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Technical Paper

Application of Verity Method to Predict Bushing Fatigue Life and Load Limit

2009-04-20
2009-01-0813
Durability performance is one of the most important aspects of exhaust system design. Great effort has been expended to develop the ability to accurately and quickly predict the durability of the system in the early development stages. Welded joints in an exhaust system are the most prone to failure; however, the fatigue life of a welded joint is usually much more difficult to predict than that of a base material. The difficulty of predicting the fatigue life of a welded structure lies primarily in the variability associated with the elements of a weldment, including differing material and gap requirements, notch generation, residual stresses, and imprecise application, among others. The experts at the Battelle Center for Welded Structures Research have developed an approach to predict the fatigue life of a welded structure known as the Verity method.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Verity and Volvo Methods for Fatigue Life Assessment of Welded Structures

2013-09-24
2013-01-2357
Great efforts have been made to develop the ability to accurately and quickly predict the durability and reliability of vehicles in the early development stage, especially for welded joints, which are usually the weakest locations in a vehicle system. A reliable and validated life assessment method is needed to accurately predict how and where a welded part fails, while iterative testing is expensive and time consuming. Recently, structural stress methods based on nodal force/moment are becoming widely accepted in fatigue life assessment of welded structures. There are several variants of structural stress approaches available and two of the most popular methods being used in automotive industry are the Volvo method and the Verity method. Both methods are available in commercial software and some concepts and procedures related the nodal force/moment have already been included in several engineering codes.
Journal Article

Durability and Reliability Test Planning and Test Data Analysis

2013-09-24
2013-01-2379
Durability/reliability design of products, such as auto exhaust systems, is essentially based on the observation of test data and the accurate interpretation of these data. Therefore, test planning and related data analysis are critical to successful engineering designs. To facilitate engineering applications, testing and data analysis methods have been standardized over the last decades by several standard bodies such as the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). However, over the last few years, several effective testing and data analysis methods have been developed, and the existing standard procedures need to be updated to incorporate the new observations, knowledge, and consensus. In this paper, the common practices and the standard test planning and data analysis procedures are reviewed first. Subsequently, the recent development in accelerated testing, equilibrium based data fitting, design curve construction, and Bayesian statistical data analysis is presented.
Journal Article

Durability/Reliability Analysis, Simulation, and Testing of a Thermal Regeneration Unit for Exhaust Emission Control Systems

2012-09-24
2012-01-1951
Durability and reliability performance is one of the most important concerns of a recently developed Thermal Regeneration Unit for Exhaust (T.R.U.E-Clean®) for exhaust emission control. Like other ground vehicle systems, the T.R.U.E-Clean® system experiences cyclic loadings due to road vibrations leading to fatigue failure over time. Creep and oxidation cause damage at high temperature conditions which further shortens the life of the system and makes fatigue life assessment even more complex. Great efforts have been made to develop the ability to accurately and quickly assess the durability/reliability of the system in the early development stage. However, reliable and validated simplified engineering methods with rigorous mathematical and physical bases are still urgently needed to accurately manage the margin of safety and decrease the cost, whereas iterative testing is expensive and time consuming.
Technical Paper

Effect of Test Data Accuracy on Component Durability Life Prediction in the Weibull Application

2010-04-12
2010-01-0199
Weibull analysis is widely used in many industries to predict the fatigue life of different components. Three typical Weibull distributions are introduced in this paper. The application of two parameter Weibull distribution in exhaust component fatigue life prediction is presented. Potential issues in component testing are addressed. Criteria are provided to define normal test data, and when replacement of a tested sample is required. The studies demonstrate that Weibull method is effective to predict component R90C90 life. However, data investigation and processing are critical to predict component life properly. The predicted fatigue life may differ by more than an order of magnitude if the sample life data is unrepresentative of the testing and manufacturing conditions.
Technical Paper

Equilibrium Mechanism Based Linear Curve Fitting Method and Its Application

2011-04-12
2011-01-0785
The equilibrium mechanism, which can be considered as the basis of least squares method for linear curve fitting, is investigated in this paper. Both conventional methods, such as vertical offsets method, and total least squares methods, such as perpendicular offsets method, are examined. It is found that both methods have the equilibrium bases. However, the conventional methods may give inaccurate prediction if using vertical offsets method to fit data with variation in horizontal direction or using horizontal offsets method to fit data with variation in vertical direction while the perpendicular method can give best fit solution to data with variation in both vertical and horizontal directions. The application of these methods is also presented in fatigue S-N curve data analysis and two-parameter Weibull distribution in exhaust component fatigue life prediction.
Journal Article

High-Temperature Life Assessment of Exhaust Components and the Procedure for Accelerated Durability and Reliability Testing

2012-09-24
2012-01-2058
Fatigue, creep, oxidation, or their combinations have long been recognized as the principal failure mechanisms in many high-temperature applications such as exhaust manifolds and thermal regeneration units used in commercial vehicle aftertreatment systems. Depending on the specific materials, loading, and temperature levels, the role of each damage mechanism may change significantly, ranging from independent development to competing and combined creep-fatigue, fatigue-oxidation, creep-fatigue-oxidation. Several multiple failure mechanisms based material damage models have been developed, and products to resist these failure mechanisms have been designed and produced. However, one of the key challenges posed to design engineers is to find a way to accelerate the durability and reliability tests of auto exhaust in component and system levels and to validate the product design within development cycle to satisfy customer and market's requirements.
Technical Paper

Modal Transient FEA Study to Simulate Exhaust System Road Load Test

2011-04-12
2011-01-0027
Durability life is one of the major concerns in the automotive industry. Road Load Data Acquisition (RLDA) is one of the most important steps to verify exhaust system durability performance. RLDA will not only provide data for system level rig testing drive file development but also for exhaust components validation (computing safety factors). Modal transient FEA can be utilized to simulate either vehicle durability testing or sub-system level rig testing. How to simulate correctly is critical in the simulation. One of the most challenging portions in the full exhaust system simulation is isolator modeling due to its non-linear characteristics. However, we have to use linear modeling to simulate isolator in modal transient analysis, which induces errors.
Journal Article

Virtual Rig Simulation in the Exhaust System Development

2008-04-14
2008-01-1215
A newly developed approach, Virtual Rig Simulation for exhaust, is introduced in this paper. An OEM exhaust system durability performance is simulated and simulation results are correlated to test results. The correlation results prove that the Virtual Rig Simulation predicates critical locations very well. The modal transient analysis is applied and input loading is from full event RLDA data. The advantage of the approach is that it can be applied in upfront design stage to predict exhaust system durability performance so that test cost and time are reduced significantly. Also, the presented approach is not only useful for exhaust system development but also useful for other product development.
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