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Technical Paper

Anhydrous Polyalkylene Glycol Hydraulic Fluids

There is an ongoing interest in identifying new biodegradable hydraulic fluid compositions that may be used as alternatives to mineral oil in many hydraulic applications such as mobile off-highway equipment. To date, many basestocks have been proposed including: vegetable oils, polyol esters, diesters, synthetic hydrocarbons and others. One basestock is gaining interest as alternative, biodegradable, fire-resistant hydraulic fluid; anhydrous poly(alkylene glycol) (PAG) fluids. However, the use of these fluids is not new; they are simply being rediscovered. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the discovery and development of anhydrous PAGs as hydraulic fluids. This discussion will include: an overview of PAG chemistry, properties and hydraulic pump performance.
Technical Paper

Biodegradable Hydraulic Fluids: A Review

There is an ongoing interest in biodegradable hydraulic fluids. Biodegradable fluids are often considered to include only vegetable oils, polyol esters and diester base stocks. However, other fluid base stocks including highly refined mineral oils, poly(alpha olefins) and fire-resistant fluids such as water-glycol hydraulic fluids are also biodegradable fluid alternatives. This paper will provide an overview of the international literature on biodegradable fluids, various international testing protocol, fluid base stocks, effect of oxidative stability, material compatibility and pump performance.
Technical Paper

Development of the Rexroth High-Pressure Piston Pump Test for Hydraulic Fluid Qualification

It is difficult, if not impossible; to select any single test that will model the expected performance of any hydraulic fluid in a wide range of hydraulic pumps made by many different manufacturers. Increasing pressures often encountered in new hydraulic pump applications compounds this problem. However, some basic assessment of hydraulic fluid performance is necessary for numerous reasons such as: developing an appropriate fluid purchase policy, international standard development, fluid classification and others. Since the now-classic standard tests such as: ASTM D-2882, DIN 51389 and others are simply inadequate for this task and also since the manufacturer, Eaton Inc., no longer manufactures these pumps, it has been necessary to develop an alternative testing strategy [1, 2 and 3]. The Bosch-Rexroth Corporation has developed a high-pressure piston pump test that has been an excellent predictor of hydraulic fluid performance for many years.
Technical Paper

Historical Overview of the Development of Water-Glycol Hydraulic Fluids

Because of on-board fire problems during World War II, the us Navy initiated a program to develop hydraulic fluids that were more fire-resistant than the mineral oils that were in use at that time. Water-glycol hydraulic fluids were subsequently developed and first commercialized in 1947 which offered vastly improved fire resistance relative to mineral oils. Since 1947, in addition to formulation changes, there is significantly greater understanding of the impact of these changes on pump wear performance. This paper will present a selected overview of water-glycol formulation chemistry, some of the fluid formulation issues that have been encountered and the evolutionary improvement of hydraulic pump wear performance.
Technical Paper

Hydraulic Fluid Qualification: An Overview of Critical Considerations

There are numerous fluid-related performance concerns when hydraulic fluids are being qualified for use. These concerns are especially important when non-mineral oil derived hydraulic fluids are being qualified for use in unusual and critical applications. In this paper, a number of performance-related fluid deficiencies that may be encountered in use will be described.
Technical Paper

Hydraulic Fluids: Foaming, Air Entrainment, and Air Release - A Review

The importance of minimizing air entrainment and enhancing air release in hydraulic fluids has been recognized for over 40 years. These properties are dependent on the composition of hydraulic fluids, especially on the presence of contaminants which inhibit air release and additives which promote it. One objective of this paper is to present an overview of this critically important technology as it has unfolded over the last 40 years. The second objective of this paper is to integrate into this summary recent research results on the impact of additives on air release properties.
Technical Paper

Hydraulic System Cavitation: Part II – A Review of Hardware Design – Related Effects

Cavitation erosion is one of the most important causes of loss of hydraulic pump efficiency, wear and even failure. Although cavitation process is often understood, there is typically little understanding of the joint role of the hydraulic fluid, which is a component of the system, and the operation of the hydraulic pump. In this paper, an overview is provided that describes the fluid properties that most impact on cavitation damage, the cavitation process within the pump and components and the use of computer simulation to prove improved designs that minimize hydraulic cavitation when various types of fluids are used.
Technical Paper

Root Cause Analysis of A Piston Pump Failure: A Case History

In many situations, the root cause of a particular failure may be determined based on the observation of a single part, or perhaps a photograph, taken from the failed system. However, when failure analysis is conducted on the complete component, a different result often emerges. Such is the case described here for a piston pump that was operating on an anhydrous poly(alkylene glycol) - PAG at high pressure. Initial observation suggested the fluid was the root cause of the failure. However, when failure analysis was properly applied, it was learned that the root cause of the failure was due to mechanical failure caused by the motor-to-pump coupling. This analysis procedure is presented as a case history in this report.