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Technical Paper

A Competitive Approach to an Active Exhaust Heat Recovery System Solution

As greenhouse gas regulations continue to tighten, more opportunities to improve engine efficiency emerge, including exhaust gas heat recovery. Upon cold starts, engine exhaust gases downstream of the catalysts are redirected with a bypass valve into a heat exchanger, transferring its heat to the coolant to accelerate engine warm-up. This has several advantages, including reduced fuel consumption, as the engine’s efficiency improves with temperature. Furthermore, this accelerates readiness to defrost the windshield, improving both safety as well as comfort, with greater benefits in colder climates, particularly when combined with hybridization’s need for engine on-time solely for cabin heating. Such products have been in the market now for several years; however they are bulky, heavy and expensive, yielding opportunities for competitive alternatives.
Technical Paper

A Dual - Reductant HC LNC Approach to Commercial Vehicle Tier 4 Final Solutions

Stringent global emissions legislations demand effective NOx reduction strategies for both the engine as well as the aftertreatment. Diesel applications have previously applied Lean NOx Catalysts (LNCs) [1, 2], but their reduction efficiency and longevity have been far less than that of the competing ammonia-based SCR systems, such as urea [3]. A catalyst has been developed to significantly reduce NOx emissions, approaching 60% with ULSD and exceeding 95% with E85. Both thermal and sulfur aging are applied, as well as on-engine aging, illustrating resilient performance to accommodate necessary life requirements. A robust system is developed to introduce both ULSD from the vehicle's tank as well as E85 (up to 85% ethanol with the balance being gasoline) from a moderately sized supplemental tank, enabling extended mileage service intervals to replenish the reductant, as compared with urea, particularly when coupled with an engine-out based NOx reduction technology, such as EGR.
Journal Article

A Metal Fibrous Filter for Diesel Hybrid Vehicles

Trends towards lower vehicle fuel consumption and smaller environmental impact will increase the share of Diesel hybrids and Diesel Range Extended Vehicles (REV). Because of the Diesel engine presence and the ever tightening soot particle emissions, these vehicles will still require soot particle emissions control systems. Ceramic wall-flow monoliths are currently the key players in the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) market, offering certain advantages compared to other DPF technologies such as the metal based DPFs. The latter had, in the past, issues with respect to filtration efficiency, available filtration area and, sometimes, their manufacturing cost, the latter factor making them less attractive for most of the conventional Diesel engine powered vehicles. Nevertheless, metal substrate DPFs may find a better position in vehicles like Diesel hybrids and REVs in which high instant power consumption is readily offered enabling electrical filter regeneration.
Technical Paper

A Methodology for the Fast Evaluation of the Effect of Ash Aging on the Diesel Particulate Filter Performance

Establishing a certain maintenance-free time period regarding modern diesel exhaust emission control systems is of major importance nowadays. One of the most serious problems Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) manufacturers face concerning system's durability is the performance deterioration due to the filter aging because of the accumulation of the ash particles. The evaluation of the effect of the ash aging on the filter performance is a time and cost consuming task that slows down the process of manufacturing innovative filter structures and designs. In this work we present a methodology for producing filter samples aged by accumulating ash produced by the controlled pyrolysis of oil-fuel solutions. Such ash particles bear morphological (size) and compositional similarity to ash particles collected from engine aged DPFs. The ash particles obtained are compared to those from real engine operation.
Technical Paper

A Sampling and Conditioning Particle System for Solid Particle Measurements Down to 10 nm

The measurement of vehicle particle number emissions and, therefore, regulation, necessitates a rigorous sampling and conditioning technology able to deliver solid emitted particles with minimum particle losses. European legislation follows a solid particle number measurement method with cutoff size at 23 nm proposed by the Particle Measurement Programme (PMP). Accordingly, the raw exhaust is sampled with constant volume, subsequently passes through a volatile particle remover (VPR), and finally is measured with a particle counter. Lowering the 23 nm cutoff size with current VPR technologies introduces measurement uncertainties mainly due to the high particle losses and possible creation of artefacts. This study describes the development and evaluation of a sampling and conditioning particle system, the SCPS, specially designed for sub-23 nm solid particles measurement.
Technical Paper

CFD Optimization of Exhaust Manifold for Large Diesel Engine Aftertreatment Systems

To meet EPA Tier IV large diesel engine emission targets, intensive development efforts are necessary to achieve NOx reduction and Particulate Matter (PM) reduction targets [1]. With respect to NOx reduction, liquid urea is typically used as the reagent to react with NOx via SCR catalyst [2]. Regarding to PM reduction, additional heat is required to raise exhaust temperature to reach DPF active / passive regeneration performance window [3]. Typically the heat can be generated by external diesel burners which allow diesel liquid droplets to react directly with oxygen in the exhaust gas [4]. Alternatively the heat can be generated by catalytic burners which enable diesel vapor to react with oxygen via DOC catalyst mostly through surface reactions [5].
Technical Paper

Catalytic Filter Systems with Direct and Indirect Soot Oxidation Activity

Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) need to be periodically regenerated in order to achieve efficient and safe vehicle operation. Under typical diesel exhaust conditions, this invariably requires the raising of the exhaust gas temperature by active means, up to the point that particulate (soot) oxidation can be self-sustained in the filter. In the present work the development path of an advanced catalytic filter technology is presented. Full scale optimized Catalytic Diesel Particulate Filters (CDPFs) are tested in the exhaust of a light-duty modern diesel engine in line with a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC). The management of the DOC-CDPF emission control system is facilitated by a virtual soot sensor in order to ensure energy-efficient operation of the emission control system.
Technical Paper

Clean EGR for Gasoline Engines – Innovative Approach to Efficiency Improvement and Emissions Reduction Simultaneously

External Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) has been used on diesel engines for decades and has also been used on gasoline engines in the past. It is recently reintroduced on gasoline engines to improve fuel economy at mid and high engine load conditions, where EGR can reduce throttling losses and fuel enrichment. Fuel enrichment causes fuel penalty and high soot particulates, as well as hydrocarbon (HC) emissions, all of which are limited by emissions regulations. Under stoichiometric conditions, gasoline engines can be operated at high EGR rates (> 20%), but more than diesel engines, its intake gas including external EGR needs extreme cooling (down to ~50°C) to gain the maximum fuel economy improvement. However, external EGR and its problems at low temperatures (fouling, corrosion & condensation) are well known.
Technical Paper

DPF Regeneration Response: Coupling Various DPFs with a Thermal Regeneration Unit to Assess System Behaviors

Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) have been successfully applied for several years to reduce Particulate Matter (PM) emissions from on-highway applications, and similar products are now also applied in off-highway markets and retrofit solutions. Most solutions are catalytically-based, necessitating minimum operating temperatures and demanding engine support strategies to reduce risks [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8]. An ignition-based thermal combustion device is applied with Cordierite and SiC filters, evaluating various DPF conditions, including effects of soot load, exhaust flow rates, catalytic coatings, and regeneration temperatures. System designs are described, including flow and temperature uniformity, as well as soot load distribution and thermal gradient response.
Journal Article

Development of Common Rail and Manifold Fluid Delivery Systems for Large Diesel Engine Aftertreatement

EPA 2015 Tier IV emission requirements pose significant challenges to large diesel engine aftertreatment system (EAS) development aimed at reducing exhaust emissions such as NOx and PM. An EAS has three primary subsystems, Aftertreatment hardware, controls and fluid delivery. Fluid delivery is the subsystem which supplies urea into exhaust stream to allow SCR catalytic reaction and/or periodic DOC diesel dosing to elevate exhaust temperatures for diesel particulate filter (DPF) soot regeneration. The purpose of this paper is to discuss various aspects of fluid delivery system development from flow and pressure perspective. It starts by giving an overview of the system requirements and outlining theoretical background; then discusses overall design considerations, injector and pump selection criteria, and three main injector layouts. Steady state system performance was studied for manifold layout.
Technical Paper

Development of Low Temperature Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) Catalysts for Future Emissions Regulations

A series of novel metal-oxide (TiO2, TiO2-SiO2)-supported Mn, Fe, Co, V, Cu and Ce catalysts were prepared by incipient wetness technique and investigated for the low-temperature selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx with ammonia at industrial relevantly conditions. Among all the prepared catalysts, Cu/TiO2 showed superior de-NOx performance in the temperature range of 150-200 °C followed by Mn/TiO2 in the temperature range of 200-250 °C. The Ce/TiO2 catalyst exhibited a broad temperature window with notable de-NOx performance in the temperature regime of 250-350 °C. The phyico-chemical characterization results revealed that the activity enhancement was correlated with the properties of the support material. All the anatasetitania-supported catalysts (M/TiO2 (Hombikat)) demonstrated significantly high de-NOx performance above 150 °C.
Technical Paper

Evaluation Techniques to Assess Exhaust Aftertreatment Support Mat Robustness

In order to scientifically approach the design of mounting systems for substrates in emissions control systems, it is essential to characterize the behavior of the involved materials, particularly the support mat. Manufacturing processes and various in-field conditions impact the long term performance of the support mat, and life-long emissions performance is critically dependent on its ability to retain the substrate throughout the intended life. Therefore, to ensure product robustness, the behavior during operation of all available support mats must be appropriately characterized to determine the technical layout in specific applications. This paper addresses three common characterization tests, developed internally and externally. Additionally, equipment improvements to minimize artifacts in test results as well as the development of a new mat test for manufacturing methods are addressed.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Mixer Designs for Large Diesel Exhaust Aftertreatment Systems

The presented work evaluates several mixer designs being considered for use in large Diesel exhaust aftertreatment systems. The mixers are placed upstream of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) in the exhaust system, where a liquid hydrocarbon fuel is injected. DOC exothermic behaviour resulting from each mixer at different operating conditions is evaluated. A gas flow bench equipped with a XY-Table measurement system is used to determine gas velocity, temperature, and hydrocarbon species uniformity, as well as, pressure drop. Experimental mixer data obtained from a flow bench and an engine dynamometer are compared and discussed. The experimental methodology used in this study can be used to evaluate mixers via comprehensive testing.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of a DPF Regeneration System and DOC Performance Using Secondary Fuel Injection

An active diesel particulate filter (DPF) regeneration system is evaluated, which applies secondary fuel injection (SFI) directly within the exhaust system upstream of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC). Diesel fuel is oxidized in the presence of a proprietary catalyst system, increasing exhaust gas temperatures in an efficient and controlled manner, even during low engine-out gas temperatures. The exotherms produced by secondary fuel injection (SFI) have been evaluated using two different DOC volumes and platinum catalyst loadings. DOC light-off temperatures were measured using SFI under steady-state conditions on an engine dynamometer. A ΔT method was used for the light-off temperature measurements – i.e., the minimum DOC inlet gas temperature at which the exothermic reaction increases the outlet gas temperature 20°C or greater than the inlet temperature.
Journal Article

Experimental Study of Thermal Aging on Catalytic Diesel Particulate Filter Performance

In this paper, a methodology is presented to study the influence of thermal aging on catalytic DPF performance using small scale coated filter samples and side-stream reactor technology. Different mixed oxide catalytic coating families are examined under realistic engine exhaust conditions and under fresh and thermally aged state. This methodology involves the determination of filter physical (flow resistance under clean and soot loaded conditions and filtration efficiency) and chemical properties (reactivity of catalytic coating towards direct soot oxidation). Thermal aging led to sintering of catalytic nanoparticles and to changes in the structure of the catalytic layer affecting negatively the filter wall permeability, the clean filtration efficiency and the pressure drop behavior during soot loading. It also affected negatively the catalytic soot oxidation activity of the catalyzed samples.
Technical Paper

Fundamental Studies of Diesel Particulate Filters: Transient Loading, Regeneration and Aging

Compliance with future emission standards for diesel powered vehicles is likely to require the deployment of emission control devices, such as particulate filters and DeNOx converters. Diesel emission control is merging with powertrain management and requires deep knowledge of emission control component behavior to perform effective system level integration and optimization. The present paper focuses on challenges associated with a critical component of diesel emission control systems, namely the diesel particulate filter (DPF), and provides a fundamental description of the transient filtration/loading, catalytic/NO2-assisted regeneration and ash-induced aging behavior of DPF's.
Technical Paper

Innovative Passive Exhaust Valve Improves Sound Quality and Reduces Muffler Volume without Backpressure Penalty

Exhaust systems traditionally require a specific amount of muffler volume to reduce sound levels appropriately. However, as hybridization evolves, the packaging area becomes smaller, reducing available muffler space and requiring alternative solutions to attenuate exhaust sound with less volume. Passive exhaust valves are a key solution, leveraging the physics of the exhaust (flow, temperature, and pressure) to cycle the valve. Passive exhaust valves typically operate in a closed position under low-flow conditions (low engine speeds and loads), which helps to reduce low-frequency boom, moderately increasing backpressure when it is not detrimental to engine efficiency. Conversely, under higher engine speed and load operating conditions, when exhaust flow increases and backpressure is critical to achieve desired power output, the passive valve opens to reduce its impact.
Technical Paper

Integration of Diesel Burner for Large Engine Aftertreatment using CFD

Diesel burners recently have been used in Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) regeneration process, in which the exhaust gas temperature is raised through the combustion process to burn off the soot particles. The feasibility of such process using the burner in large diesel applications is investigated along with a mixer and DPF. For such applications, only partial flow of the exhaust stream is fed into the burner and the resulting hot flow from combustion process is then mixed with the rest of the main stream. The amount of flow into the burner plays a vital role in overall system performance as it determines the amount of hot gas needed for Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) light-off (to facilitate DPF regeneration) and also oxygen amount needed for secondary combustion. A passive valve plate design is proposed for such flow split applications for the burner.
Journal Article

Investigation of SCR Catalysts for Marine Diesel Applications

Evolving marine diesel emission regulations drive significant reductions of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions. There is, therefore, considerable interest to develop and validate Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) converters for marine diesel NOx emission control. Substrates in marine applications need to be robust to survive the high sulfur content of marine fuels and must offer cost and pressure drop benefits. In principle, extruded honeycomb substrates of higher cell density offer benefits on system volume and provide increased catalyst area (in direct trade-off with increased pressure drop). However higher cell densities may become more easily plugged by deposition of soot and/or sulfate particulates, on the inlet face of the monolithic converter, as well as on the channel walls and catalyst coating, eventually leading to unacceptable flow restriction or suppression of catalytic function.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Urea Deposits in Urea SCR Systems for Medium and Heavy Duty Trucks

With increasing applications of urea SCR for NOx emission reduction, improving the system performance and durability has become a high priority. A typical urea SCR system includes a urea injector, injector housing, mixer, and appropriate pipe configurations to allow continuous urea injection into the exhaust stream and evaporation of urea solution into gaseous products. Continuous operation at various conditions with high NOx reduction is possible, but one problem that threatens the life and performance of these systems is urea deposit. When urea or its byproducts become deposited on the inner surfaces of the system including walls, mixers, injector housings and substrates it can create concerns of backpressure and material deteriorations. In addition, deposits as a waste of reagents can negatively affect engine operation, emissions performance and DEF economy. Urea deposit behavior is explored in terms of heat transfer, pipe geometry, injector layout and mixing mechanisms.