Refine Your Search

Search Results

Viewing 1 to 8 of 8
Technical Paper

A Quasi-Dimensional NOx Emission Model for Spark Ignition Direct Injection (SIDI) Gasoline Engines

A fundamentally based quasi-dimensional NOx emission model for spark ignition direct injection (SIDI) gasoline engines was developed. The NOx model consists of a chemical mechanism and three sub-models. The classical extended Zeldovich mechanism and N₂O pathway for NOx formation mechanism were employed as the chemical mechanism in the model. A characteristic time model for the radical species H, O and OH was incorporated to account for non-equilibrium of radical species during combustion. A model of homogeneity which correlates fundamental dimensionless numbers and mixing time was developed to model the air-fuel mixing and inhomogeneity of the charge. Since temperature has a dominant effect on NOx emission, a flame temperature correlation was developed to model the flame temperature during the combustion for NOx calculation. Measured NOx emission data from a single-cylinder SIDI research engine at different operating conditions was used to validate the NOx model.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Variable Valve Actuation, Cylinder Deactivation and Injection Strategies for Low-Load RCCI Operation of a Light Duty Engine

While Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) strategies such as Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) exhibit high thermal efficiency and produce low NOx and soot emissions, low load operation is still a significant challenge due to high unburnt hydrocarbon (UHC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions, which occur as a result of poor combustion efficiencies at these operating points. Furthermore, the exhaust gas temperatures are insufficient to light-off the Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), thereby resulting in poor UHC and CO conversion efficiencies by the aftertreatment system. To achieve exhaust gas temperature values sufficient for DOC light-off, combustion can be appropriately phased by changing the ratio of gasoline to diesel in the cylinder, or by burning additional fuel injected during the expansion stroke through post-injection.
Journal Article

Effects of Numerical Schemes on Large Eddy Simulation of Turbulent Planar Gas Jet and Diesel Spray

Three time integration schemes and four finite volume interpolation schemes for the convection term in momentum equation were tested under turbulent planar gas jet and Sandia non-reacting vaporizing Spray-H cases. The three time integration schemes are the first-order Euler implicit scheme, the second-order backward scheme, and the second-order Crank-Nicolson scheme. The four spatial interpolation schemes are cubic central, linear central, upwind, and vanLeer schemes. Velocity magnitude contour, centerline and radial mean velocity and Reynolds stress profiles for the planar turbulent gas jet case, and fuel vapor contour and liquid and vapor penetrations for the Diesel spray case predicted by the different numerical schemes were compared. The sensitivity of the numerical schemes to mesh resolution was also investigated. The non-viscosity based dynamic structure subgrid model was used. The numerical tool used in this study was OpenFOAM.
Technical Paper

Evaluation and Validation of Large-Eddy-Simulation (LES) for Gas Jet and Sprays

Large-eddy simulation (LES) is a useful approach for the simulation of turbulent flow and combustion processes in internal combustion engines. This study employs the ANSYS Forte CFD package and explores several key and fundamental components of LES, namely, the subgrid-scale (SGS) turbulence models, the numerical schemes used to discretize the transport equations, and the computational mesh. The SGS turbulence models considered include the classic Smagorinsky model and a dynamic structure model. Two numerical schemes for momentum convection, quasi-second-order upwind (QSOU) and central difference (CD), were evaluated. The effects of different computational mesh sizes controlled by both fixed mesh refinement and a solution-adaptive mesh-refinement approach were studied and compared. The LES models are evaluated and validated against several flow configurations that are critical to engine flows, in particular, to fuel injection processes.
Journal Article

Load Limit Extension in Pre-Mixed Compression Ignition Using a 2-Zone Combustion System

A novel 2-zone combustion system was examined at medium load operation consistent with loads in the light duty vehicle drive cycle (7.6 bar BMEP and 2600 rev/min). Pressure rise rate and noise can limit the part of the engine map where pre-mixed combustion strategies such as HCCI or RCCI can be used. The present 2-zone pistons have an axial projection that divides the near TDC volume into two regions (inner and outer) joined by a narrow communication channel defined by the squish height. Dividing the near TDC volume provides a means to prepare two fuel-air mixtures with different ignition characteristics. Depending on the fuel injection timing, the reactivity of the inner or outer volume can be raised to provide an ignition source for the fuel-air mixture in the other, less reactive volume. Multi-dimensional CFD modeling was used to design the 2-zone piston geometry examined in this study.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of High Powered Diesel Mode Transition Using Large Eddy Simulations

Numerical investigation is carried out to explore various strategies of combustion mode switching in a diesel engine operating at high power. Numerical results are compared with high power single cylinder (CAT 3401E) experiments for combustion phasing and emission characteristics. In this study CFD calculations are carried out using the KIVA CFD code with Large Eddy Simulation turbulence model and Direct Chemistry Solver sub-models. The advanced turbulence and combustion sub-models enabled more realistic visualization of the effects of single-cycle mode switching on in-cylinder flow structures, fuel-air mixing behavior and combustion phasing. Two circumstances of mode switch are presented in this study. Mode switches are performed from traditional High Temperature Combustion to early injection PCCI combustion and vice versa. In this investigation several aspects of combustion control are investigated.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study of Diesel Combustion Regimes

Numerical investigation is carried out in order to explore diesel combustion using advanced turbulence and combustion models. Turbulence is modeled by one-equation non-viscosity dynamic structure Large Eddy Simulation (LES) model. Sub-grid fuel-air mixing is calculated using a dynamic scale similarity sub-grid scalar dissipation model to represent the local state of combustion. Fuel-air mixing time scale is used in order to determine the local in-homogeneity and rate of mixing of fuel and air. Diesel combustion is studied and compared with experimental results for high power diesel engine setup at different conditions representing both low temperature combustion and traditional high temperature combustion regimes. Further studies are carried out in diesel engine to investigate in-cylinder fuel air mixing and the onset of ignition.
Technical Paper

On LES Grid Criteria for Spray Induced Turbulence

Using non-viscosity dynamic structure Large Eddy Simulations (LES) turbulence model, spray=induced turbulence is investigated on a number of different Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) grids of varying mesh sizes (from 0.5 to 2 mm mesh). Turbulent flow is induced inside a quiescent chamber by liquid fuel spray and then left to decay after end of injection by virtue of its molecular viscosity and turbulent dissipation. Coherent structures (CS) of this turbulent flow are constructed and visualized using λ2 definition. Using CS, analysis is performed on the turbulent flow around the liquid spray jet. These CS from LES are then compared against the results from RANS calculations as well. The visualization of CS helps to explain the mechanism of fuel-air mixing obtained from LES results and its difference with RANS calculations.