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Standard

Carbon and Alloy Steels

1997-09-01
HISTORICAL
J411_199709
This SAE Information Report describes the processing and fabrication of carbon and alloy steels. The basic steelmaking process including iron ore reduction, the uses of fluxes, and the various melting furnaces are briefly described. The various types of steels: killed, rimmed, semikilled, and capped are described in terms of their melting and microstructural differences and their end product use. This document also provides a list of the commonly specified elements used to alloy elemental iron into steel. Each element’s structural benefits and effects are also included. A list of the AISI Steel Products Manuals is included and describes the various finished shapes in which steel is produced.
Standard

Carbon and Alloy Steels

2015-01-23
CURRENT
J411_201501
This SAE Information Report describes the processing and fabrication of carbon and alloy steels. The basic steelmaking process including iron ore reduction, the uses of fluxes, and the various melting furnaces are briefly described. The various types of steels: killed, rimmed, semikilled, and capped are described in terms of their melting and microstructural differences and their end product use. This document also provides a list of the commonly specified elements used to alloy elemental iron into steel. Each element’s structural benefits and effects are also included. A list of the AISI Steel Products Manuals is included and describes the various finished shapes in which steel is produced.
Standard

Chemical Compositions of SAE Alloy Steels

2009-01-27
CURRENT
J404_200901
In 1941, the SAE Iron and Steel Division in collaboration with the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) made a major change in the method of expressing composition ranges for the SAE steels. The plan, as now applied, is based in general on narrower ladle analysis ranges plus certain product (check) analysis allowances on individual samples, in place of the fixed ranges and limits without tolerances formerly provided for carbon and other elements in SAE steels (reference SAE J408). ISTC Division 1 has developed a procedure which allows for the maintenance of the grade list in this SAE Standard. This will involve conducting an industry-wide survey to solicit input. This survey will be conducted at a frequency deemed necessary by the technical committee. Criteria have been established for the addition to or deletion of grades from the grade table.
Standard

Chemical Compositions of SAE Carbon Steels

2009-12-07
HISTORICAL
J403_200912
In 1941, the SAE Iron and Steel Division, in collaboration with the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI), made a major change in the method of expressing composition ranges for the SAE steels. The plan, as now applied, is based in general on narrower cast or heat analysis ranges plus certain product analysis allowances on individual samples, in place of the fixed ranges and limits without tolerances formerly provided for carbon and other elements in SAE steels. For years the variety of chemical compositions of steel has been a matter of concern in the steel industry. It was recognized that production of fewer grades of steel could result in improved deliveries and provide a better opportunity to achieve advances in technology, manufacturing practices, and quality, and thus develop more fully the possibilities of application inherent in those grades.
Standard

Chemical Compositions of SAE Carbon Steels

2014-06-30
CURRENT
J403_201406
In 1941, the SAE Iron and Steel Division, in collaboration with the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI), made a major change in the method of expressing composition ranges for the SAE steels. The plan, as now applied, is based in general on narrower cast or heat analysis ranges plus certain product analysis allowances on individual samples, in place of the fixed ranges and limits without tolerances formerly provided for carbon and other elements in SAE steels. For years the variety of chemical compositions of steel has been a matter of concern in the steel industry. It was recognized that production of fewer grades of steel could result in improved deliveries and provide a better opportunity to achieve advances in technology, manufacturing practices, and quality, and thus develop more fully the possibilities of application inherent in those grades.
Standard

Hardenability Bands for Carbon and Alloy H Steels

2010-05-03
CURRENT
J1268_201005
All carbon and alloy H-band steels are shown, along with their corresponding minimum and maximum hardenability limits, for which sufficient hardenability data have been established and for grades which use the standard end-quench test. As hardenability data are accumulated for other grades, this SAE Standard will be revised to include such grades.
Standard

High-Strength, Hot-Rolled Steel Bars

2003-09-24
CURRENT
J1442_200309
This SAE Recommended Practice covers two levels of high strength structural low-alloy steel bars having minimum Yield Points of 345 MPa (50 ksi) and 450 MPa (65 ksi). The two strength levels are 345 and 450 MPa or 50 and 65 ksi minimum yield point. Different chemical compositions are used to achieve the specified mechanical properties. In some cases there are significant differences in chemical composition for the same strength level, depending on the fabricating requirements. It should be noted that although the mechanical properties for a steel grade sourced from different suppliers may be the same, the chemical composition may vary significantly. The fabricator should be aware that certain compositional differences may effect the forming, welding, and/or service requirements of the material. It is therefore recommended that the fabricator consult with the producer to understand the effect of chemical composition.
Standard

Methods of Determining Hardenability of Steels

2009-03-27
CURRENT
J406_200903
This SAE Standard prescribes the procedure for making hardenability tests and recording results on shallow and medium hardening steels, but not deep hardening steels that will normally air harden. Included are procedures using the 25 mm (1 in) standard hardenability end-quench specimen for both medium and shallow hardening steels and subsize method for bars less than 32 mm (1-1/4 in) in diameter. Methods for determining case hardenability of carburized steels are given in SAE J1975. Any hardenability test made under other conditions than those given in this document will not be deemed standard and will be subject to agreement between supplier and user. Whenever check tests are made, all laboratories concerned must arrange to use the same alternate procedure with reference to test specimen and method of grinding for hardness testing.
Standard

New Steel Designation System for Wrought or Rolled Steel

2005-07-20
CURRENT
J402_200507
This SAE Standard describes a new alphanumeric designation system for wrought steel used to designate wrought ferrous materials, identify chemical composition, and any other requirements listed in SAE Standards and Recommended Practices. The previous SAE steel designation coding system consisted of four or five numbers used to designate standard carbon and alloy steels specified to chemical composition ranges. Using SAE 1035 as an example, the 35 represents the nominal weight % carbon content for the grade. Using SAE 52100 as an example, the 100 represents the nominal weight % carbon content. The first two numbers of this four or five number series are used to designate the steel grade carbon or alloy system with variations in elements other than carbon. These are described in Table 1. In addition to the standard four or five number steel designation above, a letter was sometimes added to the grade code to denote a non-standard specific element being added to the standard grade.
Standard

PRODUCT ANALYSIS—PERMISSIBLE VARIATIONS FROM SPECIFIED CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF A HEAT OR CAST OF STEEL

1995-02-01
CURRENT
J409_199502
Supplementary to the heat or cast analysis, a product analysis may be made on steel in the semifinished or finished form. For definitions and methods of sampling steel for product chemical analysis, refer to SAE J408. A product analysis is a chemical analysis of the semifinished or finished steel to determine conformance to the specification requirements. The range of the specified chemical composition is normally expanded to take into account deviations associated with analytical reproducibility and the heterogeneity of the steel. Individual determinations may vary from the specified heat or cast analysis ranges or limits to the extent shown in Tables 1 through 5. The several determinations of any element in a heat or cast may not vary both above and below the specified range except for lead. Tables 1 through 5 provide permissible limits for various steel forms and composition types.
Standard

Restricted Hardenability Bands for Selected Alloy Steels

2010-02-15
CURRENT
J1868_201002
Restricted hardenability steels have been in use for some time but the specific restrictions for a particular grade depend upon customer needs and vary from mill to mill. Such steels are desirable to provide more controlled heat treatment response and dimensional control for critical parts. Because of increasing interest in steels with restricted hardenability, the SAE Iron and Steel Technical Committee directed Division 8 to prepare a set of standard steels with restricted hardenability. In 1993, the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) adopted the twelve SAE restricted hardenability steels and added ten more. SAE decided to include in SAE J1868 the additional 10 steels. In general, steels with restricted hardenability (RH steels) will exhibit a hardness range not greater than 5 HRC at the initial position on the end-quench hardenability bar and not greater than 65% of the hardness range for standard H-band steels (see SAE J1268) in the "inflection" region.
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