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Technical Paper

A Thermal Conductivity Approach for Measuring Hydrogen in Engine Exhaust

2004-10-25
2004-01-2908
Thermal conductivity detection has long been used in gas chromatography to detect hydrogen and other diatomic gases in a gas sample. Thermal conductivity instruments that are not coupled to gas chromatographs are useful for detecting hydrogen in binary gas mixtures, but suffer from significant cross-interference from other gas species that are separated when the detector is used with a gas chromatograph. This study reports a method for using a commercially-available thermal conductivity instrument to detect and quantify hydrogen in a diesel exhaust stream. The instrument time response of approximately 40 seconds is sufficient for steady-state applications. Cross-interference from relevant gas species are quantified and discussed. Measurement uncertainty associated with the corrections for the various species is estimated and practical implications for use of the instrument and method are discussed.
Journal Article

Determination of the R Factor for Fuel Economy Calculations Using Ethanol-Blended Fuels over Two Test Cycles

2014-04-01
2014-01-1572
During the 1980s, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) incorporated the R factor into fuel economy calculations in order to address concerns about the impacts of test fuel property variations on corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) compliance, which is determined using the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) and Highway Fuel Economy Test (HFET) cycles. The R factor is defined as the ratio of the percent change in fuel economy to the percent change in volumetric heating value for tests conducted using two differing fuels. At the time the R-factor was devised, tests using representative vehicles initially indicated that an appropriate value for the R factor was 0.6. Reassessing the R factor has recently come under renewed interest after EPA's March 2013 proposal to adjust the properties of certification gasoline to contain significant amounts of ethanol.
Journal Article

Estimation of the Fuel Efficiency Potential of Six Gasoline Blendstocks Identified by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Co-Optimization of Fuels and Engines Program

2019-01-15
2019-01-0017
Six blendstocks identified by the Co-Optimization of Fuels & Engines Program were used to prepare fuel blends using a fixed blendstock for oxygenate blending and a target RON of 97. The blendstocks included ethanol, n-propanol, isopropanol, isobutanol, diisobutylene, and a bioreformate surrogate. The blends were analyzed and used to establish interaction factors for a non-linear molar blending model that was used to predict RON and MON of volumetric blends of the blendstocks up to 35 vol%. Projections of efficiency increase, volumetric fuel economy increase, and tailpipe CO2 emissions decrease were produced using two different estimation techniques to evaluate the potential benefits of the blendstocks. Ethanol was projected to provide the greatest benefits in efficiency and tailpipe CO2 emissions, but at intermediate levels of volumetric fuel economy increase over a smaller range of blends than other blendstocks.
Journal Article

Investigating Malfunction Indicator Light Illumination Due to Increased Oxygenate Use in Gasoline

2012-11-15
2012-01-2305
The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 requires the U.S. to use 36 billion gallons of renewable fuel per year by 2022. Domestic ethanol production has increased steadily in recent years, growing from less than 5 billion gallons per year (bgpy) in 2006 to over 13 bgpy in 2010. While there is interest in developing non-oxygenated renewable fuels for use in conventional vehicles as well as interest in expanding flex-fuel vehicle (FFV) production for increased E85 use, there remains concern that EISA compliance will require further use of oxygenated biofuels in conventional vehicles. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently granted partial approval to a waiver allowing the use of E15 in 2001 and newer light-duty vehicles.
Technical Paper

Lubricating Oil Consumption on the Standard Road Cycle

2013-04-08
2013-01-0884
Automobile manufacturers strive to minimize oil consumption from their engines due to the need to maintain emissions compliance over the vehicle life. Engine oil can contribute directly to organic gas and particle emissions as well as accelerate emissions degradation due to catalyst poisoning. During the Department of Energy Intermediate Ethanol Blends Catalyst Durability program, vehicles were aged using the Standard Road Cycle (SRC). In this program, matched sets of three or four vehicles were acquired; each vehicle of a set was aged on ethanol-free retail gasoline, or the same base gasoline blended with 10, 15, or 20% ethanol (E0, E10, E15, E20). The primary purpose of the program was to assess any changes in tailpipe emissions due to the use of increased levels of ethanol. Oil consumption was tracked during the program so that any measured emissions degradation could be appropriately attributed to fuel use or to excessive oil consumption.
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