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Technical Paper

A Naturally Aspirated Four Stroke Racing Engine with One Intake and One Exhaust Horizontal Rotary Valve per Cylinder and Central Direct Injection and Ignition by Spark or Jet

2015-03-10
2015-01-0006
The paper discusses the benefits of a four stroke engine having one intake and one exhaust rotary valve. The rotary valve has a speed of rotation half the crankshaft and defines an open passage that may permit up to extremely sharp opening or closing and very large gas exchange areas. The dual rotary valve design is applied to a racing engine naturally aspirated V-four engine of 1000cc displacement, gasoline fuelled with central direct injection and spark ignition. The engine is then modeled by using a 1D engine & gas dynamics simulation software package to assess the potentials of the solution. The improved design produces much larger power densities than the version of the engines with traditional poppet valves revving at higher speeds, with reduced frictional losses, and with larger gas exchange areas while also improving the fuel conversion efficiency thanks to the sharpness of opening or closing events.
Journal Article

A New Method to Warm Up Lubricating Oil to Improve the Fuel Efficiency During Cold Start

2011-04-12
2011-01-0318
Cold start driving cycles exhibit an increase in friction losses due to the low temperatures of metal and media compared to normal operating engine conditions. These friction losses are responsible for up to 10% penalty in fuel economy over the official drive cycles like the New European Drive Cycle (NEDC), where the temperature of the oil even at the end of the 1180 s of the drive cycle is below the fully warmed up values of between 100°C and 120°C. At engine oil temperatures below 100°C the water from the blowby condensates and dilutes the engine oil in the oil pan which negatively affects engine wear. Therefore engine oil temperatures above 100°C are desirable to minimize engine wear through blowby condensate. The paper presents a new technique to warm up the engine oil that significantly reduces the friction losses and therefore also reduces the fuel economy penalty during a 22°C cold start NEDC.
Technical Paper

A Novel Valve-Less Supercharged Small Two Stroke Engine of Top Brake Efficiency Above 36% and Power Density above 100 KW/Liter

2013-11-27
2013-01-2772
The paper presents a novel design for a two stroke thermal engine that delivers excellent fuel economy and low emissions within the constraints of today's cost, weight and size. The engine features asymmetrical port timing through a novel translating and rotating piston mechanism. The engine is externally scavenged and supercharged, has wet sump and oil pressure lubrication, direct injection, it is lightweight, easy to build, with minimal number of parts, low production cost, ability to be balanced and compact design. The two stroke mechanism produces a linear motion of the pistons as well as an elliptical path on the surface of the cylinder. This allows the piston to sweep as well as travel past the ports. Suitable slots around the raised lip of the piston generate the asymmetry that makes the exhaust port to open first and to close first. The inlet port remains open to complete the cylinder charging and allow supercharging. Direct fuel injection is adopted for best results.
Technical Paper

Design of 65 degree V4 Moto GP Engines with Pneumatic Poppet Valves or Rotary Valves

2015-01-14
2015-26-0176
Moto GP engines have since the year 2012 4 cylinders in V or inline layout for a total capacity of up to 1,000cc. With pneumatic valve spring but wet sump, and with the maximum bore limited to 81mm, the maximum speed these engines may have is about 18,000 rpm, with power outputs 250-260 HP. The paper presents the design of a 65 degree V4 Moto GP engine further optimizing the pneumatic poppet valve design, as well as a novel rotary valve design. The rotary valve permits up to extremely sharp opening or closing and very large gas exchange areas. The two engines are then modeled by using a 1D engine & gas dynamics simulation software package to assess the potentials of the solution. The improved design produces much larger power densities than the version of the engines with traditional poppet valves revving at higher speeds.
Technical Paper

Direct Injection and Spark Controlled Jet Ignition to Convert A Diesel Truck Engine to LPG

2010-10-05
2010-01-1976
Jet ignition and direct fuel injection are potential enablers of higher efficiency, cleaner Internal Combustion Engines (ICE). Very lean mixtures of gaseous fuels could be burned with pollutants formation below Euro 6 levels (in the ultra-lean mode), efficiencies approaching 50% full load and small efficiency penalties when operating part load. The lean burn Direct Injection Jet Ignition (DI-JI) ICE uses a fuel injection and mixture ignition system comprising one main chamber direct fuel injector and one small-size jet ignition pre-chamber per engine cylinder. The jet ignition pre-chamber is connected to the main chamber through calibrated orifices and accommodates a second direct fuel injector. In the spark plug version, the jet ignition pre-chamber includes a spark plug that ignites the slightly rich pre-chamber mixture that then bulk ignites the ultra lean, stratified main chamber mixture through multiple jets of hot reacting gases entering the in-cylinder.
Book

Engine Design Concepts for World Championship Grand Prix Motorcycles

2012-08-06
The World Championship Grand Prix (WCGP) is the premier championship event of motorcycle road racing. The WCGP was established in 1949 by the sport's governing body, the Fédération Internationale de Motocyclisme (FIM), and is the oldest world championship event in the motorsports arena. This book, developed especially for racing enthusiasts by motorsports engineering expert Dr. Alberto Boretti, provides a broad view of WCGP motorcycle racing and vehicles, but is primarily focused on the design of four-stroke engines for the MotoGP class. The book opens with general background on MotoGP governing bodies and a history of the event’s classes since the competition began in 1949. It then presents some of the key engines that have been developed and used for the competition through the years. Technologies that are used in today’s MotoGP engines are discussed.
Technical Paper

Exploring the Advantages of Atkinson Effects in Variable Compression Ratio Turbo GDI Engines

2011-04-12
2011-01-0367
The Atkinson cycle engine is basically an engine permitting the strokes to be different lengths for improved light loads fuel economies. Variable compression ratio is the technology to adjust internal combustion engine cylinder compression ratio to increase fuel efficiency while under varying loads. The paper presents a new design of a variable compression ratio engine that also permits an expansion ratio that may differ from the compression ratio therefore generating an Atkinson cycle effect. The stroke ratio and the ratio of maximum to minimum in-cylinder volumes may change with load and speed to provide the best fuel conversion efficiency. The variable ratio of maximum to minimum in-cylinder volumes also improves the full load power output of the engine.
Technical Paper

Exploring the Advantages of Variable Compression Ratio in Internal Combustion Engines by Using Engine Performance Simulations

2011-04-12
2011-01-0364
Variable compression ratio is the technology to adjust internal combustion engine cylinder compression ratio to increase fuel efficiency while under varying loads. The paper presents a new design of a variable compression ratio engine that allows for the volume above the piston at Top Dead Centre (TDC) to be changed. A modeling study is then performed using the WAVE engine performance simulation code for a naturally aspirated gasoline V8 engine. The modeling study shows significant improvements of fuel economy over the full range of loads and especially during light loads operation as well as an improvement of top power and torque outputs.
Technical Paper

Improving the Efficiency of Turbocharged Spark Ignition Engines for Passenger Cars through Waste Heat Recovery

2012-04-16
2012-01-0388
The turbocharged direct injection stoichiometric spark ignition gasoline engine has less than Diesel full load brake engine thermal efficiencies and much larger than Diesel penalties in brake engine thermal efficiencies reducing the load by throttling. This engine has however a much better power density, and therefore may operate at much higher BMEP values over driving cycles reducing the fuel economy penalty of the vehicle. This engine also has the advantage of the very well developed three way catalytic converter after treatment to meet future emission regulations. In these engines the efficiency may be improved recovering the waste heat, but this recovery may have ultimately impacts on both the in cylinder fuel conversion efficiency and the efficiency of the after treatment.
Technical Paper

Novel Engine Concepts for Multi Fuel Military Vehicles

2012-02-29
2012-01-1514
The paper considers different options to design a multi fuel engine retaining the power densities and efficiencies of the latest Diesel heavy duty truck engines while operating with various other fuels. In a first option, an igniting Diesel fuel is coupled to a main fuel that may have any Cetane or octane number in a design where every engine cylinder accommodates a direct Diesel injector, a glow plug and the multi fuel direct injector in a bowl-in-piston combustion chamber configuration. Alternatively, an igniting gasoline fuel replaces the Diesel fuel in a design where every engine cylinder accommodates a gasoline direct injector, the multi fuel direct injector and a jet ignition pre chamber also with a bowl-in-piston combustion chamber configuration. Both these designs permit load control by changing the amount of fuel injected and Diesel-like, gasoline-like and mixed Diesel/gasoline-like modes of operation modulating the amount of the multi fuel that burn premixed or diffusion.
Technical Paper

Piston and Valve Deactivation for Improved Part Load Performances of Internal Combustion Engines

2011-04-12
2011-01-0368
Cylinder deactivation has been proposed so far for improved part load operation of large gasoline engines. In all this application, the cylinder deactivation has been achieved keeping the intake and exhaust valves closed for a particular cylinder, with pistons still following their strokes. The paper presents a new mechanism between the piston and the crankshaft to enable selective deactivation of pistons, therefore decoupling the motion of the piston from the rotation of the crankshaft. The reduced friction mean effective pressure of the new technology enables the use of piston deactivation in large engines not necessarily throttle controlled but also controlled by quantity of fuel injected. Results of performance simulations are proposed for a HSDI V8 engine, producing significant savings during light operation.
Technical Paper

Turbo/Supercharged Two/Four Stroke Engines with One Intake and One Exhaust Horizontal Rotary Valve per Cylinder and Central Direct Injection and Ignition

2015-01-14
2015-26-0031
The present paper is an introduction to a novel rotary valve engine design addressing the major downfalls of past rotary valves applications while permitting the typical advantages of the rotary valves. Advantages of the solution are the nearly optimal gas exchange, mixture formation, ignition and combustion evolution thanks to the large gas exchange areas from the two horizontal valves per engine cylinder, the good shape of the combustion chamber, the opportunity to place a direct fuel injector and a spark or jet ignition device at the centre of the chamber. The novel engine design also permits higher speed of rotation not having reciprocating poppet valves and the reduced friction losses of the rotating only distribution. This translates in better volumetric efficiencies, combustion rates and brake mean effective pressures for improved power density and fuel efficiency. Additional advantages are the reduced weight and the better packaging.
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