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Technical Paper

2000 HP Tractor-Trailer for the 21st Century

2002-11-18
2002-01-3141
This paper presents the conceptual design of a high-power, high-speed tractor-trailer for severe duty applications. Design of the tractor-trailer introduces several new concepts, including the general vehicle architecture, a new electrical transmission system and a new electric tandem axle. The vehicle architecture consists of a low drag cab concept with a fully integrated turbo-generator power source, an exhaust gas electric decontamination system and auxiliaries. The electric transmission introduces a new combination of electrical machines and power electronics designed to perform under maximum load with minimum dimension, weight and price. The electric tandem axle is a new concept of an all-wheel steering independent suspension with virtual electromagnetic differential.
Technical Paper

A Control-Oriented Carbon Canister Model

1999-03-01
1999-01-1103
Carbon canisters have been adapted for automobile use since the early 1970s to control evaporative emissions. Stringent emission regulations and the requirement for an enhanced evaporative emissions test procedure, make this an important issue. The air and evaporative fuel from the carbon canister therefore need important consideration with respect to air to fuel ratio (AFR) control and idle by-pass air control. Although a few complex models of the activated carbon canister have been developed, a control-oriented, simplistic carbon canister model needs to be developed. This paper explores the control-oriented modeling of a canister purge air system along with the on-line estimation of evaporative fuel loading of the activated carbon. An attempt was made at providing an analytical expression for the evaporative fuel and air entering the intake manifold.
Technical Paper

A Fuzzy Decision-Making System for Automotive Application

1998-02-23
980519
Fault diagnosis for automotive systems is driven by government regulations, vehicle repairability, and customer satisfaction. Several methods have been developed to detect and isolate faults in automotive systems, subsystems and components with special emphasis on those faults that affect the exhaust gas emission levels. Limit checks, model-based, and knowledge-based methods are applied for diagnosing malfunctions in emission control systems. Incipient and partial faults may be hard to detect when using a detection scheme that implements any of the previously mentioned methods individually; the integration of model-based and knowledge-based diagnostic methods may provide a more robust approach. In the present paper, use is made of fuzzy residual evaluation and of a fuzzy expert system to improve the performance of a fault detection method based on a mathematical model of the engine.
Technical Paper

A Method for the Characterization of Off-Road Terrain Severity

2006-10-31
2006-01-3498
Highway and roadway surface measurement is a practice that has been ongoing for decades now. This sort of measurement is intended to ensure a safe level of road perturbances. The measurement may be conducted by a slow moving apparatus directly measuring the elevation of the road, at varying distance intervals, to obtain a road profile, with varying degrees of resolution. An alternate means is to measure the surface roughness at highway speeds using accelerometers coupled with high speed distance measurements, such as laser sensors. Vehicles out rigged with such a system are termed inertial profilers. This type of inertial measurement provides a sort of filtered roadway profile. Much research has been conducted on the analysis of highway roughness, and the associated metrics involved. In many instances, it is desirable to maintain an off-road course such that the course will provide sufficient challenges to a vehicle during durability testing.
Technical Paper

A Statistical Approach to Assess the Impact of Road Events on PHEV Performance using Real World Data

2011-04-12
2011-01-0875
Plug in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have gained interest over last decade due to their increased fuel economy and ability to displace some petroleum fuel with electricity from power grid. Given the complexity of this vehicle powertrain, the energy management plays a key role in providing higher fuel economy. The energy management algorithm on PHEVs performs the same task as a hybrid vehicle energy management but it has more freedom in utilizing the battery energy due to the larger battery capacity and ability to be recharged from the power grid. The state of charge (SOC) profile of the battery during the entire driving trip determines the electric energy usage, thus determining overall fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

A Survey of Automotive Diagnostic Equipment and Procedures

1993-03-01
930769
The introduction of advanced electronic controls in passenger vehicles over the last decade has made traditional diagnostic methods inadequate to satisfy on- and off-board diagnostic needs. Due to the complexity of today's automotive control systems, it is imperative that appropriate diagnostic tools be developed that are capable of satisfying current and projected service and on-board requirements. The performance of available diagnostic and test equipment is still amenable to further improvement, especially as it pertains to the diagnosis of incipient and intermittent faults. It is our contention that significant improvement is possible in these areas. This paper briefly summarizes the evolution of on- and off-board diagnostic tools documented in the published literature, with the aim of giving the reader an understanding of their capabilities and limitations, and it further proposes alternative solutions that may be adopted as a basis for an advanced diagnostic instrument.
Technical Paper

A U.S. Perspective of Plug-in Hybrids and an Example of Sizing Study, Prototype Development and Validation of Hybridized FC-NEV with Bi-directional Grid Inter-connect for Sustainable Local Transportation

2006-09-14
2006-01-3001
There is increasing interest in the use of alternative fuels for transportation, due to the increasing cost of petroleum based fuels. One possible alternative to the use of petroleum for transportation is to use electric grid power. This paper explores a possible design solution based on a plug-in fuel cell hybrid. A scaled down version of FC-HEV that is applicable to this concept, has been implemented as a proof of concept with fast prototyping toolkits, including a 32 bit micro processor, Matlab/Simulink software and an embedded system development kit. The resulting prototype vehicle demonstrated a high gasoline equivalent MPG as well as a successful functionality of micro grid power generation.
Technical Paper

AFR Control on a Single Cylinder Engine Using the Ionization Current

1998-02-23
980203
Over the years numerous researchers have suggested that the ionization current signal carries within it combustion relevant information. The possibility of using this signal for diagnostics and control provides motivation for continued research in this area. To be able to use the ion current signal for feedback control a reliable estimate of some combustion related parameter is necessary and therein lies the difficulty. Given the nature of the ion current signal this is not a trivial task. Fei An et al. [1] employed PCA for feature extraction and then used these feature vectors to design a neural network based classifier for the estimation of air to fuel ratio (AFR). Although the classifier predicted AFR with sufficient reliability, a major draw back was that the ion current signals used for prediction were averaged signals thus precluding a cycle to cycle estimate of AFR.
Journal Article

Adaptive Energy Management Strategy Calibration in PHEVs Based on a Sensitivity Study

2013-09-08
2013-24-0074
This paper presents a sensitivity analysis-based study aimed at robustly calibrating the parameters of an adaptive energy management strategy designed for a Plugin Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV). The supervisory control is developed from the Pontryagin's Minimum Principle (PMP) approach and applied to a model of a GM Chevrolet Volt vehicle. The proposed controller aims at minimizing the fuel consumption of the vehicle over a given driving mission, by achieving a blended discharge strategy over the entire cycle. The calibration study is conducted over a wide set of driving conditions and it generates a look-up table and two constant values for the three controller parameters to be used in the in-vehicle implementation. Finally, the calibrated adaptive control strategy is validated against real driving cycles showing the effectiveness of the calibration approach.
Technical Paper

Air-Fuel Ratio Control for a High Performance Engine using Throttle Angle Information

1999-03-01
1999-01-1169
This paper presents the development of a model-based air/fuel ratio controller for a high performance engine that uses, in addition to other usual signals, the throttle angle to enable predictive air mass flow rate estimation. The objective of the paper is to evaluate the possibility to achieve a finer air/fuel ratio control during transients that involve sudden variations in the physical conditions inside the intake manifold, due, for example, to fast throttle opening or closing actions. The air mass flow rate toward the engine cylinders undertakes strong variation in such transients, and its correct estimation becomes critical mainly because of the time lag between its evaluation and the instant when the air actually enters the cylinders.
Technical Paper

An 1800 HP, Street Legal Corvette: An Introduction to the AWD Electrically-Variable Transmission

2005-04-11
2005-01-1169
New vehicle technologies open up a vast number of new options for the designer, removing traditional constraints. Though hybrid powertrains have thus far been implemented chiefly to improve the fuel economy of already economical passenger cars, hybrid technology may have even more to offer in a performance vehicle. In the year when the C6 Corvette and two large GM hybrid projects have been unveiled, a new case study looks to combine these ideas and explore the performance limits for the next generation high performance sports car. Through an innovative transmission concept and thoughtful packaging, the next generation Corvette could enhance a 600 HP spark-ignited V-8 (supercharged LS2) with 1200 HP from electric machines, and still meet current emission standards. Such immense tractive power, however, would be useless without an intelligent means of delivering this power to the wheels.
Technical Paper

An Application of Crabon Canister Modeling to Air Fuel Ratio Control and Idle By-Pass Control

1999-03-01
1999-01-1093
Due to the stringent emission regulations, On-Board Diagnostics II (OBD II) and the requirement of enhanced evaporative emissions test procedure, an aggressive canister purge control strategy is required for automotive vehicles. The enhanced evaporative emissions test procedure has forced car manufacturer to purge the carbon canister in the vehicle idle condition so that production vehicles meet the SHED and hot soak test requirements. This not only worsens the idle speed quality but also tends to increase exhaust emission levels. Using analytical models of evaporative air and fuel, feed-forward control strategy for both idle by-pass air and air to fuel ratio can be improved. This paper demonstrates an application of evaporative system modeling to the idle air and air to fuel ratio control.
Technical Paper

An Electric Traction Platform for Military Vehicles

2004-03-08
2004-01-1583
This paper shall present the design and development of a family of high power, high-speed transport and combat vehicles based on a common module. The system looks to maximize performance at both high-speed operation and low-speed, heavy/severe-duty operation. All-wheel drive/steer-by-wire autonomous traction modules provide the basis for the vehicle family. Each module can continuously develop 300-400 kW of power at the wheels and has nearly double peak capability, exploiting the flexibility of the electric traction system. The maximum starting tractive effort developed by one module can reach 10-15 tons, and the full rated power can be produced at speeds of 100 mph. This paper will present the design and layout of the autonomous modules. Details will be provided about the tandem electric axles, with electric differentials and independent steering.
Technical Paper

An Improved Design of a Vehicle Based Off-Road Terrain Profile Measurement System

2008-10-07
2008-01-2655
This paper discusses an improved design of a vehicle-based mobile off-road terrain profile measurement system. The proposed system includes an apparatus of sensors and on-board data acquisition hardware, equipped on a platform vehicle used to measure and record the relevant data while the vehicle travels through the off-road or terrain surface to be surveyed. A unique post-processing algorithm is then used to derive the elevation profile based on the collected data. The derived elevation profile data could be used to characterize the roughness of an off-road testing course or perform a general geographical survey or mapping. The major technical issue addressed in this system is to eliminate the effect of platform vehicle vibration on sensor measurement which if left unaddressed will result in large measurement error due to high amplitude pitch and roll movements of the platform vehicle.
Journal Article

An Iterative Markov Chain Approach for Generating Vehicle Driving Cycles

2011-04-12
2011-01-0880
For simulation and analysis of vehicles there is a need to have a means of generating drive cycles which have properties similar to real world driving. A method is presented which uses measured vehicle speed from a number of vehicles to generate a Markov chain model. This Markov chain model is capable of generating drive cycles which match the statistics of the original data set. This Markov model is then used in an iterative fashion to generate drive cycles which match constraints imposed by the user. These constraints could include factors such number of stops, total distance, average speed, or maximum speed. In this paper, systematic analysis was done for a PHEV fleet which consists of 9 PHEVs that were instrumented using data loggers for a period of approximately two years. Statistical analysis using principal component analysis and a clustering approach was carried out for the real world velocity profiles.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Automotive Damper Data and Design of a Portable Measurement System

2005-04-11
2005-01-1043
This paper reviews existing approaches to the estimation of the state of wear of an automotive damper, with the aim of developing a methodology for a quick and effective diagnostic procedure that could be carried out in any repair facility. It has always been desirable to leave the shock absorber in place at the time of such testing, and there are three general procedures that claim to be effective at determining damper wear. This research investigates a method of controlling a short drop of each corner of the vehicle while measuring the acceleration. The acceleration data is then analyzed with the aim of estimating the decay rate of the resulting oscillation, which is known to be related to the damping ratio of the suspension system. The rate of decay is then used to infer the condition of the vehicles damper. The paper reviews the state of the art, describes the methodology and presents experimental validation of a new concept.
Technical Paper

Application of Model-Based Design Techniques for the Control Development and Optimization of a Hybrid-Electric Vehicle

2009-04-20
2009-01-0143
Model-based design is a collection of practices in which a system model is at the center of the development process, from requirements definition and system design to implementation and testing. This approach provides a number of benefits such as reducing development time and cost, improving product quality, and generating a more reliable final product through the use of computer models for system verification and testing. Model-based design is particularly useful in automotive control applications where ease of calibration and reliability are critical parameters. A novel application of the model-based design approach is demonstrated by The Ohio State University (OSU) student team as part of the Challenge X advanced vehicle development competition. In 2008, the team participated in the final year of the competition with a highly refined hybrid-electric vehicle (HEV) that uses a through-the-road parallel architecture.
Technical Paper

Application of the Extended Kalman Filter to a Planar Vehicle Model to Predict the Onset of Jackknife Instability

2004-03-08
2004-01-1785
The widely used Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) is applied to a planar model of an articulated vehicle to predict jackknifing events. The states of hitch angle and hitch angle rate are estimated using a vehicle model and the available or “measured” states of lateral acceleration and yaw rate from the prime mover. Tuning, performance, and compromises for the EKF in this application are discussed. This application of the EKF is effective in predicting the onset of instability for an articulated vehicle under low-μ and low-load conditions. These conditions have been shown to be most likely to render heavy articulated vehicles vulnerable to jackknife instability. Options for model refinements are also presented.
Technical Paper

Applications of Precise Crankshaft Position Measurements for Engine Testing, Control and Diagnosis

1989-02-01
890885
This paper presents several applications of a precise, moderate sampling rate measurement of the crankshaft angular position of a reciprocating IC engine. It is shown that the measurement can be made with a relatively inexpensive noncontacting sensor. Given sufficient precision and sampling rate, the various applications include: crankshaft reference position measurements for ignition timing (gasoline fueled engines), or injector timing (for electronically controlled diesel engines); crankshaft angular speed and acceleration measurements for estimating instantaneous indicated torque, and for diagnosing engine malfunctions. The torque estimate is potentially useful for engine control, to improve engine performance with respect to reducing cycle to cycle and cylinder to cylinder nonuniformity, and with respect to fuel economy.
Technical Paper

Cleaner Diesel Using Model-Based Design and Advanced Aftertreatment in a Student Competition Vehicle

2008-04-14
2008-01-0868
Traditionally in the United States, Diesel engines have negative connotations, primarily due to their association with heavy duty trucks, which are wrongly characterized as “dirty.” Diesel engines are more energy efficient and produce less carbon dioxide than gasoline engines, but their particulate and NOx emissions are more difficult to reduce than spark ignition engines. To tackle this problem, a number of after-treatment technologies are available, such as Diesel Lean NOx Traps (LNTs)), which reduces oxides of nitrogen, and the Diesel particulate filter (DPF), which reduces particulate matter. Sophisticated control techniques are at the heart of these technologies, thus making Diesel engines run cleaner. Another potentially unattractive aspect of Diesel engines is noise.
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