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Technical Paper

A Next-Generation Emission Test Procedure for Small Utility Engines - Part 1, Background and Approach

Measurement of emissions from small utility engines has usually been accomplished using steady-state raw emissions procedures such as SAE Recommended Practice J1088. While raw exhaust measurements have the advantage of producing modal exhaust gas concentration data for design feedback; they are laborious, may influence both engine performance and the emissions themselves, and have no provision for concurrent particulate measurements. It is time to consider a full-dilution procedure similar in principle to automotive and heavy-duty on-highway emission measurement practice, leading to improvements in many of the areas noted above, and generally to much higher confidence in data obtained. When certification and audit of small engine emissions become a reality, a brief dilute exhaust procedure generating only the necessary data will be a tremendous advantage to both manufacturers and regulatory agencies.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Diesel Crankcase Emissions

Methods for measurement and expression of crankcase or “blowby” emissions from diesels were developed and demonstrated on a test engine. These methods were subsequently used to characterize gas and particulate emissions from two in-service engines. Crankcase emissions were evaluated under engine operating conditions corresponding to the EPA 13-mode certification test. Substances for which analyses were conducted included regulated pollutants, sulfate, trace elements, nitrosamines, individual hydrocarbons, and aldehydes. Emissions from the diesel crankcases were compared to exhaust emissions (where possible) to assess their importance. Analysis for nitrosamines was continued beyond the original effort, utilizing another test engine.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Exhaust Emissions from High Mileage Catalyst-Equipped Automobiles

This paper describes the characterization of regulated and unregulated exhaust emissions, particularly aldehydes, from ten 1978 and 1979 high mileage catalyst-equipped gasoline fueled automobiles which have been driven for approximately 50,000 miles. The ten automobiles were evaluated as-received and after a tune-up to manufacturer’s specifications, over the Light-Duty Federal Test Procedure (FTP) and the Highway Fuel Economy Driving Schedule (HFET). Exhaust constituents measured, in addition to the regulated emissions, include: aldehydes, particulates, sulfides, amines, and several additional compounds.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Exhaust Emissions from Passenger Cars Equipped with Three-Way Catalyst Control Systems

This paper describes the effort to characterize regulated and unregulated exhaust emissions from four gasoline powered passenger cars equipped with three-way catalyst control systems. The vehicles have been evaluated over four test cycles, with three fuels at four mileage accumulation points. In addition to the currently regulated automobile emissions, exhaust emission components measured include: sulfate, aldehydes, ammonia, sulfur dioxide, cyanide, and several other compounds. From the standpoint of toxicity, the most significant emissions from three-way catalyst systems are the currently regulated emissions, followed to a lesser degree by the sulfate emissions.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Exhaust Emissions from Trap-Equipped Light-Duty Diesels

Two of the types of particulate trap systems that have evolved to control exhaust particulate matter include the catalyzed trap system and the additive-regenerated trap system. Exhaust emissions from these two types of trap systems have been characterized and quantified as completely as possible. The two vehicles evaluated in the study included a 1986 Mercedes-Benz 300 SDL, which utilizes a catalyzed trap system, and a prototype Volkswagen, which utilizes an additive trap system. The vehicles were tested using a chassis dynamometer, a dilution tunnel, and a constant volume sampler. The exhaust emissions were evaluated as to driving cycle, presence of particulate trap, engine condition, trap condition, and fuel aromatic content.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Heavy - Duty Diesel Gaseous and Particulate Emissions, and Effects of Fuel Composition

Gaseous and particulate emissions from two heavy-duty diesel engines were characterized while the engines were operated on five different fuels. Characterization included mass rates of major exhaust products, plus analysis of particulate matter for sulfate, trace elements, major elements, total solubles, and other properties. Analysis of rate and composition data was conducted with regard to fuel and engine effects on particulate. Two large particulate samples were also collected for later analysis on groups of organics present.
Technical Paper

Characterization of MOD I Multifuel Stirling Demonstration Vehicle Emissions

Emissions from a Stirling engine-powered 1986 model light-duty truck were measured using current EPA (chassis dynamometer) emissions certification procedures and certain specialized tests. Three fuels were used including unleaded gasoline, a blend of MTBE in unleaded gasoline, and JP-4. City (FTP) cycles and Highway (FET) cycles were run on all three fuels, and emissions measured during the cycles included hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), and oxides of nitrogen (NOx). Fuel economy was also calculated for these tests. Additional pollutants measured during some of the tests included aldehydes, 1,3-butadiene, individual hydrocarbon species, and total particulate matter. In addition to the cyclic schedules, steady-state conditions were run on JP-4 and straight gasoline for regulated emissions and fuel economy. The conditions consisted of several simulated gradients at three vehicle speeds, plus idle.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Particulate and Gaseous Emissions from Two Diesel Automobiles as Functions of Fuel and Driving Cycle

Particulate and gaseous emissions from two light-duty diesel vehicles were measured over eight operating schedules, using five different fuels. Characterization included regulated exhaust emissions and a number of unregulated constituents. Non-routine gas measurements included phenols, hydrocarbon boiling range, and aldehydes. Particulate characterization included mass rates and concentrations, visible smoke, aerodynamic sizing, total organics, BaP, sulfate, phenols, trace elements, and major elements. Statistical analysis of emissions data was undertaken using fuel properties and operating schedule statistics as independent variables. Regressions were computed for a few variables, and analysis of variance and multiple comparisons were used where the data were not suitable for regression analysis.
Technical Paper

Cold-Start Hydrocarbon Collection for Advanced Exhaust Emission Control

This paper describes the findings of a laboratory effort to demonstrate improved automotive exhaust emission control with a cold-start hydrocarbon collection system. The emission control strategy developed in this study incorporated a zeolite molecular sieve in the exhaust system to collect cold-start hydrocarbons for subsequent release to an active catalytic converter. A prototype emission control system was designed and tested on a gasoline-fueled vehicle. Continuous raw exhaust emission measurements upstream and downstream of the zeolite molecular sieve revealed collection, storage, and release of cold-start hydrocarbons. Federal Test Procedure (FTP) emission results show a 35 percent reduction in hydrocarbons emitted during the cold-transient segment (Bag 1) due to adsorption by the zeolite.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Exhaust Emissions from a Vehicle Fueled with Methanol-Containing Additives for Flame Luminosity

Two additive blends proposed for improving the flame luminosity in neat methanol fuel were investigated to determine the effect of these additives on the exhaust emissions in a dual-fueled Volkswagen Jetta. The two blends contained 4 percent toluene plus 2 percent indan in methanol and 5 percent cyclopentene plus 5 percent indan in methanol. Each blend was tested for regulated and unregulated emissions as well as a speciation of the exhaust hydrocarbons resulting from use of each fuel. The vehicle exhaust emissions from these two fuel blends were compared to the Coordinating Research Council Auto-Oil national average gasoline (RF-A), M100, and M85 blended from RF-A. Carter Maximum Incremental Reactivity Factors were applied to the speciated hydrocarbon emission results to determine the potential ozone formation for each fuel. Toxic emissions as defined in the 1990 Clean Air Act were also compared for each fuel.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Exhaust Emissions, Including Toxic Air Contaminants, from School Buses in Compressed Natural Gas, Low Emitting Diesel, and Conventional Diesel Engine Configurations

In the United States, most school buses are powered by diesel engines. Some have advocated replacing diesel school buses with natural gas school buses, but little research has been conducted to understand the emissions from school bus engines. This work provides a detailed characterization of exhaust emissions from school buses using a diesel engine meeting 1998 emission standards, a low emitting diesel engine with an advanced engine calibration and a catalyzed particulate filter, and a natural gas engine without catalyst. All three bus configurations were tested over the same cycle, test weight, and road load settings. Twenty-one of the 41 “toxic air contaminants” (TACs) listed by the California Air Resources Board (CARB) as being present in diesel exhaust were not found in the exhaust of any of the three bus configurations, even though special sampling provisions were utilized to detect low levels of TACs.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Petroleum and Alternate-Source Diesel Fuel Effects on Light-Duty Diesel Emissions

Exhaust emission data from several fuel effects studies were normalized and subjected to statistical analyses. The goal of this work was to determine whether emission effects of property variation in alternate-source fuels were similar, less pronounced, or more pronounced than the effects of property variation in petroleum fuels. A literature search was conducted, reviewing hundreds of studies and finally selecting nine which dealt with fuel property effects on emissions. From these studies, 15 test cases were reported. Due to the wide variety of vehicles, fuels, test cycles, and measurement techniques used in the studies, a method to relate them all in terms of general trends was developed. Statistics and methods used included bivariate correlation coefficients, regression analysis, scattergrams and goodness-of-fit determinations.
Technical Paper

Effect of CNG Start - Gasoline Run on Emissions from a 3/4 Ton Pick-Up Truck

This paper describes experiments to determine the effect on exhaust emissions of starting on compressed natural gas (CNG) and then switching to gasoline once the catalyst reaches operating temperature. Carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, and detailed exhaust hydrocarbon speciation data were obtained for dedicated CNG, then unleaded gasoline, and finally CNG start -gasoline run using the Federal Test Procedure at 24°C and at -7°C. The result was a reduction in emissions from the gasoline baseline, especially at -7°C. It was estimated that CNG start - gasoline run resulted in a 71 percent reduction in potential ozone formation per mile.
Technical Paper

Effects of a Narrow-Cut No, 1 Fuel, and Variation in Its Properties, on Light-Duty Diesel Emissions

Several properties of a refinery “straightrun kerosene“, which had a narrow boiling range approximating the middle of a No. 1 diesel fuel, were altered to study their effects on regulated and unregulated exhaust emissions. Eleven fuel blends, representing changes in nitrogen content, aromatic level, boiling point distribution, olefin content, and cetane number, were evaluated in a 1975 Mercedes-Benz 240D. Statistical analysis, including regression, was performed using selected fuel properties as independent variables. Higher aromatic levels were generally associated with increased emissions, while increased olefin levels were generally associated with decreased emissions.
Technical Paper

Emission Factors for Small Utility Engines

A major gap exists in available baseline emissions data on the small utility engine population between the mid-1970's and present day. As part of the input required for a standard-setting process, the California Air Resources Board has funded limited laboratory emission measurements on a number of modern small engines, both 2-stroke and 4-stroke designs. Exhaust constituents characterized in this study include total hydrocarbons, reactive hydrocarbons (RHC), methane, CO, NOx, CO2, O2, aldehydes, and particulate matter. A total of nine engines were evaluated, spanning the range from the smallest widely-used 2-strokes (about 20 cc displacement) to 4-strokes approaching 20 hp.
Technical Paper

Emissions from Direct-Injected Heavy-Duty Methanol-Fueled Engines (One Dual-Injection and One Spark-Ignited) and a Comparable Diesel Engine

Emissions from two heavy-duty four stroke direct injection engines designed to use methanol fuel, one using Diesel pilot fuel injection and the other using spark ignition, were characterized in this program along with those from a comparably-sized Diesel engine. Emissions evaluated during both steady-state and transient FTP procedures included regulated gases (HC, CO, and NOx), unburned methanol, aldehydes, other gaseous organics, total particulate, sulfate, soluble organics in particulate and BaP. The engines adapted for methanol fuel and using catalysts emitted less HC, CO, particulate, soluble organics, and BaP than the Diesel fueled engine.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Emissions from 2-Stroke Outboard Motors and Their Impact

To characterize exhaust emissions from water-cooled 2-stroke outboard motors (the predominant type), four new motors were tested on dynamometer stands. The engines ranged from 4-65 hp in size, and operating conditions were chosen along lines of simulated boat loading. All the measurements were taken at steady-state conditions. Emission concentrations were measured in raw exhaust gas and after the gases had been bubbled through water in a specially constructed tank. Constituents measured included hydrocarbons, CO, CO2, NO, NOx, O2, light hydrocarbons, and aldehydes. Emissions of sulfur oxides (SOx) were estimated on the basis of fuel consumed, and all the exhaust emissions data were used with available information on population and usage of motors to estimate exhaust emission factors and national exhaust emissions impact.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Emissions from Farm, Construction, and Industrial Engines and Their Impact

The research program on which this paper is based included both laboratory emission measurements and extrapolation of results to the national population of heavy-duty farm, construction, and industrial engines. Emission tests were made on four gasoline engines and eight diesel engines typical of those used in F, C, and I equipment. Gaseous and particulate emissions were measured during engine operation on well-accepted steady-state procedures, and diesel smoke was measured during both steady-state conditions and the Federal smoke test cycle. Emissions measured were hydrocarbons, CO, CO2, NO, NOx, O2, aliphatic aldehydes, light hydrocarbons, particulate, and smoke. Emission of sulfur oxides (SOx) was estimated on the basis of fuel consumed, and both evaporative and blowby hydrocarbons were also estimated where applicable (gasoline engines only). Data on emissions obtained from this study were compared with those available in the literature, where possible.
Technical Paper

Formaldehyde Emission Control Technology for Methanol-Fueled Vehicles

The use of methanol as a “clean fuel” appears to be a viable approach to reduce air pollution. However, concern has been expressed about potentially high formaldehyde emissions from stoichiometrically operated light-duty vehicles. This paper presents results from Task 1 of an emission test program conducted for the California Air Resources Board (CARB) and the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) to identify advanced catalyst technology to reduce formaldehyde emissions without compromising regulated emission control. A hybrid M90 test vehicle was used to evaluate 18 unaged catalyst systems for formaldehyde, methanol, gasoline derived hydrocarbon, organic material hydrocarbon equivalent mass, carbon monoxide, and oxides of nitrogen emissions. The vehicle was operated on a chassis dynamometer using the FTP driving cycle. Catalyst systems evaluated included electrically-heated, manifold, close-coupled, and underbody catalysts, as well as combinations of the above.
Technical Paper

Formaldehyde Emission Control Technology for Methanol-Fueled Vehicles: Catalyst Selection

The use of methanol as a “clean fuel” appears to be a viable approach to reduce air pollution. However, concern has been expressed about potentially high formaldehyde emissions from stoichiometrically operated light-duty vehicles. This paper presents results from an emission test program conducted for the California Air Resources Board (CARB) and the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) to identify and evaluate advanced catalyst technology to reduce formaldehyde emissions without compromising regulated emission control. An earlier paper presented the results of evaluating eighteen different catalyst systems on a hybrid methanol-fueled test vehicle. (1)* This paper discusses the optimization of three of these catalyst systems on four current technology methanol-fueled vehicles. Emission measurements were conducted for formaldehyde, nonmethane organic gases (NMOG), methanol, carbon monoxide, and oxides of nitrogen emissions.