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Technical Paper

Color and Height Characteristics of Surrogate Grass for the Evaluation of Vehicle Road Departure Mitigation Systems

2019-04-02
2019-01-1026
In recent years Road Departure Mitigation Systems (RDMS) is introduced to the market for avoiding roadway departure collisions. To support the performance testing of the RDMS, the most commonly seen road edge, grass, is studied in this paper for the development of standard surrogate grass. This paper proposes a method for defining the resembling grass color and height features due to significant variations of grass appearances in different seasons, temperatures and environments. Randomly selected Google Street View images with grass road edges are gathered and analyzed. Image processing techniques are deployed to obtain the grass color distributions. The height of the grass is determined by referencing the gathered images with measured grass heights. The representative colors and heights of grass are derived as the specifications of surrogate grass for the standard evaluation of RDMS.
Technical Paper

Infrared Reflectance Requirements of the Surrogate Grass from Various Viewing Angles

2019-04-02
2019-01-1019
To minimize the risk of run-off-road collision, new technology in Advanced Driver Assistive System (ADAS), called Road Departure Mitigation Systems (RDMS), is being introduced recently. Most of the RDMS rely on clear lane markings to detect road departure events using the camera for decision-making and control actions. However, many roadsides do not have lane markings or clear lane markings, especially in some rural and residential areas. The absence of lane markings forces RDMS to observe roadside objects and road edge and use them as a reference to determine whether a roadway departure incident is happening or not. To support and guide for developing and evaluating RDMS, a testing environment with representative road edges needs to be established. Since the grass road edge is the most common in the US, the grass road edge should be included in a testing environment.
Technical Paper

Roadside Boundaries and Objects for the Development of Vehicle Road Keeping Assistance System

2018-04-03
2018-01-0508
Road departure is a leading cause of fatal crashes in the US and half of all the crashes are related to road departure [1]. Road departure warning (RDW) and road keeping assistance (RKA) are the new active safety areas to be explored. Most of the currently available road-departure detection technologies rely on the detection of lane markings, which are either missing or unclear in many roads. Therefore, in additional to the these lane markings, next-generation road departure detection should rely on the detection of other road edge and boundary objects. Common road edge and boundary indicators include lane marking, grass, curb, metal guardrail, concrete divider, traffic barrels and cones. This paper investigates the distribution of major types of road edges and road boundaries in the United States in order to enhance and evaluate the capabilities and effectiveness of RDW and RKA.
Technical Paper

The Color Specification of Surrogate Roadside Objects for the Performance Evaluation of Roadway Departure Mitigation Systems

2018-04-03
2018-01-0506
Roadway departure mitigation systems for helping to avoid and/or mitigate roadway departure collisions have been introduced by several vehicle manufactures in recent years. To support the development and performance evaluation of the roadway departure mitigation systems, a set of commonly seen roadside surrogate objects need to be developed. These objects include grass, curbs, metal guardrail, concrete divider, and traffic barrel/cones. This paper describes how to determine the representative color of these roadside surrogates. 24,762 locations with Google street view images were selected for the color determination of roadside objects. To mitigate the effect of the brightness to the color determination, the images not in good weather, not in bright daylight and under shade were manually eliminated. Then, the RGB values of the roadside objects in the remaining images were extracted.
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