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Technical Paper

A Before and After Study of the Change to Unleaded Gasoline-Test Results from EPA and Other Cycles

A fleet of 50, 1986-1987 model year cars designed for unleaded gasoline has been tested on the road and on a chassis dynamometer over 5 driving cycles and a wide range of other manoeuvres including steady speeds. It was found that the fuel consumption of this fleet was 17 to 23% (depending on test cycle) less than that of a corresponding fleet to leaded fuelled cars of 1980 model year average. Exhaust emissions were significantly lowered in the range of 45 to 93%. However trend line analysis of the several data sets indicates that the ULG fleet has about 6% higher fuel consumption than would have been expected if there had been a continuing evolution of leaded vehicle technology. The data base produced has applicability to a wide range of planning and design tasks, and those illustrated indicate the effects of speed limit changes and advisory speed signs on fuel consumption and emissions.
Technical Paper

Car Fuel Efficiency-Where Next

A validated model which attributes fuel consumption to 11 components of a vehicle's energy loss, has been applied to investigate the benefits from improvements in design parameters which can reduce fuel use. Sensitivity analysis of a large, family sized car, gives the ranked order of design variables for improving fuel consumption as: vehicle mass, idle fuel rate or engine friction (or both) and rolling resistance for urban driving. Amongst the remaining parameters aerodynamic drag is lowly ranked but, in highway driving, it ranks first along with vehicle mass and rolling resistance, thus indicating that the proportion of urban to highway driving, which will vary from country to country is important. Driving conditions should be optimised along with vehicle design for best energy conservation and greenhouse gas mitigation.
Technical Paper

Changes to Fim-Motogp Rules to Reduce Costs and Make Racing More Directly Relevant to Road Motorcycle Development

The specific power densities and therefore the level of sophistication and costs of FIM-MOTOGP engines 800 cm3 in capacity have reached levels similar to those of the traditionally much more expensive FIA-Formula One engines and some racing developments have no application at all in the development of production bikes. The aim of the paper is therefore to review FIM-MOTOGP engine rules and make recommendations that could reduce costs and make racing more directly relevant to the development of production bikes while enhancing the significant interest in technical innovation by the sports' fans.
Technical Paper

Development of a Lubrication Model for the CMC Scotch Yoke Mechanism

This paper presents some of the modelling and experimental work being carried out at the University of Melbourne, in collaboration with CMC Research, on their new Scotch yoke engine concept. It begins with an overview of the engine, its compactness and friction advantages. The development of a one dimensional ‘squeeze film’ model is outlined and some simulation results are presented for both a motored and fired engine. A novel feature of the model is the introduction of an ‘un-filled factor’ to account for the dynamics of the oil film volume particular to this type of linear bearing. Experimental results are presented to highlight the important features and serve as a means of validating the model predictions. Comparisons show that the squeeze model correlates reasonably well with the experimental data and it is concluded that the current, flat, bearing design works by a predominantly squeeze film mechanism.
Technical Paper

Effects of a Wide Range of Drive Cycles on the Emissions from Vehicles of Three Levels of Technology

Exhaust emission tests were performed on a fleet of vehicles comprising a range of engine technology from leaded fuel control methods to closed loop three-way catalyst meeting 1992 U.S. standards but marketed in Australia. Each vehicle was tested to 5 different driving cycles including the FTP cycles and steady speed driving. Research had shown that for hot-start operation the major driving pattern parameters which influence fuel consumption and exhaust emissions are average speed and PKE (the positive acceleration kinetic energy per unit distance). Plots from analysis of micro-trip fuel use and emissions rates from the test cycles may be presented as contours in PKE. It follows that the micro trip emissions from a range of driving cycles including, regulated e.g. FTP city and unregulated e.g. LA-92, recently developed EPA cycles or from other cities e.g. Bangkok can be superimposed.
Technical Paper

Performance Comparison of Engine Down-Sized to High Efficieincy ICEs in Optimized Hybrid Vehicles

A real time energy management (EMS) optimizing algorithm is introduced that performs similar to offline dynamic programming (DP) for parallel HEVs. The EMS and the DP are compared, especially with the addition of a local hill climbing technique, to the example performance prediction of the fuel consumption of a 1.67 tonne large car using a 50 kW Honda Insight engine (representing 65% power reduction from standard) as reference. Then the performance of the vehicle in HEV mode, with a parallel 30 kW motor/generator is examined. The average improvement of this vehicle over five drive cycles from around the world is about 50% reduction in fuel consumption. Next the engine is replaced with an advanced SI turbocharged engine with assisted ignition which returns the performance to that expected of this class of car i.e. 0-100 km/h acceleration time of 7 s. This results in a 14% average reduction in fuel consumption across the five cycles compared with the base Honda engine.
Technical Paper

The Systematic Evaluation of Twelve LP Gas Fuels for Emissions and Fuel Consumption

The effects on bi-fuel car exhaust emissions, fuel consumption and acceleration performance of a range of LPG fuels has been determined. The LPGs tested included those representing natural gas condensate and oil refineries' products to include a spectrum of C3:C4 and paraffiinic:olefinic mixtures. The overall conclusions are that exhaust emissions from the gaseous fuels for the three-way catalyst equipped cars tested were lower than for gasoline. For all the LPGs, CO2 equivalent emissions are reduced by 7% to 10% or more compared with gasoline. The cars' acceleration performance indicates that there was no sacrifice in acceleration times to various speeds, with any gaseous fuel in these OEM developed cars.