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Technical Paper

Achievement of Stable and Clean Combustion Over a Wide Operating Range in a Spark-Assisted IDI Diesel Engine with Neat Ethanol

1984-02-01
840517
Spark-assisted diesel engines operated with alcohol fuels usually display misfiring or knocking problems. This paper presents an analysis of the factors influencing the ignition characteristics of ethanol in a swirl chamber diesel engine with a multi-spark ignitor. In the experiments, cycle-to-cycle combustion variations and the degree of knocking were investigated by changing engine parameters over a wide operating range. The results of the investigations showed that stable ignition and smooth combustion is achieved when a flammable mixture is formed in the vicinity of the spark plug when only a small amount of the injected fuel has evaporated. By optimizing the design factors, operation with high efficiency and low exhaust emissions was achieved.
Technical Paper

Catalytic Effects of Metallic Fuel Additives on Oxidation Characteristics of Trapped Diesel Soot

1988-09-01
881224
The oxidations of Crapped diesel soots containing catalytic metals such as Ca, Ba, Fe, or Ni were characterized through thermogravimetric analysis with a thermobalance. Soot particles were generated by a single cylinder IDI diesel engine with metallic fuel additives. A two-stage oxidation process was observed with the metalcontalning soots. It was found that the first stage of oxidation is catalytically promoted by metal additives resulting in an enhanced reaction rate and a reduced activation energy. Soot reduction in the rapid first stage increases with increases in metal content. Soots containing Ba and Ca are oxidized most rapidly due to the larger reduction during the first stage. The second stage of oxidation is also slightly promoted by metal addition. The ignition temperature of the collected soot is substantially reduced by the metal additives.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Diesel Soot Suppression with Soluble Fuel Additives

1987-09-01
871612
Experiments on a large number of soluble fuel additives were systematically conducted for diesel soot reduction. It was found that Ca and Ba were the most effective soot suppressors. The main determinants of soot reduction were: the metal mol-content of the fuel, the excess air factor, and the gas turbulence in the combustion chamber. The soot reduction ratio was expressed by an exponential function of the metal mol-content in the fuel, depending on the metal but independent of the metal compound. A rise in excess air factor or gas turbulence increased the value of a coefficient in the function, resulting in larger reductions in soot with the fuel additives. High-speed soot sampling from the cylinder showed that with the metal additive, the soot concentration in the combustion chamber was substantially reduced during the whole period of combustion. It is thought that the additive acts as a catalyst not only to improve soot oxidation but also to suppress soot formation.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Unburned Hydrocarbon Emissions in a Low Compression Ratio DI Diesel Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-1526
In a DI diesel engine, THC emissions increase significantly with lower compression ratios, a low coolant temperature, or during the transient state. During the transient after a load increase, THC emissions are increased significantly to very high concentrations from just after the start of the load increase until around the 10th cycle, then rapidly decreased until the 20th cycle, before gradually decreasing to a steady state value after 1000 cycles. In the fully-warmed steady state operation with a compression ratio of 16 and diesel fuel, THC is reasonably low, but THC increases with lower coolant temperatures or during the transient period just after increasing the load. This THC increase is due to the formation of over-lean mixture with the longer ignition delay and also due to the fuel adhering to the combustion chamber walls. A low distillation temperature fuel such as normal heptane can eliminate the THC increase.
Technical Paper

Chemical-Kinetic Analysis on PAH Formation Mechanisms of Oxygenated Fuels

2003-10-27
2003-01-3190
The thermal cracking and polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) formation processes of dimethyl ether (DME), ethanol, and ethane were investigated with chemical kinetics to determine the soot formation mechanism of oxygenated fuels. The modeling analyzed three processes, an isothermal constant pressure condition, a temperature rising condition under a constant pressure, and an unsteady condition approximating diesel combustion. With the same mole number of oxygen atoms, the DME rich mixtures form much carbon monoxide and methane and very little non-methane HC and PAH, in comparison with ethanol or ethane mixtures. This suggests that the existence of the C-C bond promotes the formation of PAH and soot.
Technical Paper

Combustion Characteristics of Emulsified Blends of Aqueous Ethanol and Diesel Fuel in a Diesel Engine with High Rates of EGR and Split Fuel Injections

2011-08-30
2011-01-1820
Silent, clean, and efficient combustion was realized with emulsified blends of aqueous ethanol and diesel fuel in a DI diesel with pilot injection and cooled EGR. The pilot injection sufficiently suppressed the rapid combustion to acceptable levels. The thermal efficiency with the emulsified fuel improved as the heat release with the pilot injection was retarded to near top dead center, due to poor ignitability and also due to a reduction in afterburning. With the emulsified fuel containing 40 vol% ethanol and 10 vol% water (E40W10), the smokeless operation range can be considerably extended even under low fuel injection pressure or low intake oxygen content conditions.
Journal Article

Combustion Characteristics of Emulsified Blends of Water and Diesel Fuel in a Diesel Engine with Cooled EGR and Pilot Injection

2013-10-15
2013-32-9022
Water and diesel fuel emulsions containing 13% and 26% water by volume were investigated in a modern diesel engine with relatively early pilot injection, supercharging, and cooled EGR. The heat release from the pilot injection with water emulsions is retarded toward the top dead center due to the poor ignitability, which enables larger pilot and smaller main injection quantities. This characteristic results in improvements in the thermal efficiency due to the larger heat release near the top dead center and the smaller afterburning. With the 26% water emulsion, mild, smokeless, and very low NOx operation is possible at an optimum pilot injection quantity and 15% intake oxygen with EGR at or below 0.9 MPa IMEP, a condition where large smoke emissions are unavoidable with regular unblended diesel fuel. Heat transfer analysis with Woschni's equation did not show the decrease in cooling loss with the water emulsion fuels.
Technical Paper

Combustion Control and Operating Range Expansion With Direct Injection of Reaction Suppressors in a Premixed DME HCCI Engine

2003-03-03
2003-01-0746
Direct injection of various ignition suppressors, including water, methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, hydrogen, and methane, was implemented to control ignition timing and expand the operating range in an HCCI engine with induced DME as the main fuel. Ultra-low NOx and smoke-less combustion was realized over a wide operating range. The reaction suppressors reduced the rate of low-temperature oxidation and consequently delayed the onset of high-temperature oxidation. Analysis of the chemical kinetics showed a reduction of OH radical in the premixed charge with the suppressors. Among the ignition suppressors, alcohols had a greater impact on OH radical reduction resulting in stronger ignition suppression. Although water injection caused a greater lowering of the temperature, which also suppressed ignition, the strong chemical effect of radical reduction with methanol injection resulted in the larger impact on suppression of oxidation reaction rates.
Technical Paper

Combustion Control and Operating Range Expansion in an HCCI Engine with Selective Use of Fuels with Different Low-Temperature Oxidation Characteristics

2003-05-19
2003-01-1827
Light naphtha, which exhibits two-stage ignition, was induced from the intake manifold for ignition enhancement and a low ignitability fuel or water, which does not exhibit low temperature oxidation, was directly injected early in the compression stroke for ignition suppression in an HCCI engine. Their quantitative balance was flexibly controlled to optimize ignition timing according to operating condition. Ultra-low NOx and smokeless combustion without knocking or misfiring was realized over a wide operating range. Alcohols inhibit low temperature oxidation more strongly than other oxygenated or unoxygenated hydrocarbons, water, and hydrogen. Chemical kinetic modeling for methanol showed a reduction of OH radical concentration before the onset of low temperature oxidation, and this may be the main mechanism by which alcohols inhibit low temperature oxidation.
Journal Article

Combustion and Emissions with Bio-alcohol and Nonesterified Vegetable Oil Blend Fuels in a Small Diesel Engine

2012-10-23
2012-32-0017
Combustion and exhaust gas emissions of alcohol and vegetable oil blends including a 20% ethanol + 40% 1-butanol + 40% vegetable oil blend and a 50% 1-butanol + 50% vegetable oil blend were examined in a single cylinder, four-stroke cycle, 0.83L direct injection diesel engine, with a supercharger and a common rail fuel injection system. A 50% diesel oil + 50% vegetable oil blend and regular unblended diesel fuel were used as reference fuels. The boost pressure was kept constant at 160 kPa (absolute pressure), and the cooled low pressure loop EGR was realized by mixing with a part of the exhaust gas. Pilot injection is effective to suppress rapid combustion due to the lower ignitability of the alcohol and vegetable oil blends. The effects of reductions in the intake oxygen concentration with cooled EGR and changes in the fuel injection pressure were investigated for the blended fuels.
Technical Paper

Combustion in a Two-stage Injection PCCI Engine With Lower Distillation-temperature Fuels

2004-06-08
2004-01-1914
The combustion characteristics in a partially premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) engine with n-hexane were compared with ordinary diesel fuel to evaluate combustion improvements with lower distillation-temperature fuels. In the PCCI engine, a lean mixture was formed reasonably with early stage injection and the additional fuel was supplied with a second stage fuel injection after ignition. With n-hexane, thermal efficiency improved while simultaneously maintaining low NOx and smokeless combustion. A CFD analysis simulated the mixture formation processes and showed that the uniformity of the mixture with the first stage injection improves with lower distillation-temperature fuels.
Technical Paper

Dependence of Ultra-High EGR Low Temperature Diesel Combustion on Fuel Properties

2006-10-16
2006-01-3387
The dependence of ultra-high EGR low temperature diesel combustion on fuel properties including cetane number and distillation temperature was investigated with a single-cylinder, naturally aspirated, 1.0 L, common rail DI diesel engine. Decreasing cetane number in fuels significantly reduces smoke emission due to an extension in ignition delay and the subsequent improvement in mixture formation. Smokeless combustion, ultra-low NOx, and efficient operating range with regard to EGR and IMEP are significantly extended by decreasing fuel cetane number. Changes in fuel distillation temperature do not result in significant differences in smoke emission and thermal efficiency for ultra-high EGR operation, and smokeless operation is established even with higher distillation temperature fuels as long as fuel cetane number is sufficiently low.
Technical Paper

Development of a Micro-Reactor HC-SCR System and the Evaluation of NOx Reduction Characteristics

2015-09-01
2015-01-2021
To reduce NOx emissions from diesel engines, the urea-SCR (selective catalytic reduction) system has been introduced commercially. In urea-SCR, the freezing point of the urea aqueous solution, the deoxidizer, is −11°C, and the handling of the deoxidizer under cold weather conditions is a problem. Further, the ammonia escape from the catalyst and the generation of N2O emissions are also problems. To overcome these disadvantages of the urea-SCR system, the addition of a hydrocarbon deoxidizer has attracted attention. In this paper, a micro-reactor SCR system was developed and attached to the exhaust pipe of a single cylinder diesel engine. With the micro-reactor, the catalyst temperature, quantity of deoxidizer, and the space velocity can be controlled, and it is possible to use it with gas and liquid phase deoxidizers. The catalyst used in the tests reported here is Ag(1wt%)-γAl2O3.
Technical Paper

Dual Fuel Diesel Combustion with Premixed Ethanol as the Main Fuel

2014-10-13
2014-01-2687
Dual fuel combustion with premixed ethanol as the main fuel and direct injection of diesel fuel as an ignition source poses problems including large unburned emissions and excessively rapid combustion. In this report the influence of compression ratios, injection timings of diesel fuel, and intake oxygen concentrations was systematically investigated in a modern diesel engine. The combustion process was classified into three stages: the first rapid combustion of diesel fuel and the ethanol mixture entrained into the diesel fuel spray; the second mild combustion with flame propagation of the ethanol mixture; and the third rapid combustion with auto-ignition of the unburned ethanol mixture without knocking. The third stage combustion occurs occasionally at several operating conditions and has been termed as PREMIER (premixed mixture ignition in the end-gas region) combustion.
Technical Paper

Effects of EGR and Pilot Injection on Characteristics of Combustion and Emissions of Diesel Engines with Low Ignitability Fuel

2012-04-16
2012-01-0853
Characteristics of diesel combustion with low cetane number fuels with similar distillation temperatures to ordinary diesel fuel, including fuels with cetane number 32 and 39 (LC32, LC39), and a blend of n-cetane (n-hexadecane) and iso-cetane (2, 2, 4, 4, 6, 8, 8-heptamethylnonane) with cetane number 32 (CN32), were investigated. The effects of cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and pilot injection on characteristics of combustion and exhaust gas emissions with these fuels were examined in a naturally aspirated, single cylinder, diesel engine equipped with a common-rail fuel injection system. Even with the low cetane number fuels, quiet combustion with low levels of exhaust gas emissions comparable to ordinary diesel fuel was established by suitable control of intake oxygen levels and pilot injections.
Technical Paper

Elimination of Combustion Difficulties in a Glow Plug-Assisted Diesel Engine Operated with Pure Ethanol and Water-Ethanol Mixtures

1983-02-01
830373
Forced ignition with glow plugs has great potential for the utilization of alcohol fuels in diesel engines. However, the installation of glow plugs may cause misfiring or knocking in parts of the operating range. This paper presents an analysis of the factors influencing the ignition characteristics of ethanol in a glow plug-assisted diesel engine; these factors may be classified into two categories: the factors related to the temperature history of the drop lets before contact with the glow plug, and those related to the probability of contact. By optimizing these factors, the combustion difficulties were successfully eliminated over the whole operating range, and engine performance comparable with conventional diesel operation was achieved.
Technical Paper

HCCI Combustion Control by DME-Ethanol Binary Fuel and EGR

2012-09-10
2012-01-1577
The HCCI engine offers the potential of low NOx emissions combined with diesel engine like high efficiency, however HCCI operation is restricted to low engine speeds and torques constrained by narrow noise (HCCI knocking) and misfiring limits. Gasoline like fuel vaporizes and mixes with air, but the mixture may auto-ignite at the same time, leading to heavy HCCI knocking. Retarding the CA50 (the crank angle of the 50% burn) is well known as a method to slow the maximum pressure rise rate and reduce HCCI knocking. The CA50 can be controlled by the fuel composition, for example, di-methyl ether (DME), which is easily synthesized from natural gas, has strong low temperature heat release (LTHR) characteristics and ethanol generates strong LTHR inhibitor effects. The utilization of DME-ethanol binary blended fuels has the potential to broaden the HCCI engine load-speed range.
Technical Paper

Impingement and Adhesion on Cylinder Liners with Post Diesel Fuel Injections

2016-10-17
2016-01-2193
Diesel particulate filters (DPF) are widely used in diesel engines, and forced regeneration is necessary to remove particulate matter (PM) accumulating on the DPF. This may be achieved with fuel injected after the main combustion is complete, the socalled “post fuel injection”, and supplied to the diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) upstream of the DPF. This increases the exhaust gas temperature in the DOC and the DPF is regenerated with the high temperature gas flow. In most cases, the post fuel injection takes place at 30-90CA ATDC, and fuel may impinge on and adhere to the cylinder liner wall in some cases. Buddie and Pischinger [1] have reported a lubricant oil dilution with the post fuel injection by engine tests and simulations, and adhering fuel is a cause of worsening fuel consumption. In this paper, the impingement and adhesion of post diesel fuel injections on the cylinder liner was investigated by an optical method with a high pressure constant volume chamber (ϕ110mm, 883cm3).
Journal Article

Improvement in DME-HCCI Combustion with Ethanol as a Low-Temperature Oxidation Inhibitor

2011-08-30
2011-01-1791
Port injection of ethanol addition as an ignition inhibitor was implemented to control ignition timing and expand the operating range in DME fueled HCCI combustion. The ethanol reduced the rate of low-temperature oxidation and consequently delayed the onset of the high-temperature reaction with ultra-low NOx over a wide operating range. Along with the ethanol addition, changes in intake temperature, overall equivalence ratio, and engine speed are investigated and shown to be effective in HCCI combustion control and to enable an extension of operation range. A chemical reaction analysis was performed to elucidate details of the ignition inhibition on low-temperature oxidation of DME-HCCI combustion.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Combustion and Emissions in a Dual Fuel Compression Ignition Engine with Natural Gas as the Main Fuel

2015-04-14
2015-01-0863
Dual fuel combustion with premixed natural gas as the main fuel and diesel fuel as the ignition source was investigated in a 0.83 L, single cylinder, DI diesel engine. At low loads, increasing the equivalence ratio of natural gas to around 0.5 with intake throttling makes it possible to reduce the THC and CO emissions as well as to improve the thermal efficiency. At high loads, increasing the boost pressure moderates the combustion, but increases the THC and CO emissions, resulting in deterioration of the thermal efficiency. The EGR is essential to suppress the rapid combustion. As misfiring occurs with a compression ratio of 14.5 and there is excessively rapid combustion with 18.5 compression ratio, 16.5 is a suitable compression ratio.
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