 inch) with proposed gland lengths for compression-type seals with two backup rings over a range of 7 to 21 inches (178 to 533 mm) in diameter. The dash number system used is similar to AS568A. A 600 series has been chosen as a logical extension of AS568A, and the 625 number has been selected for the initial number, since 300 and 400 series in MIL-G-5514 and AS4716 begin with 325 and 425 sizes. Seal configurations and design are not a part of this document. This gland is for use with compression-type seals including, but not limited to, O-rings, T-rings, D-rings, cap seals, etc.
Standard

Gland Design: Nominal 3/8 in Cross Section for Custom Compression Type Seals

1994-06-01
HISTORICAL
AS4832
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) offers gland details for a 0.364 cross section gland (nominal 3/8 in) with proposed gland lengths for compression type seals with two backup rings over a range of 8 to 20 in in diameter. A dash number system is proposed similar to AS568A. A 600 series has been chosen as a logical extension of AS568A and the 625 number has been arbitrarily chosen for the initial number. (Both 300 and 400 series begin with 325 and 425 sizes.) Seal configurations and design are not a part of this document. This gland is for use with custom compression type seals including, but not limited to, O-rings, T-rings, D-rings, etc.
Standard

Gland Design: Scraper, Landing Gear, Installation

2001-04-01
HISTORICAL
AS4052A
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) covers an alternate gland design for the installation of scraper/wiper rings in the lower end of landing gear shock struts for the purpose of contaminant exclusion. The defined scraper gland covered by this document, as shown in Table 1, is a variant of AS4716, the accepted gland standard for MS28775, O-ring packing seals. Piston diameters, gland internal diameters, groove sidewall angles and the surface finish are all defined by AS4716, but the gland outer retaining wall diameter is changed. AS4088 is similar to this document, but was developed by SAE A-6 for flight control and general-purpose cylinders. It differs from this document primarily by the clearance between the rod (piston) and outer gland wall. Since landing gears are more susceptible to dirt contamination, the additional clearance provides a larger path to allow excessive dirt accumulation to exit the gland.
Standard

Gland Design: Scraper, Landing Gear, Installation

2008-11-24
CURRENT
AS4052B
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) covers an alternate gland design for the installation of scraper/wiper rings in the lower end of landing gear shock struts for the purpose of contaminant exclusion. The defined scraper gland covered by this document, as shown in Table 1, is a variant of AS4716, the accepted gland standard for MS28775, O-ring packing seals. Piston rod diameters, gland internal diameters, groove sidewall angles and the surface finish are all defined by AS4716, but the gland outer retaining wall diameter is changed. The traditional scraper design installed into the glands detailed in Table 1 typically utilize components made from urethane or nitrile materials. These scraper designs, while still acceptable, must be reviewed in consideration to deicing, cleaners and disinfectant fluids applied to or in contact with the landing gear, as the materials of construction for the installed scrapers may not be compatible to these fluids.
Standard

Guide for Installation of Electrical Wire and Cable on Aircraft Landing Gear

1989-11-28
HISTORICAL
AIR4004
Recent field experience has indicated significant problems with some types of wire and cable as routed on aircraft landing gear. This Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is intended to identify environmental concerns the designer must consider, materials that appear to be most suitable for use in these areas, routing, clamping, and other protection techniques that are appropriate in these applications.
Standard

Historical Design Information of Aircraft Landing Gear and Control Actuation Systems

2017-07-10
CURRENT
AIR5565
This aerospace information report (AIR) provides historical design information for various aircraft landing gear and actuation/control systems that may be useful in the design of future systems for similar applications. It presents the basic characteristics, hardware descriptions, functional schematics, and discussions of the actuation mechanisms, controls, and alternate release systems. The report is divided into two basic sections: 1 Landing gear actuation system history from 1876 to the present. This section provides an overview and the defining examples that demonstrate the evolution of landing gear actuation systems to the present day. 2 This section of the report provides an in depth review of various aircraft. A summary table of aircraft detail contained within this section is provided in paragraph 4.1. The intent is to add new and old aircraft retraction/extension systems to this AIR as the data becomes available.
Standard

Landing Gear Common Repair

2004-12-01
HISTORICAL
AIR5885
This document outlines the most common repairs used on landing gear components. It is not the intention of this AIR to replace Overhaul/Component Maintenance or Technical Order Manuals, but it can serve as a guide into their preparation. This document may also be used as a template to develop an MRB (Material Review Board) plan. The recommendations in this document apply to components made of metallic alloys. These recommendations are intended for new manufactured components as well as for overhauled components. The extent of repair allowed for new components as opposed to in-service components is left to the cognizant engineering authorities. Reference could be made to this document when justifying repairs on landing gears. For repairs outside the scope of this document, a detailed justification is necessary. It must be understood that all the repairs listed in this document are not to be applied without the involvement of the cognizant engineer.
Standard

Landing Gear Component Heat Damage

2018-07-02
CURRENT
AIR5913A
The purpose of this report is to outline types of in-service heat damage that have been observed in high strength steel landing gear components, with an emphasis on a particular type that is referred to as “Ladder Cracking” which can develop in landing gear shock struts. The report discusses how ladder cracking can be detected visually and evaluated by non-destructive inspection methods, and how it can be repaired at overhaul with the prior approval of the Original Equipment Manufacturer. This report also describes the use of a bearing material that has resolved this problem without introducing other problems. Examples of other types of service induced heat damage are also discussed.
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