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Aircraft Fuel System Design Guidelines

2019-12-05
CURRENT
AIR7975
This document describes the major design drivers and considerations when designing a fuel system for a large commercial aircraft. It discusses the design at a system/aircraft level, and is not intended as a design manual for individual system components, though it does refer out to other SAE specifications where more detail on specific components and sub systems is given. It does include examples of a number of calculations associated with sizing of fuel systems, based on those given in NAV-AIR-06-5-504, as well as an appendix summarizing basic fluid mechanical equations which are key for fuel system design. It is acknowledged that most of these calculations would today be performed by modelling tools, rather than by hand, but it is considered important for the designer to understand the principles. It is intended that later issues of this document will include appendices which give specific considerations for military aircraft, smaller commercial aircraft, and rotorcraft.
Standard

Aircraft Fuel System and Component Icing Test

1997-12-01
HISTORICAL
ARP1401A
This Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) covers a brief discussion of the icing problem in aircraft fuel systems and different means that have been used to test for icing. Fuel preparation procedures and icing tests for aircraft fuel systems and components are proposed herein as a recommended practice to be used in the aircraft industry for fixed wing aircraft and their operational environment only. In the context of this ARP, the engine is not considered to be a component of the aircraft fuel system, for the engine fuel system is subjected to icing tests by the engine manufacturer for commercial and particular military applications.
Standard

CAPACITIVE FUEL GAUGING SYSTEM ACCURACIES

1989-03-01
HISTORICAL
AIR1184A
This report is intended to identify the necessary analytical tools to enable making value judgments for minimizing the various errors typically encountered in capacitance systems. Thus, in addition to identification of error sources, it describes the basic factors which cause the errors. When coupled with appraisals of the relative costs of minimizing the errors, this knowledge will furnish a tool with which to optimize gauging system accuracy, and thus, to obtain the optimum overall system within the constraints imposed by both design and budgetary considerations. Since the subject of capacitance accuracy is quite complex, no attempt is made herein to present a fully-comprehensive evaluation of all factors affecting gauging system accuracy. Rather, the major contributors to gauging system inaccuracy are discussed and emphasis is given to simplicity and clarity, somewhat at the expense of completeness. An overview of Capacitive Fuel Gauging operation is provided in the Appendix.
Standard

Capacitive Fuel Gauging System Accuracies

2016-08-12
CURRENT
AIR1184B
This report is intended to identify the various errors typically encountered in capacitance fuel quantity measurement systems. In addition to identification of error sources, it describes the basic factors which cause the errors. When coupled with appraisals of the relative costs of minimizing the errors, this knowledge will furnish a tool with which to optimize gauging system accuracy, and thus, to obtain the optimum overall system within the constraints imposed by both design and budgetary considerations. Since the subject of fuel measurement accuracy using capacitance based sensing is quite complex, no attempt is made herein to present a fully-comprehensive evaluation of all factors affecting gauging system accuracy. Rather, the major contributors to gauging system inaccuracy are discussed and emphasis is given to simplicity and clarity, somewhat at the expense of completeness. An overview of capacitive fuel gauging operation can be found in AIR5691.
Standard

Composite Fuel Tanks, Fuel System Design Considerations

2012-12-11
CURRENT
AIR5774
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is a compilation of engineering references and data useful to the technical community that can be used to ensure fuel system compatibility with composite structure. This AIR is not a complete detailed design guide and is not intended to satisfy all potential fuel system applications. Extensive research, design, and development are required for each individual application.
Standard

DEFINITION OF PRESSURE SURGE TEST AND MEASUREMENT METHODS FOR RECEIVER AIRCRAFT

1983-03-01
HISTORICAL
ARP1665
The test procedure applies to the refueling manifold system connecting the receiver aircraft fuel tanks to the refueling source fuel pump(s) for both ground and aerial refueling. The test procedure is intended to verify that the limit value for surge pressure specified for the receiver fuel system is not exceeded when refueling from a refueling source which meets the requirements of AS 1284 (reference 2). This recommended practice is not directly applicable to surge pressure developed during operation of an aircraft fuel system, such as initiating or stopping engine fuel feed or fuel transfer within an aircraft, or the pressure surge produced when the fuel pumps are first started to fill an empty fuel manifold.
Standard

Definition of Pressure Surge Test and Measurement Methods for Receiver Aircraft

1997-12-01
CURRENT
ARP1665A
The test procedure applies to the refueling manifold system connecting the receiver aircraft fuel tanks to the refueling source fuel pump(s) for both ground and aerial refueling. The test procedure is intended to verify that the limit value for surge pressure specified for the receiver fuel system is not exceeded when refueling from a refueling source which meets the requirements of AS1284 (reference 2). This recommended practice is not directly applicable to surge pressure developed during operation of an aircraft fuel system, such as initiating or stopping engine fuel feed or fuel transfer within an aircraft, or the pressure surge produced when the fuel pumps are first started to fill an empty fuel manifold.
Standard

Design and Operating Requirements of the Onboard Aircraft Refueling System and Associated Ground Refueling Equipment Interface

2018-03-18
CURRENT
AS5751
This SAE Aerospace Specification (AS) is applicable to all aircraft. This AS defines the minimum design and operating requirements for the aircraft refueling interface. These requirements establish the minimum criteria for the aircraft design that provides practical standardized refueling system requirements, provides minimum standardized criteria for the operation and performance of any aircraft refueling equipment, and establishes an integrated minimum performance for aircraft refueling operations. This standardization provides the minimum design criteria to assure full compatibility between the aircraft refueling system connection point(s), aircraft operating characteristics, and the design and operation of ground based aircraft refueling equipment in all steady state and dynamic refueling and defueling conditions. The criteria that shall be used to test the operation and performance of the aircraft refueling system and equipment are also specified.
Standard

FIRE TESTING OF FLUID HANDLING COMPONENTS FOR AIRCRAFT ENGINES AND AIRCRAFT ENGINE INSTALLATIONS

1996-08-01
HISTORICAL
AS4273
This document establishes requirements, test procedures, and acceptance criteria for the fire testing of fluid handling components and materials used in aircraft fluid systems. It is applicable to fluid handling components other than those prescribed by AS1055 (e.g., hoses, tube assemblies, coils, fittings). It also is applicable to materials, wiring, and components such as reservoirs, valves, gearboxes, pumps, filter assemblies, accumulators, fluid-cooled electrical/electronic components, in-flight fluid system instrumentation, hydromechanical controls, actuators, heat exchangers, and manifolds. These components may be used in fuel, lubrication, hydraulic, or pneumatic systems.
Standard

FLUID SYSTEM COMPONENT SPECIFICATION PREPARATION CRITERIA

1983-06-01
HISTORICAL
AIR1082A
The "Scope" section may be a very brief statement describing the coverage of the specification for a simple device, or it may require a long description of limiting parameters for a more complex device or system having a complicated interface definition.
Standard

FLUID-SYSTEM-COMPONENT SPECIFICATION PREPARATION CRITERIA

1992-02-01
HISTORICAL
AIR1082B
The importance of adequate component procurement specifications to the success of a hardware development program cannot be overemphasized. Specifications which are too stringent can be as detrimental as specifications which are too lax. Performance specifications must not only identify all of the component requirements, but they must also include sufficient quality assurance provisions so that compliance can be verified. It should be understood that in almost every case specifications for components will ultimately become part of a BINDING, WRITTEN CONTRACT (PO). The purpose of this document is to describe types of specifications, provide guidance for the preparation of fluid component specifications, and identify documents commonly referenced in fluid component specifications.
Standard

FUEL GAGING SYSTEM ACCURACIES

1973-01-01
HISTORICAL
AIR1184
It is intended to provide capacitance gaging system "specifiers" with the necessary tools to make value judgements concerning the various errors typically encountered in systems of this type. Thus, in addition to merely identifying the error-causes, descriptions are given concerning the basic factors from which these error-causes derive. This knowledge, when complemented with appraisals of the relative costs of minimizing the error-causes, will furnish the system specifier with a powerful tool with which to optimize gaging system accuracy, and thus, to obtain the "best possible" overall system within the constraints imposed by both design and budgetary considerations. Since the subject of capacitance gaging accuracy is quite extensive, and in some instances very complex, no attempt is made herein to present an all-inclusive and fully comprehensive evaluation of the subject. Rather, the major contributors to gaging system inaccuracy are discussed.
Standard

Fluid-System-Component Specification Preparation Criteria

2013-10-04
CURRENT
AIR1082C
The importance of adequate component procurement specifications to the success of a hardware development program cannot be overemphasized. Specifications which are too stringent can be as detrimental as specifications which are too lax. Performance specifications must not only identify all of the component requirements, but they must also include sufficient quality assurance provisions so that compliance can be verified. It should be understood that in almost every case specifications for components will ultimately become part of a BINDING, WRITTEN CONTRACT (PO). The purpose of this document is to describe types of specifications, provide guidance for the preparation of fluid component specifications, and identify documents commonly referenced in fluid component specifications.
Standard

Fuel Level Control Valves and Systems

2016-05-17
CURRENT
AIR1660C
A fuel level control valve/system controls the quantity of fuel in a tank being filled or emptied on the aircraft. This document provides a general familiarization with these mechanisms (e.g., forms they take, functions, system design considerations). This document provides the aircraft fuel system designer with information about these mechanisms/devices, so that he can prescribe the types of level control valves/systems which are best suited for his particular fuel system configuration. The scope has been expanded as different aircraft manufacturers may use different type of fuel system architectures. Their refueling and defueling systems may take different configurations, may require different types of fuel control valves and may require different types of interface with the onboard Fuel Measurement System. They must also limit pressure surges and be compatible with ground refueling equipment which have varying surge potentials and create surges.
Standard

Fuel Level Control Valves/Systems

1997-12-01
HISTORICAL
AIR1660B
A fuel level control valve/system controls the quantity of fuel in a tank being filled or emptied. This document provides a general familiarization with these mechanisms (e.g. forms they take, functions, system design considerations). This document provides the aircraft fuel system designer with information about these mechanisms/devices, so that he can prescribe the types of level control valves/systems which are best suited for his particular fuel system configuration.
Standard

METHOD - PRESSURE DROP TESTS FOR FUEL SYSTEM COMPONENTS

1990-12-18
HISTORICAL
ARP868B
To describe useful methods for conducting pressure drop tests of fuel system components for MIL-F-8615 or similar requirements and to present general suggestions for improving accuracy of test results.
Standard

METHOD - PRESSURE DROP TESTS FOR FUEL SYSTEM COMPONENTS

1983-06-01
HISTORICAL
ARP868A
To describe useful methods for conducting pressure drop tests of fuel system components for MIL-F-8615 or similar requirements; and to present general suggestions for improving accuracy of test results.
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