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Technical Paper

0D/3D Simulations of Combustion in Gasoline Engines Operated with Multiple Spark Plug Technology

2015-04-14
2015-01-1243
A simulation method is presented for the analysis of combustion in spark ignition (SI) engines operated at elevated exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) level and employing multiple spark plug technology. The modeling is based on a zero-dimensional (0D) stochastic reactor model for SI engines (SI-SRM). The model is built on a probability density function (PDF) approach for turbulent reactive flows that enables for detailed chemistry consideration. Calculations were carried out for one, two, and three spark plugs. Capability of the SI-SRM to simulate engines with multiple spark plug (multiple ignitions) systems has been verified by comparison to the results from a three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. Numerical simulations were carried for part load operating points with 12.5%, 20%, and 25% of EGR. At high load, the engine was operated at knock limit with 0%, and 20% of EGR and different inlet valve closure timing.
Technical Paper

A Computationally Efficient Progress Variable Approach for In-Cylinder Combustion and Emissions Simulations

2019-09-09
2019-24-0011
The use of complex reaction schemes is accompanied by high computational cost in 3D CFD simulations but is particularly important to predict pollutant emissions in internal combustion engine simulations. One solution to tackle this problem is to solve the chemistry prior the CFD run and store the chemistry information in look-up tables. The approach presented combines pre-tabulated progress variable-based source terms for auto-ignition as well as soot and NOx source terms for emission predictions. The method is coupled to the 3D CFD code CONVERGE v2.4 via user-coding and tested over various speed and load passenger-car Diesel engine conditions. This work includes the comparison between the combustion progress variable (CPV) model and the online chemistry solver in CONVERGE 2.4. Both models are compared by means of combustion and emission parameters. A detailed n-decane/α-methyl-naphthalene mechanism, comprising 189 species, is used for both online and tabulated chemistry simulations.
Technical Paper

A Fast Tool for Predictive IC Engine In-Cylinder Modelling with Detailed Chemistry

2012-04-16
2012-01-1074
This paper reports on a fast predictive combustion tool employing detailed chemistry. The model is a stochastic reactor based, discretised probability density function model, without spatial resolution. Employing detailed chemistry has the potential of predicting emissions, but generally results in very high CPU costs. Here it is shown that CPU times of a couple of minutes per cycle can be reached when applying detailed chemistry, and CPU times below 10 seconds per cycle can be reached when using reduced chemistry while still catching in-cylinder in-homogeneities. This makes the tool usable for efficient engine performance mapping and optimisation. To meet CPU time requirements, automatically load balancing parallelisation was included in the model. This allowed for an almost linear CPU speed-up with number of cores available.
Journal Article

A Monte Carlo Based Turbulent Flame Propagation Model for Predictive SI In-Cylinder Engine Simulations Employing Detailed Chemistry for Accurate Knock Prediction

2012-09-10
2012-01-1680
This paper reports on a turbulent flame propagation model combined with a zero-dimensional two-zone stochastic reactor model (SRM) for efficient predictive SI in-cylinder combustion calculations. The SRM is a probability density function based model utilizing detailed chemistry, which allows for accurate knock prediction. The new model makes it possible to - in addition - study the effects of fuel chemistry on flame propagation, yielding a predictive tool for efficient SI in-cylinder calculations with all benefits of detailed kinetics. The turbulent flame propagation model is based on a recent analytically derived formula by Kolla et al. It was simplified to better suit SI engine modelling, while retaining the features allowing for general application. Parameters which could be assumed constant for a large spectrum of situations were replaced with a small number of user parameters, for which assumed default values were found to provide a good fit to a range of cases.
Technical Paper

A PDF-Based Model for Full Cycle Simulation of Direct Injected Engines

2008-06-23
2008-01-1606
In one-dimensional engine simulation programs the simulation of engine performance is mostly done by parameter fitting in order to match simulations with experimental data. The extensive fitting procedure is especially needed for emissions formation - CO, HC, NO, soot - simulations. An alternative to this approach is, to calculate the emissions based on detailed kinetic models. This however demands that the in-cylinder combustion-flow interaction can be modeled accurately, and that the CPU time needed for the model is still acceptable. PDF based stochastic reactor models offer one possible solution. They usually introduce only one (time dependent) parameter - the mixing time - to model the influence of flow on the chemistry. They offer the prediction of the heat release, together with all emission formation, if the optimum mixing time is given.
Journal Article

A Three-Parameter Transient 1D Catalyst Model

2011-04-12
2011-01-1306
Interactions between in-cylinder combustion and emission aftertreatment need to be understood for optimizing the overall powertrain system. Numerical investigations can aid this process. For this purpose, simple and numerically fast, but still accurate models are needed for in-cylinder combustion and exhaust aftertreatment. The chemical processes must be represented in sufficient detail to predict engine power, fuel consumption, and tailpipe emission levels of NOx, soot, CO and unburned hydrocarbons. This paper reports on a new transient one-dimensional catalyst model. This model makes use of a detailed kinetic mechanism to describe the catalytic reactions. A single-channel or a set of representative channels are used in the presented approach. Each channel is discretized into a number of cells. Each cell is treated as a perfectly stirred reactor (PSR) with a thin film layer for washcoat treatment. Heat and mass transport coefficients are calculated from Nusselt and Sherwood laws.
Technical Paper

A Three-Zone Model for Investigation of Gas Behavior in the Combustion Chamber of SI Engines in Relation to Knock

1999-03-01
1999-01-0219
A zero-dimensional, three-zone model is developed in order to study the gas thermodynamic characteristics and its relation to knock in SI engines. The first zone is the zone behind the flame front, i.e. the burned gas products. The second zone is the unburned gas ahead of the flame front. The end gas adjacent to the wall, in the boundary layer, is not included in the second zone but it is treated as a separate zone, i.e. the third zone. A detailed analysis of the gas thermodynamic state, including heat transfer analysis between the zones and the walls and mass transfer analysis between the zones combined with a detailed chemical kinetic mechanism in each zone have been performed. The effects of piston movement, flame propagation and transient behavior of the thermal boundary layer are modeled. A sudden rise of pressure and temperature and associated heat release in the end gas are calculated if autoignition occurs.
Technical Paper

Adaptive Polynomial Tabulation (APT): A computationally economical strategy for the HCCI engine simulation of complex fuels

2010-04-12
2010-01-1085
The solution mapping method Adaptive Polynomial Tabulation (APT) for complex chemistry is presented. The method has the potential of reducing the computational time required for stochastic reactor model simulations of the HCCI combustion process. In this method the solution of the initial value chemical rate equation system is approximated in real-time with zero, first and second order polynomial expressions. These polynomials are algebraic functions of a progress variable, pressure and total enthalpy. The chemical composition space is divided a priori into block-shaped regions (hypercubes) of the same size. Each hypercube may be divided in real-time into adaptive hypercubes of different sizes. During computations, initial conditions are stored in the adaptive hypercubes. Two concentric Ellipsoids of Accuracy (EOA) are drawn around each stored initial condition.
Technical Paper

Advanced Predictive Diesel Combustion Simulation Using Turbulence Model and Stochastic Reactor Model

2017-03-28
2017-01-0516
Today numerical models are a major part of the diesel engine development. They are applied during several stages of the development process to perform extensive parameter studies and to investigate flow and combustion phenomena in detail. The models are divided by complexity and computational costs since one has to decide what the best choice for the task is. 0D models are suitable for problems with large parameter spaces and multiple operating points, e.g. engine map simulation and parameter sweeps. Therefore, it is necessary to incorporate physical models to improve the predictive capability of these models. This work focuses on turbulence and mixing modeling within a 0D direct injection stochastic reactor model. The model is based on a probability density function approach and incorporates submodels for direct fuel injection, vaporization, heat transfer, turbulent mixing and detailed chemistry.
Technical Paper

Automatic Reduction of Detailed Chemical Reaction Mechanisms for Autoignition Under SI Engine Conditions

2000-06-19
2000-01-1895
A method for automatic reduction of detailed reaction mechanisms using simultaneous sensitivity, reaction flow and lifetime analysis has been developed and applied to a two-zone model of an SI engine fuelled with Primary Reference Fuel (PRF). Species which are less relevant for the occurrence of autoignition in the end gas are declared redundant. They are identified and eliminated for different pre-set minimum levels of reaction flow and sensitivity. The resulting skeletal mechanism is valid in the ranges of initial and boundary values for which the analyses have been performed. A measure of species lifetime is calculated from the chemical source terms, and the species with the lifetime shorter than and mass-fraction less than specified limits are selected for removal.
Journal Article

CARE – CAtalytic Reformated Exhaust Gases in Turbocharged DISI-Engines

2009-04-20
2009-01-0503
Today’s car manufactures inevitably have to focus on the reduction of fuel consumption while maintaining high performance standards. In this respect, the downsized turbocharged DISI (Direct Injection Spark Ignition) engine represents an appealing solution. However, downsizing is limited because of knocking phenomena occurring at high- and full-load conditions due to autoignition of the unburned mixture ahead the flame front. A common way of reducing knock tendencies is provided by Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR). However, EGR modifies the chemical composition of the cylinder charge and recirculated species like nitric oxide (NO) or unburned Hydrocarbons (HC) particularly increase the reactivity of the unburned mixture. In other words, the EGR influences the Octane Number (ON) of the in-cylinder gases.
Technical Paper

Combustion Modeling of Diesel Sprays

2016-04-05
2016-01-0592
Several models for ignition, combustion and emission formation under diesel engine conditions for multi-dimensional computational fluid dynamics have been proposed in the past. It has been recognized that the use of a reasonably detailed chemistry model improves the combustion and emission prediction especially under low temperature and high exhaust gas recirculation conditions. The coupling of the combustion chemistry and the turbulent flow can be achieved with different assumptions. In this paper we investigate a selection of n-heptane spray experiments published by the Engine Combustion Network (ECN spray H) with three different combustion models: well-stirred reactor model, transient interactive flamelet model and progress variable based conditional moment closure. All models cater for the use of detailed chemistry, while the turbulence-chemistry interaction modeling and the ability to consider local effects differ.
Technical Paper

Detailed Chemistry CFD Engine Combustion Solution with Ignition Progress Variable Library Approach

2009-06-15
2009-01-1898
This paper explains the principle and advantages of the Ignition Progress Variable Library (IPV-Library) approach and its use in predicting engine related premixed, non-premixed and compression ignited combustion events. The implementation of IPV-Library model in the engine-focused CFD code VECTIS is described. To demonstrate the application of the model in predicting various types of combustion, computational results from a 2-stroke HCCI engine, a premixed spark ignition engine and an HSDI diesel engine are presented, together with some comparisons with engine test data.
Technical Paper

Development of Methodology for Predictive Diesel Combustion Simulation Using 0D Stochastic Reactor Model

2016-04-05
2016-01-0566
Stringent exhaust emission limits and new vehicle test cycles require sophisticated operating strategies for future diesel engines. Therefore, a methodology for predictive combustion simulation, focused on multiple injection operating points is proposed in this paper. The model is designated for engine performance map simulations, to improve prediction of NOx, CO and HC emissions. The combustion process is calculated using a zero dimensional direct injection stochastic reactor model based on a probability density function approach. Further, the formation of exhaust emissions is described using a detailed reaction mechanism for n-heptane, which involves 56 Species and 206 reactions. The model includes the interaction between turbulence and chemistry effects by using a variable mixing time profile. Thus, one is able to capture the effects of mixture inhomogeneities on NOx, CO and HC emission formation.
Technical Paper

Development of a Computationally Efficient Progress Variable Approach for a Direct Injection Stochastic Reactor Model

2017-03-28
2017-01-0512
A novel 0-D Probability Density Function (PDF) based approach for the modelling of Diesel combustion using tabulated chemistry is presented. The Direct Injection Stochastic Reactor Model (DI-SRM) by Pasternak et al. has been extended with a progress variable based framework allowing the use of a pre-calculated auto-ignition table. Auto-ignition is tabulated through adiabatic constant pressure reactor calculations. The tabulated chemistry based implementation has been assessed against the previously presented DI-SRM version by Pasternak et al. where chemical reactions are solved online. The chemical mechanism used in this work for both, online chemistry run and table generation, is an extended version of the scheme presented by Nawdial et al. The main fuel species are n-decane, α-methylnaphthalene and methyl-decanoate giving a size of 463 species and 7600 reactions.
Technical Paper

Diesel Engine Cycle Simulation with a Reduced Set of Modeling Parameters Based on Detailed Kinetics

2009-04-20
2009-01-0676
An investigation on reducing the set of modeling parameters for engine cycle simulation is presented. The investigation considers a detailed kinetic model for combustion and emissions predictions coupled to a complete cycle simulation tool applied to a modern Diesel engine. The analysis is based on a previously developed method that combines a 1-D gas dynamics model with a stochastic reactor model for direct injection engines (SRM-DI). Initially, the global and instantaneous performance parameters of a Diesel engine were simulated at different operating conditions. The model was validated and the simulated results were compared to experimental data to assess the quality of the model. Afterwards, the influence of the chosen modeling parameters on engine performance, such as in-cylinder pressure, emissions and global performances, were analyzed. The mixing time proved to be the most important modeling parameter for the stochastic reactor model.
Technical Paper

Diesel-PPC engine: Predictive Full Cycle Modeling with Reduced and Detailed Chemistry

2011-08-30
2011-01-1781
Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) engines have demonstrated a potential for high efficiency and low emissions operation. To be able to study the combustion in detail but also to perform parametric studies on the potential of the PPC concept a one dimensional (1D) engine simulation tool was used with 1; a prescribed burn rate 2; predictive combustion tool with reduced chemical model and 3; predictive combustion tool with detailed chemical models. Results indicate that fast executing reduced chemistry work reasonably well in predicting PPC performance and that n-decane is possibly a suitable diesel substitute in PPC modeling while n-heptane is not.
Technical Paper

Effect of Inhomogeneities in the End Gas Temperature Field on the Autoignition in SI Engines

2000-03-06
2000-01-0954
This paper reports an one–dimensional modeling procedure of the hot spot autoignition with a detailed chemistry and multi–species transport in the end gas in an SI engine. The governing equations for continuity of mass, momentum, energy and species for an one–dimensional, unsteady, compressible, laminar, reacting flow and thermal fields are discretized and solved by a fully implicit method. A chemical kinetic mechanism is used for the primary reference fuels n–heptane and iso–octane. This mechanism contains 510 chemical reactions and 75 species. The change of the cylinder pressure is calculated from both flame propagation and piston movement. The turbulent velocity of the propagating flame is modeled by the Wiebe function. Adiabatic conditions, calculated by minimizing Gibb's free energy at each time step, are assumed behind the flame front in the burned gas.
Technical Paper

Efficient 3-D CFD Combustion Modeling with Transient Flamelet Models

2008-04-14
2008-01-0957
A transient interactive flamelet model and a transient flamelet library based model are used to model a medium-duty diesel fueled engine operating in PCCI mode. The simulations are performed with and without the source term accounting for evaporation in the mixture fraction variance equation. Reasonable agreement is found with the experiments with both models. The effect of the evaporation source term in the mixture fraction variance equation is different for the different transient flamelet approaches. For the transient interactive flamelet model the ignition onset is delayed as a consequence of the higher mixture fraction variance, which leads to a higher scalar dissipation rate. The evaporation source term does not affect the global characteristics of the ignition event for the transient flamelet progress variable model, but locally the initial combustion is occurring differently.
Technical Paper

Evaluating the EGR-AFR Operating Range of a HCCI Engine

2005-04-11
2005-01-0161
We present a computational tool to develop an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) - air-fuel ratio (AFR) operating range for homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines. A single cylinder Ricardo E-6 engine running in HCCI mode, with external EGR is simulated using an improved probability density function (PDF) based engine cycle model. For a base case, the in-cylinder temperature and unburned hydrocarbon emissions predicted by the model show a satisfactory agreement with measurements [Oakley et al., SAE Paper 2001-01-3606]. Furthermore, the model is applied to develop the operating range for various combustion parameters, emissions and engine parameters with respect to the air-fuel ratio and the amount of EGR used. The model predictions agree reasonably well with the experimental results for various parameters over the entire EGR-AFR operating range thus proving the robustness of the PDF based model.
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