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Technical Paper

A Review of Diesel Particulate Control Technology and Emissions Effects - 1992 Horning Memorial Award Lecture

Studies have been conducted at Michigan Technological University (MTU) for over twenty years on methods for characterizing and controlling particulate emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines and the resulting effects on regulated and unregulated emissions. During that time, control technologies have developed in response to more stringent EPA standards for diesel emissions. This paper is a review of: 1) modern emission control technologies, 2) emissions sampling and chemical, physical and biological characterization methods and 3) summary results from recent studies conducted at MTU on heavy-duty diesel engines with a trap and an oxidation catalytic converter (OCC) operated on three different fuels. Control technology developments discussed are particulate traps, catalysts, advances in engine design, the application of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), and modifications of fuel formulations.
Technical Paper

An Experimental and Modeling Study of Reaction Kinetics for a Cu-Zeolite SCR Catalyst Based on Engine Experiments

A high-fidelity multi-step global kinetic Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) model which can predict SCR performance in engine exhaust systems is desirable for optimizing the SCR system, designing on-vehicle control systems and on-board diagnostic (OBD) functions. In this study, a Cu-zeolite SCR catalyst in the exhaust of a 2010 Cummins 6.7L ISB diesel engine was experimentally studied under both steady-state and transient conditions. Steady-state engine tests spanned SCR inlet temperatures from 250 to 400°C with a constant space velocity of 60 khr-1. A 1-D Cu-zeolite model originally developed from reactor data was improved and calibrated to the steady-state engine experimental data. The calibrated model is capable of predicting NO/NO₂ reduction, NH₃ slip, and NH₃ storage associated phenomena.
Technical Paper

Automotive Emissions of Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons

Automotive exhaust emissions of polynuclear aromatic (C16+) hydrocarbons (PNA) were reduced by 65-70% by current emissions control systems and by about 99% by two experimental advanced emission control systems. At a given level of emission control, PNA emission was primarily controlled by fuel PNA content through the transient storage of PNA in engine deposits and their later emission under more severe engine operating conditions. A relatively minor contribution to PNA emission was made by PNA synthesized from lower molecular weight fuel aromatics, particularly C10-C14 aromatics. Deposit-related PNA emissions were linearly correlated with the PNA content of the deposit formation fuel. In comparison with a fuel of field-average PNA content (0.5 ppm benzo(a)pyrene), a field-maximum fuel (3 ppm) contained 4 to 7 times as much of three major PNA species and caused 3 to 5 times higher emissions of these species.
Technical Paper

Cooperative Evaluation of Techniques for Measuring Diesel Exhaust Odor Using the Diesel Odor Analysis System (DOAS)

The CRC-APRAC CAPI-1-64 Odor Panel was formed in 1973 to assess an instrumental measurement system for diesel exhaust odor (DOAS) developed under CRC-APRAC CAPE-7-68 by Arthur D. Little, Inc. Four cooperative studies were conducted by nine participating laboratories using common samples. The objectives of these studies were to define the DOAS system variables and to validate and improve the sampling and collection procedures. A fifth study, serving as a review of each analysis step, showed that analysis of common derived odorant samples could be conducted within acceptable limits by the participating laboratories. Three in-house sampling system design and operating parameter studies were conducted simultaneously with the cooperative work. The combined findings from the in-house and cooperative studies led to a tentative recommended procedure for measuring diesel exhaust odor.
Technical Paper

Cooperative Evaluation of Techniques for Measuring Nitric Oxide and Carbon Monoxide (Phase IV Tests)

This is the fourth in a series of tests conducted as a Coordinating Research Council cooperative program to evaluate the measurement methods used to analyze diesel exhaust gas constituents. A multi-cylinder engine was circulated to 15 participants who measured emissions at three engine conditions. All 15 participants measured nitric oxide and carbon monoxide with several laboratories measuring nitric oxide by both NDIR (Non-Dispersive Infrared) and CHEMI (Chemiluminescence). Some participants also measured carbon dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, oxygen, and unknown span gases. The test results are compared with the Phase III cooperative tests which involved simultaneous measurement of emissions by participants. The precision of the results was poorer in Phase IV than Phase III.
Technical Paper

Design and Computer Simulation of Microprocessor Controlled Lubricating Oil Cooling System for Truck Diesel Engine

A microprocessor controlled lubricating oil cooling system of truck diesel engine was designed to minimize the sump oil temperature fluctuation during start-up and nonsteady engine operations. Model reference adaptive control method is utilized in the control system design. The analysis involved in the design of the microprocessor controlled oil cooling system, and the applications of a special vehicle-engine-cooling system (VEC) computer simulation code in the implementation and testing of the model reference adaptive control strategy are described. Using the VEC simulation code, the performance of the microprocessor controlled oil cooling system and the conventionally controlled oil cooling systems were compared for the ATB, temperature disturbances, and cold weather transient tests. An explanation of each test, as well as a review of the results of comparison tests are presented.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of a Model Based Feedback Controlled Cooling System for Heavy Duty Diesel Truck Applications Using a Vehicle Engine Cooling System Simulation

A thermal management system for heavy duty diesel engines is presented for maintaining acceptable and constant engine temperatures over a wide range of operational conditions. It consists of a computer controlled variable speed coolant pump, a position controlled thermostat, and a model-based control strategy. An experimentally validated, diesel engine cooling system simulation was used to demonstrate the thermal management system's capability to reduce power consumption. The controller was evaluated using a variety of operating scenarios across a wide range of loads, vehicle speeds, and ambient temperatures. Three metrics were used to assess the effects of the computer controlled system: engine temperature, energy savings, and cab temperature. The proposed control system provided very good control over the engine coolant temperatures while maintaining engine metal temperatures within a desired range.
Technical Paper

Development and Evaluation of a Diesel Powered Truck Cooling System Computer Simulation Program

A computer simulation program was developed to simulate the thermal responses of an on-highway, heavy duty diesel powered truck in transient operation for evaluation of cooling system performance. Mathematical models of the engine, heat exchangers, lubricating oil system, thermal control sensors (thermostat and shutterstat), auxiliary components, and the cab were formulated and calibrated to laboratory experimental data. The component models were assembled into the vehicle engine cooling system model and used to predict air-to-boil temperatures. The model has the capability to predict real time coolant, oil and cab temperatures using vehicle simulation input data over various routes.
Technical Paper

Development of the Methodology for Quantifying the 3D PM Distribution in a Catalyzed Particulate Filter with a Terahertz Wave Scanner

Optimizing the performance of the aftertreatment system used on heavy duty diesel engines requires a thorough understanding of the operational characteristics of the individual components. Within this, understanding the performance of the catalyzed particulate filter (CPF), and the development of an accurate CPF model, requires knowledge of the particulate matter (PM) distribution throughout the substrate. Experimental measurements of the PM distribution provide the detailed interactions of PM loading, passive oxidation, and active regeneration. Recently, a terahertz wave scanner has been developed that can non-destructively measure the three dimensional (3D) PM distribution. To enable quantitative comparisons of the PM distributions collected under different operational conditions, it is beneficial if the results can be discussed in terms of the axial, radial, and angular directions.

Emission Control and Fuel Economy for Port and Direct Injected SI Engines

Emission and fuel economy regulations and standards are compelling manufacturers to build ultra-low emission vehicles. As a result, engineers must develop spark-ignition engines with integrated emission control systems that use reformulated low-sulfur fuel. Emission Control and Fuel Economy for Port and Direct Injected SI Engines is a collection of SAE technical papers that covers the fundamentals of gasoline direct injection (DI) engine emissions and fuel economy, design variable effects on HC emissions, and advanced emission control technology and modeling approaches. All papers contained in this book were selected by an accomplished expert as the best in the field; reprinted in their entirety, they present a pathway to integrated emission control systems that meet 2004-2009 EPA standards for light-duty vehicles.
Journal Article

Model-Based Estimation and Control System Development in a Urea-SCR Aftertreatment System

In this paper, a model-based linear estimator and a non-linear control law for an Fe-zeolite urea-selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst for heavy duty diesel engine applications is presented. The novel aspect of this work is that the relevant species, NO, NO2 and NH3 are estimated and controlled independently. The ability to target NH3 slip is important not only to minimize urea consumption, but also to reduce this unregulated emission. Being able to discriminate between NO and NO2 is important for two reasons. First, recent Fe-zeolite catalyst studies suggest that NOx reduction is highly favored by the NO 2 based reactions. Second, NO2 is more toxic than NO to both the environment and human health. The estimator and control law are based on a 4-state model of the urea-SCR plant. A linearized version of the model is used for state estimation while the full nonlinear model is used for control design.
Technical Paper

Physical Size Distribution Characterization of Diesel Particulate Matter and the Study of the Coagulation Process

Diesel particulate matter in both the diluted and undiluted state is subject to the processes of coagulation, condensation or evaporation, and nucleation which causes continuous changes in its physical characteristics. The Electrical Aerosol Analyzer (EAA) is used to measure the diesel particle size distribution in the MTU dilution tunnel for a naturally aspirated direct-injection diesel engine operated on the EPA 13 mode cycle. The design and development of accurate and repeatable sampling methods using the EAA are presented. These methods involve both steady-state tunnel and bag measurements. The data indicate a bimodal nature within the 0.001 to 1 μm range. The first mode termed the “embroynic mode” has a saddle point between 0.005 to 0.015 μm and the second mode termed the “aggregation mode” lies between .08 to .15 μm for the number distribution.
Technical Paper

The Characterization of the Hydrocarbon and Sulfate Fractions of Diesel Particulate Matter

One of the more objectionable aspects of the use of diesel engines has been the emission of particulate matter. A literature review of combustion flames, theoretical calculations and dilution tunnel experiments have been performed to elucidate the chemical and physical processes involved in the formation of diesel particulate matter. A comparative dilution tunnel study of diluted and undiluted total particulate data provided evidence supporting calculations that indicate hydro-carbon condensation should occur in the tunnel at low exhaust temperatures. The sample collection system for the measurement of total particulate matter and soluble sulfate in particulate matter on the EPA 13 mode cycle is presented. A method to correct for hydrocarbon interferences in the EPA barium chloranilate method for the determination of sulfate in particulate matter is discussed.
Technical Paper

The Design and Testing of a Computer-Controlled Cooling System for a Diesel-Powered Truck

The hardware and software for a prototype computer controlled cooling system for a diesel powered truck has been designed and tested. The basic requirements for this system have been defined and the control functions, previously investigated in a study using the computer simulation model, were incorporated into the software. Engine dynamometer tests on the MACK-676 engine, comparing the conventional cooling system and the computer controlled system, showed the following advantages of the computer controlled system: 1. The temperature level to which the engine warms up to at low ambient temperature, was increased. 2. The faster shutter response reduced the temperature peaks and decreased total fan activity time. 3. The faster fan response reduces fan engagement time which should improve truck fuel economy.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Ambient Temperature and Vehicle Load on a Diesel Powered Truck Cooling System Performance Using a Computer Simulation Program

A computer simulation model to predict the thermal responses of an on-highway heavy duty diesel truck in transient operation was used to study several important cooling system design and operating variables. The truck used in this study was an International Harvester COF-9670 cab-over-chassis vehicle equipped with a McCord radiator, Cummins NTC-350 diesel engine, Kysor fan-clutch and shutter system, aftercooler, and standard cab heater and cooling system components. Input data from several portions of a Columbus to Bloomington, Indiana route were used from the Vehicle Mission Simulation (VMS) program to determine engine and vehicle operating conditions for the computer simulation model. The thermostat-fan, thermostat-shutter-fan, and thermostat-winterfront-fan systems were studied.
Technical Paper

Unsteady Vaporization Histories and Trajectories of Fuel Drops Injected into Swirling Air

Single droplet theory is used to simulate the behavior of fuel sprays in high-speed open-chamber diesels. A model for sprays in still air is presented which includes the air motion induced by the spray. Calculated paths and vaporization histories for droplets injected into swirling air are also presented. It is shown that the paths of vaporizing drops are closely approximated by solid sphere calculations. The effects of swirl speed, engine rpm, and squish air motion are also investigated.
Technical Paper

Variability in Particle Emission Measurements in the Heavy Duty Transient Test

A study of the sources of variability in particulate measurements using the Heavy-Duty Transient Test (40 CFR Subpart N) has been conducted. It consisted of several phases: a critical examination of the test procedures, visits to representative facilities to compare and contrast facility designs and test procedures, and development of a simplified model of the systems and procedures used for the Heavy-Duty Transient Test. Some of the sources of variability include; thermophoretic deposition of particulate matter onto walls of the sampling system followed by subsequent reentrainment in an unpredictable manner, the influence of dilution and cooling upon the soluble organic fraction, inconsistency among laboratories in the engine and dynamometer control strategies, and errors in measurements of flows into and out of the secondary dilution tunnel.