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AIRCRAFT LANDING GEAR

1995-01-01
HISTORICAL
ARP1311A
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) applies to landing gear structures and mechanisms (excluding wheels, tires, and brakes) for all types and models of civil and military aircraft applications. All axles, wheel forks, axle beams, links, arms, mechanical and air-oil energy absorbers braces, lock assemblies, trunnion beams, etc., that sustain loads originating at the ground, and that are not integral parts of the airframe structure should be designed in accordance with this document. Hydraulic actuators (retraction, steering, positioning, and/or damping) should also be included in this coverage. It should be the responsibility of the airframe manufacturer to determine the compatibility of these needs with the aircraft and to specify requirements in excess of these minima where appropriate.
Standard

AIRCRAFT NOSE WHEEL STEERING/CENTERING SYSTEMS

1991-03-01
HISTORICAL
AIR1752
This document covers both military aircraft (land-based and ship-based) and commercial aircraft. It is intended that the document be continually updated as new aircraft and/or new "lessons learned" become available.
Standard

AIRCRAFT TAIL BUMPERS

1984-09-01
HISTORICAL
AIR1800
This document covers the field of civilian, commercial and military airplanes and helicopters. This summary of tail bumper design approaches may be used by design personnel as a reference and guide for future airplanes and helicopters that require tail bumpers. Those described herein will consist of simple rub strips, structural loops with a wear surface for runway contact, retractable installations with replaceable shock absorbers and wear surfaces and complicated retractable tail landing gears with shock strut, wheels and tires. The information will be presented as a general description of the installation, its components and their functions.
Standard

ARRESTING HOOK INSTALLATION, LAND BASED AIRCRAFT, EMERGENCY

1978-04-01
HISTORICAL
ARP1538
This document covers the recommended criteria and performance requirements for the design and installation of an aircraft emergency arresting hook intended for use with emergency runway arresting systems. Design criteria for fully operational hooks and for carrier based aircraft hook installations are contained in specification MIL-A-18717.
Standard

Aircraft Landing Gear

1999-06-01
HISTORICAL
ARP1311B
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) applies to landing gear structures and mechanisms (excluding wheels, tires, and brakes) for all types and models of civil and military aircraft including all aircraft with vertical landing and crash attenuation requirements. All axles, wheel forks, axle beams, links, arms, mechanical and nitrogen/oil energy absorbers, lock assemblies, braces, trunnion beams, and truck beams etc., that sustain loads originating at the ground, and that are not integral parts of the airframe structure, should be designed in accordance with this document. Hydraulic actuators (retraction, main and nose gear steering, positioning, and/or damping) should also be included in this coverage.
Standard

Aircraft Nosewheel Steering Systems

1997-03-01
HISTORICAL
ARP1595A
This document provides recommended practices for the design, development, and verification testing of aircraft nosewheel steering (NWS) systems.
Standard

Aircraft Nosewheel Steering/Centering Systems

1996-06-01
CURRENT
AIR1752A
The intent of this AIR is twofold: (1) to present descriptive summary of aircraft nosewheel steering and centering systems, and (2) to provide a discussion of problems encountered and “lessons learned” by various airplane manufacturers and users. This document covers both military aircraft (land-based and ship-based) and commercial aircraft. It is intended that the document be continually updated as new aircraft and/or new “lessons learned” become available.
Standard

Aircraft Tail Bumpers

1997-07-01
CURRENT
AIR1800A
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) covers the field of civilian, commercial and military airplanes and helicopters. This summary of tail bumper design approaches may be used by design personnel as a reference and guide for future airplanes and helicopters that require tail bumpers. Those described herein will consist of simple rub strips, structural loops with a wear surface for runway contact, retractable installations with replaceable shock absorbers and wear surfaces and complicated retractable tail landing gears with shock strut, wheels and tires. The information will be presented as a general description of the installation, its components and their functions.
Standard

Arresting Hook Installation, Land Based Aircraft, Emergency

1998-02-01
HISTORICAL
ARP1538A
This document covers the recommended criteria and performance requirements for the design and installation of an aircraft emergency arresting hook intended for use with emergency runway arresting systems. Design criteria for fully operational hooks and for carrier based aircraft hook installations are contained in specification MIL-A-18717.
Standard

Arresting Hook Installation, Land-Based Aircraft

2007-10-11
CURRENT
ARP1538B
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) covers the recommended criteria and performance requirements for the design and installation of land-based aircraft emergency and operational arresting hooks for use on runway arresting systems. Design criteria for fully operational hooks and for carrier-based aircraft hook installations are contained in specification MIL-A-18717.
Standard

Crashworthy Landing Gear Design

1992-07-01
HISTORICAL
AIR4566
The intent of this SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is to document the design requirements and approaches for the crashworthy design of aircraft landing gear. This document covers the field of commercial and military airplanes and helicopters. This summary of crashworthy landing gear design requirements and approaches may be used as a reference for future aircraft.
Standard

Crashworthy Landing Gear Design

2010-05-04
CURRENT
AIR4566A
The intent of this SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is to document the design requirements and approaches for the crashworthy design of aircraft landing gear. This document covers the field of commercial and military airplanes and helicopters. This summary of crashworthy landing gear design requirements and approaches may be used as a reference for future aircraft.
Standard

External Hydraulic Fluid Leakage Definition for Landing Gear Shock Absorbers

2018-07-25
CURRENT
ARP6408
The purpose of this SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) is to provide a practical definition of external hydraulic fluid leakage exhibited by landing gear shock absorbers/struts. The definition will outline normal (acceptable weepage) and excessive leakage (unacceptable leakage) of shock absorbers/struts that is measurable. The definition of leakage is applicable to new gear assemblies, refurbished/remanufactured (overhauled) shock absorbers/struts, leakage of shock absorbers/struts encountered during acceptance flights, newly delivered and in-service aircraft. This ARP is intended to provide guidelines for acceptable leakage of landing gear shock absorbers/struts between the ambient temperatures of -65 °F (-54 °C) and 130 °F (54 °C) and to outline the procedure for measuring such leakage. The specific limits that are applied to any particular aircraft shall be adjusted by the aircraft manufacturer before inclusion in the applicable maintenance manual.
Standard

Extraordinary and Special Purpose Landing Gear Systems

2012-10-03
CURRENT
AIR4846A
A landing gear system comprises the most compelling assembly of engineering skills. Its importance to the successful design of an aircraft can be favorably compared with that of the aircraft's wings and engines. A landing gear system consists of several different engineering disciplines, and is continually in the public eye especially with regard to safety. The primary objective of AIR4846 is to present a record of a variety of interesting gears, gear/aircraft systems and patents, and to discuss wherever possible the lessons learned, and the reasons for the design. Thus, the document is not only a historical account, but a means of recording technical knowledge for the practical benefit of future landing gear designers. Commendable efforts have been made over the years by several individuals to make such recordings, and AIR4846 will make continual reference to them. This applies to all books, papers, or specifications that have the approval of the SAE A-5 Committee.
Standard

Extraordinary and Special Purpose Landing Gear Systems

2006-05-19
HISTORICAL
AIR4846
A landing gear system comprises the most compelling assembly of engineering skills. Its importance to the successful design of an aircraft can be favorably compared with that of the aircraft's wings and engines. A landing gear system consists of several different engineering disciplines, and is continually in the public eye especially with regard to safety. The primary objective of AIR4846 is to present a record of a variety of interesting gears, gear/aircraft systems and patents, and to discuss wherever possible the lessons learned, and the reasons for the design. Thus, the document is not only a historical account, but a means of recording technical knowledge for the practical benefit of future landing gear designers. Commendable efforts have been made over the years by several individuals to make such recordings, and AIR4846 will make continual reference to them. This applies to all books, papers, or specifications that have the approval of the SAE A-5 Committee.
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