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Journal Article

A Method of Frequency Content Based Analysis of Driving Braking Behavior

Typically, when one thinks of advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS), systems such as Forward Collision Warning (FCW) and Collision Imminent Braking (CIB) come to mind. In these systems driver assistance is provided based on knowledge about the subject vehicle and surrounding objects. A new class of these systems is being implemented. These systems not only use information on the surrounding objects but also use information on the driver's response to an event, to determine if intervention is necessary. As a result of this trend, an advanced level of understanding of driver braking behavior is necessary. This paper presents an alternate method of analyzing driver braking behavior. This method uses a frequency content based approach to study driver braking and allows for the extraction of significantly more data from driver profiles than traditionally would have been done.
Journal Article

A Primer on Building a Hardware in the Loop Simulation and Validation for a 6X4 Tractor Trailer Model

This research was to model a 6×4 tractor-trailer rig using TruckSim and simulate severe braking maneuvers with hardware in the loop and software in the loop simulations. For the hardware in the loop simulation (HIL), the tractor model was integrated with a 4s4m anti-lock braking system (ABS) and straight line braking tests were conducted. In developing the model, over 100 vehicle parameters were acquired from a real production tractor and entered into TruckSim. For the HIL simulation, the hardware consisted of a 4s4m ABS braking system with six brake chambers, four modulators, a treadle and an electronic control unit (ECU). A dSPACE simulator was used as the “interface” between the TruckSim computer model and the hardware.
Technical Paper

A Study of Vehicle Response Asymmetries During Severe Driving Maneuvers

During Phase VI of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's (NHTSA) Light Vehicle Rollover Research Program, three of the twenty-six light vehicles tested exhibited significant response asymmetries with respect to left versus right steer maneuvers. This paper investigates possible vehicle asymmetric characteristics and unintended inputs that may cause vehicle asymmetric response. An analysis of the field test data, results from suspension and steering parameter measurements, and a summary of a computer simulation study are also given.
Journal Article

Advanced Control Strategies for a Roll Simulator - A Feedback Linearization Technique Explored

This paper presents a feedback linearization control technique as applied to a Roll Simulator. The purpose of the Roll Simulator is to reproduce in-field rollovers of ROVs and study occupant kinematics in a laboratory setting. For a system with known parameters, non-linear dynamics and trajectories, the feedback linearization algorithm cancels out the non-linearities such that the closed-loop dynamics behave in a linear fashion. The control inputs are computed values that are needed to attain certain desired motions. The computed values are a form of inverse dynamics or feed-forward calculation. With increasing system eigenvalue, the controller exhibits greater response time. This, however, puts a greater demand on the translational actuator. The controller also demonstrates that it is able to compensate for and reject a disturbance in force level.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Vehicle Response Data Measured During Severe Maneuvers

During the past few years, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's (NHTSA) Vehicle Research and Test Center has generated a plethora of reliable vehicle test data during their efforts to study vehicle rollover propensity. This paper provides further analyses of a small selection of some of the data. The analyses provided here derive in part from the previous work, trying to answer some of the questions spawned by earlier analyses. The purpose of this paper is to introduce several new concepts to the study of vehicle roll stability and provide case studies using the results available from the NHTSA testing. Results from several severe maneuvers are studied in detail to gain understanding of vehicle response in these cases.
Technical Paper

Automated Steering Controller for Vehicle Testing

Automating road vehicle control can increase the range and reliability of dynamic testing. Some tests, for instance, specify precise steering inputs which human test drivers are only able to approximate, adding uncertainty to the test results. An automated steering system has been developed which is capable of removing these limitations. This system enables any production car or light truck to follow a user-defined path, using global position feedback, or to perform specific steering sequences with excellent repeatability. The system adapts itself to a given vehicle s handling characteristics, and it can be installed and uninstalled quickly without damage or permanent modification to the vehicle.
Journal Article

Design and Operation of a Brake and Throttle Robot

This paper describes the design and implementation of the SEA, Ltd. Brake and Throttle Robot (BTR). Presented are the criteria used in the initial design and the development and testing of the BTR, as well as some test results achieved with the device. The BTR is designed for use in automobiles and light trucks. It is based on a servomotor driven ballscrew, which in turn operates either the brake or accelerator. It is easily portable from one vehicle to another and compact enough to fit even smaller vehicles. The BTR is light enough so as to have minimal effect on the measurement of vehicle parameters. The BTR is designed for use as a stand-alone unit or as part of a larger control system such as the Automated Test Driver (ATD) yet allows for the use of a test driver for safety, as well as test selection, initiation, and monitoring. Installation in a vehicle will be described, as well as electronic components that support the BTR.
Technical Paper

Development of a Computer Controlled Automated Steering Controller

This paper describes the design and development of the hardware, electronics, and software components of a state-of-the-art automated steering controller, the SEA, Ltd. ASC. The function of the ASC is to input to a vehicle virtually any steering profile with both high accuracy and repeatability. The ASC is designed to input profiles having steering rates and timing that are in excess of the limits of a human driver. The ASC software allows the user to specify steering profiles and select controller settings, including motor controller gains, through user-interface windows. This makes it possible for the test driver to change steering profiles and settings immediately after running any test maneuver. The motor controller used in the ASC offers self-contained signal input, output, and data storage capabilities. Thus, the ASC can operate as a standalone steering machine or it can be incorporated into typical existing, on-vehicle data acquisition systems.
Technical Paper

Development of a Method to Assess Vehicle Stability and Controllability in Open and Closed-Loop Maneuvers

This paper describes a method to evaluate vehicle stability and controllability when the vehicle operates in the nonlinear range of lateral dynamics. The method is applied to open-loop steering maneuvers as well as closed-loop path-following maneuvers. Although path-following maneuvers are more representative of real world driving intent, they are usually considered inappropriate for objective assessment because of repeatability and accuracy issues. The automated test driver (ATD) can perform path-following maneuvers accurately and with good repeatability. This paper discusses the usefulness of application of the automated test drivers and path-following maneuvers. The dynamic mode of instability is not directly obtained from measurable outputs such as yawrate and lateral acceleration as in open-loop maneuvers. A few metrics are defined to quantify deviation from desired or ideal behavior in terms of observed “unexpected” lateral force and moment.
Technical Paper

Enhancement of Vehicle Dynamics Model Using Genetic Algorithm and Estimation Theory

A determination of the vehicle states and tire forces is critical to the stability of vehicle dynamic behavior and to designing automotive control systems. Researchers have studied estimation methods for the vehicle state vectors and tire forces. However, the accuracy of the estimation methods is closely related to the employed model. In this paper, tire lag dynamics is introduced in the model. Also application of estimation methods in order to improve the model accuracy is presented. The model is developed by using the global searching algorithm, a Genetic Algorithm, so that the model can be used in the nonlinear range. The extended Kalman filter and sliding mode observer theory are applied to estimate the vehicle state vectors and tire forces. The obtained results are compared with measurements and the outputs from the ADAMS full vehicle model. [15]
Technical Paper

Integration of an Adaptive Control Strategy on an Automated Steering Controller

This paper describes an adaptive control strategy for improving the steering response of an automated vehicle steering controller. In order to achieve repeatable dynamic test results, precise steering inputs are necessary. This strategy provides the controller tuning parameters optimized for a particular vehicle's steering system. Having the capability to adaptively tune the steering controller for any vehicle installation provides an easy method for obtaining precise steering inputs for a wide range of vehicles, from small off-road utility vehicles to passenger vehicles to heavy trucks. The S.E.A. Ltd. Automated Steering Controller (ASC) is used exclusively in conducting this research. By recording the torque input to the steering system by the steering controller and the resulting steering angle during only a single test, the ASC is able to characterize the steering system of the test vehicle and create a computer model with appropriate parameters.
Technical Paper

Measured Vehicle Center-of-Gravity Locations - Including NHTSA's Data Through 2008 NCAP

This paper is a printed listing of public domain vehicle center-of-gravity (CG) location measurements conducted on behalf of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). This paper is an extension of the 1999 SAE paper titled “Measured Vehicle Inertia Parameters - NHTSA's Data Through November 1998” ( 1 ). The previous paper contained data for 496 vehicles. This paper includes data for 528 additional vehicles tested as part of NHTSA's New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) for year 2001 through year 2008 ( 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 ). The previous data included center-of-gravity location and mass moments-of-inertia for nearly all of the entries. The NCAP involves only the CG location measurements; so the vehicles listed in this paper do not have inertia data. This paper provides a brief discussion of the entries provided in the tabular listings as well as the accuracy of CG height measurements.
Technical Paper

Measured Vehicle Inertial Parameters-NHTSA’s Data Through November 1998

This paper is primarily a printed listing of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration’s (NHTSA) Light Vehicle Inertial Parameter Database. This database contains measured vehicle inertial parameters from SAE Paper 930897, “Measured Vehicle Inertial Parameters -NHTSA’s Data Through September 1992” (1), as well as parameters obtained by NHTSA since 1992. The proceeding paper contained 414 entries. This paper contains 82 new entries, for a total of 496. The majority of the entries contain complete vehicle inertial parameters, some of the entries contain tilt table results only, and some entries contain both inertia and tilt table results. This paper provides a brief discussion of the accuracy of inertial measurements. Also included are selected graphs of quantities listed in the database for some of the 1998 model year vehicles tested.
Technical Paper

Methodology for Validating the National Advanced Driving Simulator's Vehicle Dynamics (NADSdyna)

This paper presents an overview of work performed by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's (NHTSA) Vehicle Research and Test Center (VRTC) to test, validate, and improve the planned National Advanced Driving Simulator's (NADS) vehicle dynamics simulation. This vehicle dynamics simulation, called NADSdyna, was developed by the University of Iowa's Center for Computer-Aided Design (CCAD) NADSdyna is based upon CCAD's general purpose, real-time, multi-body dynamics software, referred to as the Real-Time Recursive Dynamics (RTRD), supplemented by vehicle dynamics specific submodules VRTC has “beta tested” NADSdyna, making certain that the software both works as computer code and that it correctly models vehicle dynamics. This paper gives an overview of VRTC's beta test work with NADSdyna. The paper explains the methodology used by VRTC to validate NADSdyna.
Technical Paper

Model Validation of the 2006 BMW 330i for the National Advanced Driving Simulator

This paper presents an evaluation of a complete vehicle dynamics model for a 2006 BMW 330i to be used for the National Advanced Driving Simulator. Vehicle handling and braking are evaluated and simulation results are compared with experimental field-testing. NADSdyna, the National Advanced Driving Simulator vehicle dynamics software, is used. The BMW evaluation covers vehicle directional dynamics that include steady-state, transient, and frequency domain responses. These evaluations are performed with the DSC (Dynamic Stability and Control) turned off to ensure the principle mechanical properties of the vehicle are properly modeled before enabling the electronic stability system. The evaluation also includes simulation runs with DSC turned on for the J-turn and severe lane change maneuvers.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Validation of ABS and RSC Control Algorithms for a 6×4 Tractor and Trailer Models using SIL Simulation

A Software-in-the-Loop (SIL) simulation is presented here wherein control algorithms for the Anti-lock Braking System (ABS) and Roll Stability Control (RSC) system were developed in Simulink. Vehicle dynamics models of a 6×4 cab-over tractor and two trailer combinations were developed in TruckSim and were used for control system design. Model validation was performed by doing various dynamic maneuvers like J-Turn, double lane change, decreasing radius curve, high dynamic steer input and constant radius test with increasing speed and comparing the vehicle responses obtained from TruckSim against field test data. A commercial ESC ECU contains two modules: Roll Stability Control (RSC) and Yaw Stability Control (YSC). In this research, only the RSC has been modeled. The ABS system was developed based on the results obtained from a HIL setup that was developed as a part of this research.
Technical Paper

Powertrain and Brake Modeling of the 1994 Ford Taurus for the National Advanced Driving Simulator

This paper introduces the quasi-static powertrain model for eventual use in the National Advanced Driving Simulator. The 1994 Ford Taurus model is illustrated along with experimental validations; a one-dimensional torque formulation that includes the torque and angular velocity transmitted through the engine, torque converter, automatic transmission gear box, differential, and final drive. A model of the cruise control based on the proportional integrator controller is introduced. The model is able to mimic all basic functions of the speed controller. The load sensitive brake system is modeled with a generic Anti-lock Brake System.
Journal Article

Semitrailer Torsional Stiffness Data for Improved Modeling Fidelity

Vehicle dynamics models employed in heavy truck simulation often treat the semitrailer as a torsionally rigid member, assuming zero deflection along its longitudinal axis as a moment is applied to its frame. Experimental testing, however, reveals that semitrailers do twist, sometimes enough to precipitate rollover when a rigid trailer may have remained upright. Improving the model by incorporating realistic trailer roll stiffness values can improve assessment of heavy truck dynamics, as well as an increased understanding of the effectiveness of stability control systems in limit handling maneuvers. Torsional stiffness measurements were conducted by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) for eight semitrailers of different types, including different length box vans, traditional and spread axle flat beds, and a tanker.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Dynamics Modeling for the National Advanced Driving Simulator of a 1997 Jeep Cherokee

This paper discusses the development of the 1997 Jeep Cherokee model for the National Advanced Driving Simulator's planned vehicle dynamics software, NADSdyna. Recursive rigid body formalism called the Real Time Recursive Dynamics (RTRD) developed by the University of Iowa is used to model the front and rear suspension mechanisms. To complement vehicle dynamics for simulator applications, subsystems that include tires, aerodynamics, powertrain, brake, and steering are added to the rigid body dynamics model. These models provide high fidelity driving realism to simulate severe handling maneuvers in real time. The soundness of the model does not only depend on the mathematics of the model, but also on the validity of the parameters. Therefore, this paper discusses thoroughly the methodology of parameters estimation. A generic model of cruise control is included.
Technical Paper

Vehicle to Vehicle Interaction Maneuvers Choreographed with an Automated Test Driver

Modern passenger cars are being equipped with advanced driver assistance systems such as lane departure warning, collision avoidance systems, adaptive cruise control, etc. Testing for operation and effectiveness of these warning systems involves interaction between vehicles. While dealing with multiple moving vehicles, obtaining discriminatory results is difficult due to the difficulty in minimizing variations in vehicle separation and other parameters. This paper describes test strategies involving an automated test driver interacting with another moving vehicle. The autonomous vehicle controls its state (including position and speed) with respect to the target vehicle. Choreographed maneuvers such as chasing and overtaking can be performed with high accuracy and repeatability that even professional drivers have difficulty achieving. The system is also demonstrated to be usable in crash testing.