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Technical Paper

Impact Response of Restrained PMHS in Frontal Sled Tests: Skeletal Deformation Patterns Under Seat Belt Loading

This study evaluated the response of restrained post-mortem human subjects (PMHS) in 40 km/h frontal sled tests. Eight male PMHS were restrained on a rigid planar seat by a custom 3-point shoulder and lap belt. A video motion tracking system measured three-dimensional trajectories of multiple skeletal sites on the torso allowing quantification of ribcage deformation. Anterior and superior displacement of the lower ribcage may have contributed to sternal fractures occurring early in the event, at displacement levels below those typically considered injurious, suggesting that fracture risk is not fully described by traditional definitions of chest deformation. The methodology presented here produced novel kinematic data that will be useful in developing biofidelic human models.
Technical Paper

Interlaboratory Study of Proposed Compliance Test Protocol for Wheelchair Tiedown and Occupant Restraint Systems

To provide effective occupant protection for people who ride in motor vehicles while seated in wheelchairs, products are required that both secure the wheelchair and restrain the occupant. An international effort to develop dynamic test standards for these products has produced a compliance test protocol that includes specification of the sled deceleration-time history, the crash pulse corridor. An interlaboratory study was conducted to determine if the crash pulse corridor was sufficiently defined to produce acceptably low variation in the test results. The study, that involved four labs each replicating the same sled test three times, produced consistent results. The study results suggest that a reasonably precise compliance test protocol can be defined using a crash pulse corridor that is generously drawn to accommodate rather large differences in sled crash pulse shapes.