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Standard

A Power Usage Metric For Rotorcraft Power Train Transmissions

2014-09-30
WIP
AIR6334
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) examines the need for and the application of a power train usage metric that can be used to more accurately determine the TBO for helicopter transmissions. It provides a formula for the translation of the recorded torque history into mechanical usage. It provides examples of this process and recommends a way forward. This document of the SAE HM-1 IVHM Committee is not intended as a legal document and does not provide detailed implementation steps, but does address general implementation concerns and potential benefits.
Standard

Applicable Aircraft Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) Regulations, Policy, and Guidance

2019-01-14
CURRENT
AIR6900
This AIR lists and describes a collection of regulations, policy, and guidance documents applicable to design approval applicants, aircraft operating certificate holders, and maintenance repair and overhaul (MRO) organizations. The aircraft industry should consider these rules when installing IVHM technology for use in aircraft maintenance. This is a starting basis and should not be considered as complete when certification of an IVHM system is expected. The AIR’s objectives are: 1 To set the foundation for aircraft certification applicants seeking to design IVHM solutions as part of the type certificate (TC), supplemental type certificate (STC), amended TC, or amended STC activities; and 2 To set the foundation for aircraft operating certificate holders to engage with regulators to get authorization for using IVHM applications as part of an aircraft maintenance program. NOTE: This AIR’s scope is limited to the United States (U.S.)
Standard

Atmospheric Corrosion Monitoring Informational Report

2019-02-11
WIP
AIR6970
This Aerospace Informational Report (AIR) provides guidance on existing environmental and corrosion monitoring technologies for service environments, focusing on parameters of interest, sensing technologies, existing measurement platforms, deployment requirements, and data processing techniques. Non-destructive evaluation tools are not within the scope of this report. The principal motivation of the document is to facilitate users in the specification, selection, and use of monitoring systems for assessing atmospheric corrosion in aerospace applications. The sensors and monitoring systems provide continuous time-based records of: 1) environmental parameters such as temperature, humidity, and contaminants; 2) measures of alloy corrosion; and 3) protective coating performance.
Standard

Condition Based Maintenance (CBM) Recommended Practices

2019-04-03
WIP
JA1013
The scope of this document is to clearly lay out the path for an organization to implement a CBM approach to maintenance. The practices will include both CBM in design and in the support phase for fielded equipment.
Standard

Data Interoperability for IVHM

2018-03-16
WIP
AIR6904
In order to realize the benefits of Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) within the aerospace and defense industry there is a need to address five critical elements of data interoperability within and across the aircraft maintenance ecosystem, namely • Approach • Trust • Context • Value • Security In Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) data interoperability is the ability of different authorized components, systems, IT, software, applications and organizations to securely communicate, exchange data, interpret data, use the information and derive consistent insight from the data that has been exchanged to derive value.
Standard

Design & Run-Time Information Exchange for Health-Ready Components

2018-04-02
CURRENT
JA6268_201804
This Surface Vehicle & Aerospace Recommended Practice offers best practices and a methodology by which IVHM functionality relating to components and subsystems should be integrated into vehicle or platform level applications. The intent of the document is to provide practitioners with a structured methodology for specifying, characterizing and exposing the inherent IVHM functionality of a component or subsystem using a common functional reference model, i.e., through the exchange of design-time data and the application of standard vehicle data communications interfaces. This document includes best practices and guidance related to the specification of the information that must be exchanged between the functional layers in the IVHM system or between lower-level components/subsystems and the higher-level control system to enable health monitoring and tracking of system degradation severity.
Standard

Determination of Cost Benefits from Implementing an Integrated Vehicle Health Management System

2014-07-07
CURRENT
ARP6275
This ARP provides insights on how to perform a cost benefit analysis (CBA) to determine the return on investment that would result from implementing an integrated Health Management (HM) system on an air vehicle. The word “integrated” refers to the combination or “roll up” of sub-systems health management tools to create a platform centric system. The document describes the complexity of features that can be considered in the analysis, the different tools and approaches for conducting a CBA and differentiates between military and commercial applications. This document is intended to help those who might not necessarily have a deep technical understanding or familiarity with HM systems but want to either quantify or understand the economic benefits (i.e., the value proposition) that a HM system could provide.
Standard

Guidelines for the Development of Architectures for Integrated Vehicle Health Management Systems

2013-12-19
WIP
ARP6290
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) provides best practices and guidance for creating an architecture for integrated vehicle health management systems. Where possible, this document will also provide references to tools to conduct architectural trades. Finally, this document will provide use cases to expose considerations and stakeholders to be included in these trades and utilization of an IVHM system (which may lead to new functional or non-functional requirements).
Standard

Guidelines for writing IVHM requirements for aerospace systems

2012-01-17
WIP
ARP6883
A rough outline of the document is as follows: 1. Introduction to IVHM and rationale for the document 2. Identification of different (internal and external) stakeholders. Customers, maintenance personnel, sales and marketing and finance. Systems designers, RM&S experts, etc. Need to link requirements to design rationale, including a cost-benefit-analysis. 3. Requirements breakdown structures, from high level system requirements to lower level sub-system requirements, and finally down to component specifications. 4. Links to other systems engineering processes such as V&V, architecture design, program milestones, etc. 5. Examples of good and bad requirement practices. Maybe individual case studies or an example of an entire system. 6. Conclusions.
Standard

Health and Usage Monitoring Metrics Monitoring the Monitor

2008-02-19
CURRENT
ARP5783
This recommended practice applies to vibration monitoring systems for rotorcraft and fixed-wing drive trains, airframes, propulsion systems, electric power generators, and flight control systems. It addresses all aspects of metrics, including what to measure, how to measure, and how to evaluate the results.
Standard

Health and Usage Monitoring System Accelerometer Interface Specification

2002-12-12
HISTORICAL
AS5391
Accelerometers are transducers, or sensors, that convert acceleration into an electrical signal which can be used for vibration monitoring and analysis. This document defines interface requirements for accelerometers and associated interfacing electronics for use in a helicopter Health and Usage Monitoring System (HUMS). The purpose is to standardize the accelerometer-to-electronics interface with the intent of increasing interchangeability among HUMS sensors/systems and reducing the cost of HUMS accelerometers. Although this interface was specified with an internally amplified piezoelectric accelerometer in mind, this does not preclude the use of any other sensor technology that meets the requirements given in this specification. These SAE HUMS Interface Specifications include the minimal interface and performance requirements for interoperability with the Rotorcraft Industry Technology Association (RITA) compliant HUMS.
Standard

Helicopter Health and Usage Monitoring System Accelerometer Interface Specification

2016-06-16
CURRENT
AS5391A
Accelerometers are transducers, or sensors, that convert acceleration into an electrical signal that can be used for airframe, drive, and propulsion system vibration monitoring and analysis within vehicle health and usage monitoring systems. This document defines interface requirements for accelerometers and associated interfacing electronics for use in a helicopter Health and Usage Monitoring System (HUMS). The purpose is to standardize the accelerometer-to-electronics interface with the intent of increasing interchangeability among HUMS sensors/systems and reducing the cost of HUMS accelerometers. Although this interface was specified with an internally amplified piezoelectric accelerometer in mind for Airframe and Drive Train accelerometers, this does not preclude the use of piezoelectric accelerometer with remote charge amplifier or any other sensor technology that meets the requirements given in this specification.
Standard

Human Factor Considerations in the Implementation of IVHM

2018-03-16
WIP
AIR6915
This Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) offers best practice regarding the implementation of IVHM systems taking into account Human Factors, both the vehicle crew and the maintenance staff. The document will include considerations regarding both military and civil fixed wing aircraft. Safety implications will also be addressed.
Standard

IVHM Concepts, Technology and Implementation Overview

2016-03-16
CURRENT
ARP6803
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) examines a comprehensive construct of an Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) capability. This document provides a top-level view of the concepts, technology, and implementation practices associated with IVHM. This keystone document of the SAE HM-1 Committee is not intended as a legal document and does not provide detailed implementation steps, but does address general implementation concerns and potential benefits. Figure 1 provides a document flow map of the documents currently in work or planned by the Committee. The documents shown below will provide the recommended practices for IVHM implementation. This document map reflects the current SAE IVHM document configuration as of the date of publication. Future documents that are released will be included in the flow map in future updates of this document. An indication of the scope of IVHM is diagrammed in Figure 2.
Standard

IVHM Design Guidelines

2019-07-29
CURRENT
ARP6407
This Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) provides guidance for the design of an integrated vehicle health management (IVHM) capability that will extend the vehicle’s inherent design to enable health management of the platform and its components. This guidance is technology-independent; the principles are generally applicable to the majority of potential IVHM design scenarios, including “clean sheet” system design, where IVHM is considered as a primary design consideration, and the retrofit design, where existing systems are modified and leveraged with the IVHM capability. In either case, this ARP provides guidance for designing the IVHM capability from the feasibility assessment to the conceptual design analysis and to the development design phases, with considerations given to trade studies, metrics, and life cycle impacts.
Standard

Prognostics and Health Management Guidelines for Electro-Mechanical Actuators

2017-09-21
WIP
AIR8012
The purpose of the document is to provide the guidelines of the technological approach for developing a PHM system for EMAs with particular reference to their possible use as primary flight control actuators. It provides a basic description of the physics of the most common degradation processes,a reliability assessment and a discussion on the signals, with the associated data processing, required to build up an effective health monitoring system.
Standard

Software Interfaces for Ground-Based Monitoring Systems

2003-02-10
CURRENT
AS4831A
To establish a specification for software input and output interfaces for condition monitoring and performance programs used to monitor equipment from multiple manufacturers. The purpose of standardizing these interfaces is to improve operational flexibility and efficiency of monitoring systems as an aid to cost effectiveness (e.g., easier implementation).
Standard

Using a System Reliability Model to Optimize Maintenance Costs A Best Practices Guide

2013-05-16
HISTORICAL
JA6097_201305
SAE JA6097 (“Using a System Reliability Model to Optimize Maintenance”) shows how to determine which maintenance to perform on a system when that system requires corrective maintenance to achieve the lowest long-term operating cost. While this document may focus on applications to Jet Engines and Aircraft, this methodology could be applied to nearly any type of system. However, it would be most effective for systems that are tightly integrated, where a failure in any part of the system causes the entire system to go off-line, and the process of accessing a failed component can require additional maintenance on other unrelated components.
Standard

Using a System Reliability Model to Optimize Maintenance Costs A Best Practices Guide

2019-05-07
CURRENT
JA6097_201905
SAE JA6097 (“Using a System Reliability Model to Optimize Maintenance”) shows how to determine which maintenance to perform on a system when that system requires corrective maintenance to achieve the lowest long-term operating cost. While this document may focus on applications to Jet Engines and Aircraft, this methodology could be applied to nearly any type of system. However, it would be most effective for systems that are tightly integrated, where a failure in any part of the system causes the entire system to go off-line, and the process of accessing a failed component can require additional maintenance on other unrelated components.
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