A Review of Pre-Chamber Initiated Jet Ignition Combustion Systems
This paper reviews progress on turbulent jet ignition systems for otherwise standard spark ignition engines, with focus on small prechamber systems (≺3% of clearance volume) with auxiliary pre-chamber fueling. The review covers a range of systems including early designs such as those by Gussak and Oppenheim and more recent designs proposed by General Motors Corporation, FEV, Bosch and MAHLE Powertrain. A major advantage of jet ignition systems is that they enable very fast burn rates due to the ignition system producing multiple, distributed ignition sites, which consume the main charge rapidly and with minimal combustion variability. The locally distributed ignition sites allow for increased levels of dilution (lean burn/EGR) when compared to conventional spark ignition combustion. Dilution levels are comparable to those reported in recent homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) systems.