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Technical Paper

International Space Station Alpha Outfitting and Habitability

1995-07-01
951596
The mission goal for the International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) is to establish an international orbiting laboratory for the advancement of a wide range of scientific and technical research. To meet this goal, the ISSA is assembled by element with incremental capabilities until the assembly sequence completion and the beginning of its ten year life. To accomplish its goals, the ISSA is outfitted to support scientific research and is outfitted for habitability of the crew. Habitable modules, systems, external systems and fixtures, and numerous components are assembled together following an assembly sequence to form the ISSA. These pieces are launched on various vehicles and connected together on-orbit. Pressurized modules are the cornerstones of the ISSA, providing living and working quarters for crew and housing for payloads. This paper describes the latest assembly sequence, the assembly sequence milestones for habitability, and the pressurized modules.
Technical Paper

International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support International Partner Integration

2008-06-29
2008-01-2134
The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System is continuing to be integrated with a multitude of international partner contributions. In six short months, ISS integrates ECLS systems with the Node 2, Columbus module, Japanese Logistics Module, and Automated Transfer Vehicle developed and produced by the European Space Agency (ESA) and Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). The new systems provide both international unique hardware and common ISS hardware. An overview of the integrated ECLS system and the unique capabilities of each new module is provided. A spreadsheet of the common hardware and locations is provided. An overview of the on-orbit operations is provided. Adding the international partner systems makes a robust ISS ECLS system. More U.S. hardware will continue to be launched to enhance the ECLS six crew capability.
Technical Paper

International Space Station Water Balance Evolution

2003-07-07
2003-01-2692
The International Space Station (ISS) water balance is evolving throughout the assembly phase. The ISS and its environmental control system become progressively more complex as new modules are added. This build-up results in various forms of water supply and water consumption rates. The Russian and United States water balances are integrated to form an ISS water balance. The changes in the water balance as the ISS grows and as the crew complement changes are discussed. The actual versus predicted usage rates are shown through each expedition crew.
Technical Paper

International Space Station Water Usage Analysis

2006-07-17
2006-01-2094
The International Space Station (ISS) supplies and recycles water. Until the water system loop is closed with 100 percent recycling, monitoring water usage on-orbit is critical. The water supply on-orbit is monitored to stay above the skip cycle. If the rate is higher than predicted, then the water supply may become too low to support the crew. Both U.S. and Russian water experts use the water usage rate to determine the quantity of water to be re-supplied on each vehicle. The paper provides an overview of the ISS water system. It discusses the newly revised water balance. The paper describes the methodology used to calculate water usage rates. The analysis provides the water usage rates for each Expedition crew. The analysis compares these results to the consumable reports and the Russian water expert reports. The paper provides a discussion of the results of the various usage rates. It provides the most accurate methods for assessing water usage.
Technical Paper

International Space Station Water Usage Analysis

2005-07-11
2005-01-2836
The International Space Station (ISS) recycles water. The crew water usage is tracked by Expedition to ensure that there is enough water. The Water Use for Oxygen Generation paper [1] presented at ICES in 2004 is updated as part of this water usage analysis. The analysis will determine how much water each crewmember is consuming for drinking water and hygiene. The analysis will determine how much water has been used for oxygen generation. In addition, the analysis will show how the water usage evolved for each Expedition. The analysis will also compare theses results to the consumable reports and the Russian water expert reports.
Technical Paper

International Space Station Water Usage Analysis

2008-06-29
2008-01-2009
The International Space Station (ISS) recycles water to reduce the expense of launching water on resupply vehicles. However, since these recovery systems cannot recover 100% of all water used, some resupply is needed. Water consumption, as well as water recovery, varies from crew to crew making it difficult to judge how much water is needed and when. Therefore, the ground team tracks the water usage of the crew and determines a representative rate to predict each Expedition's water needs and identify trends in changing rates. This paper describes the analyses conducted to determine how much water each crew is using for drinking and hygiene purposes and how much is used for oxygen generation. It will also show how the water usage evolved over the last three Expeditions and compare these results to the published consumables tracking reports and the Russian water specialist reports.
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