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Technical Paper

A Comparison of the Bosch and Zuech Rate of Injection Meters

This paper will discuss the fundamentals of the Bosch rate of injection meter which has been the standard measurement tool for the last 25 years and a newly developed tool which uses the Zuech constant volume technique. A fundamental and experimental comparison is presented. Using a high pressure accumulator type injector, each of the injection systems produced almost identical injection rate shapes. The integrated values of these traces (injection quantity) were within a few percent of the physically measured quantities.
Technical Paper

A Computational Analysis of Direct Fuel Injection During the Negative Valve Overlap Period in an Iso-Octane Fueled HCCI Engine

This computational study compares predictions and experimental results for the use of direct injected iso-octane fuel during the negative valve overlap (NVO) period to achieve HCCI combustion. The total fuel injection was altered in two ways. First the pre-DI percent, (the ratio of direct injected fuel during the NVO period “pre-DI” to the secondary fuel supplied at the intake manifold “PI”), was varied at a fixed pre-DI injection timing, Secondly the timing of the pre-DI injection was varied while all of the fuel was supplied during the NVO period. A multi-zone, two-dimensional CFD simulation with chemistry was performed using KIVA-3V release 2 implemented with the CHEMKIN solver. The simulations were performed during the NVO period only.
Technical Paper

A Computational Investigation into the Cool Flame Region in HCCI Combustion

Multi-dimensional computational efforts using comprehensive and skeletal kinetics have been made to investigate the cool flame region in HCCI combustion. The work was done in parallel to an experimental study that showed the impact of the negative temperature coefficient and the cool flame on the start of combustion using different fuels, which is now the focus of the simulation work. Experiments in a single cylinder CFR research engine with n-butane and a primary reference fuel with an octane number of 70 (PRF 70) were modeled. A comparison of the pressure and heat release traces of the experimental and computational results shows the difficulties in predicting the heat release in the cool flame region. The behavior of the driving radicals for two-stage ignition is studied and is compared to the behavior for a single-ignition from the literature. Model results show that PRF 70 exhibits more pronounced cool flame heat release than n-butane.
Journal Article

A Detailed Comparison of Emissions and Combustion Performance Between Optical and Metal Single-Cylinder Diesel Engines at Low Temperature Combustion Conditions

A detailed comparison of cylinder pressure derived combustion performance and engine-out emissions is made between an all-metal single-cylinder light-duty diesel engine and a geometrically equivalent engine designed for optical accessibility. The metal and optically accessible single-cylinder engines have the same nominal geometry, including cylinder head, piston bowl shape and valve cutouts, bore, stroke, valve lift profiles, and fuel injection system. The bulk gas thermodynamic state near TDC and load of the two engines are closely matched by adjusting the optical engine intake mass flow and composition, intake temperature, and fueling rate for a highly dilute, low temperature combustion (LTC) operating condition with an intake O2 concentration of 9%. Subsequent start of injection (SOI) sweeps compare the emissions trends of UHC, CO, NOx, and soot, as well as ignition delay and fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

A New Approach to System Level Soot Modeling

A procedure has been developed to build system level predictive models that incorporate physical laws as well as information derived from experimental data. In particular a soot model was developed, trained and tested using experimental data. It was seen that the model could fit available experimental data given sufficient training time. Future accuracy on data points not encountered during training was estimated and seen to be good. The approach relies on the physical phenomena predicted by an existing system level phenomenological soot model coupled with ‘weights’ which use experimental data to adjust the predicted physical sub-model parameters to fit the data. This approach has developed from attempts at incorporating physical phenomena into neural networks for predicting emissions. Model training uses neural network training concepts.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Study to Control Combustion Duration of Hydrogen-Fueled HCCI by Using Multi-Zone Chemical Kinetics Simulation

An engine cycle simulation code with detailed chemical kinetics has been developed to study Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion with hydrogen as the fuel. In order to attain adequate combustion duration, resulting from the self-accelerating nature of the chemical reaction, fuel and temperature inhomogeneities have been brought to the calculation by considering the combustion chamber to have various temperature and fuel distributions. Calculations have been done under various conditions including both perfectly homogeneous and inhomogeneous cases, changing the degree of inhomogeneity. The results show that intake gas temperature is more dominant on ignition timing of HCCI than equivalence ratio and that there is a possibility to control HCCI by introducing appropriate temperature inhomogeneity to in-cylinder mixture.
Technical Paper

A Study of Fuel Nitrogen Conversion, Performance, and Emission Characteristcs of Blended SCR-II in a High-Speed Diesel Engine

Engine operation with blended SRC-II and pyridine doped diesel fuel were compared relative to regular #2 diesel fuel in a 4-stroke, turbocharged, direct injection, high speed commercial diesel engine. The brake specific fuel consumption, (M-Joule/hp-hr), turbocharging, combustion characteristics and smoke did not change between blended SRC-II and regular #2 diesel fuel. This was expected since the sample fuels were blended to be of the same cetane number. The maximum torque, hydrocarbon and NOx emissions were higher for blended SRC-II. There was essentially no difference in the NOx measurements of the pyridine doped fuel and regular #2 diesel fuel. The NOx emission increase for the blended SRC-II is believed to be caused by the increased aromatic content of the blended SRC-II and not the fuel nitrogen conversion.
Technical Paper

Aldehyde and Unburned Fuel Emission Measurements from a Methanol-Fueled Texaco Stratified Charge Engine

A Texaco L-163S TCCS (Texaco Controlled Combustion System) engine was operated with pure methanol to investigate the origin and mechanism of unburned fuel (UBF) and formaldehyde emissions. The effects of engine load, speed and coolant temperature on the exhaust emissions were studied using both continuous and time-resolved sampling methods. Within the range studied, increasing the engine load resulted in a decrease of the exhaust UBF emissions and an increase in the formaldehyde emissions. Engine speed had little effect on both UBF and formaldehyde emissions. Decreasing the engine coolant temperature from 85°C to 45°C caused the exhaust UBF emissions to approximately double and the formaldehyde emission to increase approximately 20 percent. It is hypothesized that both fuel impingement and spray tailing are responsible for the high UBF emissions. In-cylinder formation of formaldehyde was found to be the major source of the exhaust aldehyde emissions in this experiment.
Technical Paper

An Analysis of Ignition Delay, Heat Transfer and Combustion During Dynamic Load Changes in a Diesel Engine

In this paper we report the results of experiments done during the transient operation of a single cylinder Cummins NH engine. The data taken include cycle resolved pressure, combustion chamber surface temperatures and ignition delay. The data was taken during a special type of engine operation in which the engine was repeatedly hopped from one load to another. In this way cycle to cycle variations could be averaged out by ensemble averaging individual cycles after the step load change. For analysis of the heat transfer a unique finite difference temperature probe was developed to delineate the 3-D heat transfer effects in place of the standard 1-D assumptions and a new analysis technique was developed to calculate the instantaneous heat flux during the transient. Analysis of the data indicates that the combustion reaches an equivalent steady state condition within 2000 engine cycles after the load change.
Technical Paper

An Investigation Into the Effect of Fuel Composition on HCCI Combustion Characteristics

A single cylinder CFR research engine has been run in HCCI combustion mode for a range of temperatures and fuel compositions. The data indicate that the best HCCI operation, as measured by a combination of successful combustion with low ISFC, occurs at or near the rich limit of operation. Analysis of the pressure and heat release histories indicated the presence, or absence, and impact of the fuel's NTC ignition behavior on establishing successful HCCI operation. The auto-ignition trends observed were in complete agreement with previous results found in the literature. Furthermore, analysis of the importance of the fuel's octane sensitivity, through assessment of an octane index, successfully explained the changes in the fuels auto-ignition tendency with changes in engine operating conditions.
Technical Paper

An Overview of Zero-Dimensional Thermodynamic Models for IC Engine Data Analysis

The heat release type models have been classified as zero-dimensional because they have no spatial resolution and therefore don't contain any information on the fluid mechanics in them. They have been a significant contribution because they incorporate the rate processes occurring in the engine and are an aid in the analysis of the data. Because they are thermodynamic models it is necessary to define the control volumes on which the thermodynamic analysis is to be performed. The different control volume descriptions, called one, two and three zone models, and the analysis of the combustion event using these models is discussed. Finally a description of second law zero-dimensional models is given. These models have similar limitations as the First Law models; no spatial resolution and a control volume definition is required. These models are useful because they enable one to analyze the magnitude of the losses that occur in the different processes which comprise the engine cycle.
Journal Article

Analysis of Deviations from Steady State Performance During Transient Operation of a Light Duty Diesel Engine

Deviations between transient and steady state operation of a modern light duty diesel engine were identified by comparing rapid load transitions to steady state tests at the same speeds and fueling rates. The validity of approximating transient performance by matching the transient charge air flow rate and intake manifold pressure at steady state was also assessed. Results indicate that for low load operation with low temperature combustion strategies, transient deviations of MAF and MAP from steady state values are small in magnitude or short in duration and have relatively little effect on transient engine performance. A new approximation accounting for variations in intake temperature and excess oxygen content of the EGR was more effective at capturing transient emissions trends, but significant differences in magnitudes remained in certain cases indicating that additional sources of variation between transient and steady state performance remain unaccounted for.
Technical Paper

Application of A Multiple-Step Phenomenological Soot Model to HSDI Diesel Multiple Injection Modeling

Multiple injection strategies have been revealed as an efficient means to reduce diesel engine NOx and soot emissions simultaneously, while maintaining or improving its thermal efficiency. Empirical soot models widely adopted in engine simulations have not been adequately validated to predict soot formation with multiple injections. In this work, a multiple-step phenomenological (MSP) soot model that includes particle inception, surface growth, oxidation, and particle coagulation was revised to better describe the physical processes of soot formation in diesel combustion. It was found that the revised MSP model successfully reproduces measured soot emission dependence on the start-of-injection timing, while the two-step empirical and the original MSP soot models were less accurate. The revised MSP model also predicted reasonable soot and intermediate species spatial profiles within the combustion chamber.
Journal Article

CO Emission Model for an Integrated Diesel Engine, Emissions, and Exhaust Aftertreatment System Level Model

A kinetic carbon monoxide (CO) emission model is developed to simulate engine out CO emissions for conventional diesel combustion. The model also incorporates physics governing CO emissions for low temperature combustion (LTC). The emission model will be used in an integrated system level model to simulate the operation and interaction of conventional and low temperature diesel combustion with aftertreatment devices. The Integrated System Model consists of component models for the diesel engine, engine-out emissions (such as NOx and Particulate Matter), and aftertreatment devices (such as DOC and DPF). The addition of CO emissions model will enhance the capability of the Integrated System Model to predict major emission species, especially for low temperature combustion. In this work a CO emission model is developed based on a two-step global kinetic mechanism [8].
Technical Paper

Can Paper Engines Stand the Heat?

Accurate and useful mathematical models of physical processes can be made when we understand all of the phenomena involved. This paper reviews our understanding of the fluid flow, heat transfer and thermodynamic processes occurring in engines and the status of mathematical models expressing this understanding. Thermodynamic single system rate models are found to be extremely useful in predicting power and fuel consumption performance but of limited value in predicting emission performance. Multiple-zone, nonequilibrium models are essential for predicting emissions but are limited in accuracy by computer capacity and our understanding of engine phenomena which vary rapidly both with space and time. The need for and ability of new types of instrumentation, primarily optical, to increase our understanding of engine phenomena and improve our models is discussed.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Particulate Morphology, Nanostructures, and Sizes in Low-Temperature Combustion with Biofuels

Detailed characteristics of morphology, nanostructures, and sizes were analyzed for particulate matter (PM) emissions from low-temperature combustion (LTC) modes of a single-cylinder, light-duty diesel engine. The LTC engines have been widely studied in an effort to achieve high combustion efficiency and low exhaust emissions. Recent reports indicate that the number of nucleation mode particles increased in a broad engine operating range, which implies a negative impact on future PM emissions regulations in terms of the nanoparticle number. However, the size measurement of solid carbon particles by commercial instruments is indeed controversial due to the contribution of volatile organics to small nanoparticles. In this work, an LTC engine was operated with various biofuel blends, such as blends (B20) of soy bean oil (soy methyl ester, SME20) and palm oil (palm methyl ester, PME20), as well as an ultra-low-sulfur diesel fuel.
Technical Paper

Chemiluminescence Measurements of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Combustion

A spectroscopic diagnostic system was designed to study the effects of different engine parameters on the chemiluminescence characteristic of HCCI combustion. The engine parameters studied in this work were intake temperature, fuel delivery method, fueling rate (load), air-fuel ratio, and the effect of partial fuel reforming due to intake charge preheating. At each data point, a set of time-resolved spectra were obtained along with the cylinder pressure and exhaust emissions data. It was determined that different engine parameters affect the ignition timing of HCCI combustion without altering the reaction pathways of the fuel after the combustion has started. The chemiluminescence spectra of HCCI combustion appear as several distinct peaks corresponding to emission from CHO, HCHO, CH, and OH superimposed on top of a CO-O continuum. A strong correlation was found between the chemiluminescence light intensity and the rate of heat release.
Technical Paper

Comparison of HCCI Operating Ranges for Combinations of Intake Temperature, Engine Speed and Fuel Composition

A series of engine experiments have been performed to explore the impact intake temperature, engine speed and fuel composition on the HCCI operating range of a CFR engine. The experimental matrix covers a range of engine speeds 600 - 2000 RPM), intake temperatures (300 K - 400 K), and four different fuels. Three of the fuels had different chemical composition but had equivalent research octane numbers of 91.8. The fourth fuel, a blend of primary reference fuels had a research octane number of 70. The acceptable HCCI operating range of the engine was defined through two criteria; the rate of pressure rise needed to be less than 10 MPa per crank angle and the covariance of the indicated mean effective pressure needed to be less than 10 percent. Using these limits the HCCI operating range for the engine was evaluated for the experimental matrix. Data for emissions, and fuel consumption as well as in-cylinder pressure were recorded.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Numerical Results and Experimental Data on Emission Production Processes in a Diesel Engine

Simulations of DI Diesel engine combustion have been performed using a modified KIVA-II package with a recently developed phenomenological soot model. The phenomenological soot model includes generic description of fuel pyrolysis, soot particle inception, coagulation, and surface growth and oxidation. The computational results are compared with experimental data from a Cummins N14 single cylinder test engine. Results of the simulations show acceptable agreement with experimental data in terms of cylinder pressure, rate of heat release, and engine-out NOx and soot emissions for a range of fuel injection timings considered. The numerical results are also post-processed to obtain time-resolved soot radiation intensity and compared with the experimental data analyzed using two-color optical pyrometry. The temperature magnitude and KL trends show favorable agreement.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Unburned Fuel and Aldehyde Emissions from a Methanol-Fueled Stratified Charge and Homogeneous Charge Engine

This paper presents the results of an experimental program in which a Texaco L-163S engine was fueled with methanol and operated in its traditional stratified charge mode and then modified to run as a homogeneous charge spark ignited engine. The primary data taken were the aldehyde and unburned fuel emissions (UBF). These data were taken using a continuous time-averaging sampling probe at the exhaust tank and at the exhaust port and with a rotary time-resolving sampling valve located at the exhaust port. The data are for two loads, 138.1 kPa (20 psi) and 207.1 kPa (30 psi) BMEP and three speeds, 1000, 1400 and 1800 rpm. The data indicate that for both the stratified charge and the homogeneous charge modes of operation formaldehyde was the only aldehyde detected in the exhaust and it primarily originated in the cylinder.