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AIRCRAFT LANDING GEAR

1995-01-01
HISTORICAL
ARP1311A
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) applies to landing gear structures and mechanisms (excluding wheels, tires, and brakes) for all types and models of civil and military aircraft applications. All axles, wheel forks, axle beams, links, arms, mechanical and air-oil energy absorbers braces, lock assemblies, trunnion beams, etc., that sustain loads originating at the ground, and that are not integral parts of the airframe structure should be designed in accordance with this document. Hydraulic actuators (retraction, steering, positioning, and/or damping) should also be included in this coverage. It should be the responsibility of the airframe manufacturer to determine the compatibility of these needs with the aircraft and to specify requirements in excess of these minima where appropriate.
Standard

AIRCRAFT TAIL BUMPERS

1984-09-01
HISTORICAL
AIR1800
This document covers the field of civilian, commercial and military airplanes and helicopters. This summary of tail bumper design approaches may be used by design personnel as a reference and guide for future airplanes and helicopters that require tail bumpers. Those described herein will consist of simple rub strips, structural loops with a wear surface for runway contact, retractable installations with replaceable shock absorbers and wear surfaces and complicated retractable tail landing gears with shock strut, wheels and tires. The information will be presented as a general description of the installation, its components and their functions.
Standard

Aircraft Landing Gear

1999-06-01
HISTORICAL
ARP1311B
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) applies to landing gear structures and mechanisms (excluding wheels, tires, and brakes) for all types and models of civil and military aircraft including all aircraft with vertical landing and crash attenuation requirements. All axles, wheel forks, axle beams, links, arms, mechanical and nitrogen/oil energy absorbers, lock assemblies, braces, trunnion beams, and truck beams etc., that sustain loads originating at the ground, and that are not integral parts of the airframe structure, should be designed in accordance with this document. Hydraulic actuators (retraction, main and nose gear steering, positioning, and/or damping) should also be included in this coverage.
Standard

Aircraft Tail Bumpers

1997-07-01
CURRENT
AIR1800A
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) covers the field of civilian, commercial and military airplanes and helicopters. This summary of tail bumper design approaches may be used by design personnel as a reference and guide for future airplanes and helicopters that require tail bumpers. Those described herein will consist of simple rub strips, structural loops with a wear surface for runway contact, retractable installations with replaceable shock absorbers and wear surfaces and complicated retractable tail landing gears with shock strut, wheels and tires. The information will be presented as a general description of the installation, its components and their functions.
Standard

Crashworthy Landing Gear Design

1992-07-01
HISTORICAL
AIR4566
The intent of this SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is to document the design requirements and approaches for the crashworthy design of aircraft landing gear. This document covers the field of commercial and military airplanes and helicopters. This summary of crashworthy landing gear design requirements and approaches may be used as a reference for future aircraft.
Standard

DESIGN, DEVELOPMENT AND TEST CRITERIA - SOLID STATE PROXIMITY SWITCHES/SYSTEMS FOR LANDING GEAR APPLICATIONS

1986-07-09
HISTORICAL
AIR1810A
This document will examine the more important considerations relative to the utilization of "one piece", or integral electronics proximity switches, and "two piece", or separate sensor and electronics proximity switches, for applications on aircraft landing gear. In general, the recommendations included are applicable for other demanding aircraft sensor installations where the environment is equally severe.
Standard

Design Recommendations for Spare Seals in Landing Gear Shock Struts

2017-06-09
CURRENT
ARP4912C
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) provides recommendations on cavity design, the installation of elastomer type spare seals in these cavities, and information surrounding elastomer material properties after contact with typical shock absorber hydraulic fluid(s) or grease. This ARP is primarily concerned with the use of spare seals on shock absorbers where only a single dynamic seal is fitted and in contact with the slider/shock absorber piston at any one time. These shock absorbers typically have a spare (dynamic) seal gland located on the outer diameter of the lower seal carrier. This spare seal gland is intended to house a spare elastomer contact seal. Split Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) backup rings can also be installed in the spare seal cavity. During operation, if the fitted dynamic shock absorber standard seal begins to fail/leak, then the aircraft can be jacked up, allowing the lower gland nut of the shock absorber to be dropped down.
Standard

Design, Development and Test Criteria - Solid State Proximity Switches/Systems for Landing Gear Applications

2001-10-01
HISTORICAL
AIR1810B
This document will examine the more important considerations relative to the utilization of "one piece", or integral electronics proximity switches, and "two piece", or separate sensor and electronics proximity switches, for applications on aircraft landing gear. In general, the recommendations included are applicable for other demanding aircraft sensor installations where the environment is equally severe.
Standard

Development and Qualification of Composite Landing Gears

2010-10-07
CURRENT
AIR5552
This information report provides general guidance for the design considerations, qualification in endurance, strength and fatigue of landing gear using composite components as principle structural elements. The information discussed herein includes the development and evaluation of design data considering: the potential for imbedded manufacturing defects, manufacturing process variations, the component operating environment, potential damage threats in service, rework and overhaul, and inspection processes. This AIR mainly discusses the use of thick composites for landing gear structural components. Considerations and recommendations provided in this AIR may therefore differ greatly from considerations and recommendations found in widely accepted composite design references such as CMH-17 and Advisory Circulars such as AC 20-107(B).
Standard

Disposition of Landing Gear Components Involved in Accidents/Incidents

2011-10-20
CURRENT
ARP4915B
This document establishes a procedure for disposition of landing gear components that have been involved in accidents/incidents. The recommendations in this document apply to components made of ferrous and non-ferrous alloys. The recommendations in this document do not apply to components made of non metallic composite materials.
Standard

External Hydraulic Fluid Leakage Definition for Landing Gear Shock Absorbers

2018-07-25
CURRENT
ARP6408
The purpose of this SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) is to provide a practical definition of external hydraulic fluid leakage exhibited by landing gear shock absorbers/struts. The definition will outline normal (acceptable weepage) and excessive leakage (unacceptable leakage) of shock absorbers/struts that is measurable. The definition of leakage is applicable to new gear assemblies, refurbished/remanufactured (overhauled) shock absorbers/struts, leakage of shock absorbers/struts encountered during acceptance flights, newly delivered and in-service aircraft. This ARP is intended to provide guidelines for acceptable leakage of landing gear shock absorbers/struts between the ambient temperatures of -65 °F (-54 °C) and 130 °F (54 °C) and to outline the procedure for measuring such leakage. The specific limits that are applied to any particular aircraft shall be adjusted by the aircraft manufacturer before inclusion in the applicable maintenance manual.
Standard

Extraordinary and Special Purpose Landing Gear Systems

2012-10-03
CURRENT
AIR4846A
A landing gear system comprises the most compelling assembly of engineering skills. Its importance to the successful design of an aircraft can be favorably compared with that of the aircraft's wings and engines. A landing gear system consists of several different engineering disciplines, and is continually in the public eye especially with regard to safety. The primary objective of AIR4846 is to present a record of a variety of interesting gears, gear/aircraft systems and patents, and to discuss wherever possible the lessons learned, and the reasons for the design. Thus, the document is not only a historical account, but a means of recording technical knowledge for the practical benefit of future landing gear designers. Commendable efforts have been made over the years by several individuals to make such recordings, and AIR4846 will make continual reference to them. This applies to all books, papers, or specifications that have the approval of the SAE A-5 Committee.
Standard

Extraordinary and Special Purpose Landing Gear Systems

2006-05-19
HISTORICAL
AIR4846
A landing gear system comprises the most compelling assembly of engineering skills. Its importance to the successful design of an aircraft can be favorably compared with that of the aircraft's wings and engines. A landing gear system consists of several different engineering disciplines, and is continually in the public eye especially with regard to safety. The primary objective of AIR4846 is to present a record of a variety of interesting gears, gear/aircraft systems and patents, and to discuss wherever possible the lessons learned, and the reasons for the design. Thus, the document is not only a historical account, but a means of recording technical knowledge for the practical benefit of future landing gear designers. Commendable efforts have been made over the years by several individuals to make such recordings, and AIR4846 will make continual reference to them. This applies to all books, papers, or specifications that have the approval of the SAE A-5 Committee.
Standard

Gland Design: Nominal 3/8 Inch Cross Section for Compression-Type Seals

2019-06-17
CURRENT
AS4832A
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) offers gland details for a 0.364 inch (9.246 mm) cross-section gland (nominal 3/8 inch) with proposed gland lengths for compression-type seals with two backup rings over a range of 7 to 21 inches (178 to 533 mm) in diameter. The dash number system used is similar to AS568A. A 600 series has been chosen as a logical extension of AS568A, and the 625 number has been selected for the initial number, since 300 and 400 series in MIL-G-5514 and AS4716 begin with 325 and 425 sizes. Seal configurations and design are not a part of this document. This gland is for use with compression-type seals including, but not limited to, O-rings, T-rings, D-rings, cap seals, etc.
Standard

Guide for Installation of Electrical Wire and Cable on Aircraft Landing Gear

1989-11-28
HISTORICAL
AIR4004
Recent field experience has indicated significant problems with some types of wire and cable as routed on aircraft landing gear. This Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is intended to identify environmental concerns the designer must consider, materials that appear to be most suitable for use in these areas, routing, clamping, and other protection techniques that are appropriate in these applications.
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